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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250280, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355867

RESUMO

Abstract Endozoochory by waterbirds is particularly relevant to the dispersal of non-flying aquatic invertebrates. This ecological function exercised by birds has been demonstrated in different biogeographical regions, but there are no studies for the neotropical region. In this work, we identified propagules of invertebrates in faeces of 14 syntopic South American waterbird species representing six families, and hatched additional invertebrates from cultured faeces. We tested whether propagule abundance, species richness and composition varied among bird species, and between the cold and warm seasons. We found 164 invertebrate propagules in faecal samples from seven different waterbirds species, including eggs of the Temnocephalida and Notonectidae, statoblasts of bryozoans (Plumatella sp.) and ephippia of Cladocera. Ciliates (including Paramecium sp. and Litostomatea), nematodes and rotifers (Adineta sp. and Nottomatidae) hatched from cultured samples. Potential for endozoochory was confirmed for 12 of 14 waterbird species. Our statistical models suggest that richness and abundance of propagules are associated with bird species and not affected by seasonality. Dispersal by endozoochory is potentially important to a broad variety of invertebrates, being promoted by waterbirds with different ecological and morphological traits, which are likely to drive the dispersal of invertebrates in neotropical wetlands.


Resumo A endozoocoria promovida por aves aquáticas é particularmente relevante para a dispersão de invertebrados aquáticos não-voadores. Essa função ecológica exercida pelas aves tem sido demonstrada para diferentes regiões biogeográficas, porém, não existem estudos para a região neotropical. Neste trabalho nós identificamos propágulos de invertebrados encontrados em fezes de 14 espécies sintópicas de aves aquáticas da América do Sul, representando seis famílias de aves, e também invertebrados emergidos de amostras fecais cultivadas em laboratório. Testamos se a abundância, riqueza de espécies e composição de propágulos de invertebrados variavam entre as espécies de aves e entre estações. Nós encontramos 164 propágulos de invertebrados em amostras fecais de sete espécies de aves, incluindo ovos de Temnocephalida e Notonectidae, estatoblastos de briozoários (Plumatella sp.) e efípios de Cladocera. Ciliados (incluindo Paramecium sp. e Litostomatea), nematóides e rotíferos (Adineta sp. e Nottomatidae) eclodiram de amostras cultivadas. O potencial para endozoocoria foi confirmado para 12 das 14 espécies de aves aquáticas investigadas. Nossos modelos estatísticos sugerem que a riqueza e abundância de propágulos estão associadas às espécies de aves e não são afetadas pela sazonalidade. A dispersão por endozoocoria é importante para uma ampla variedade de invertebrados, sendo promovida por aves aquáticas com diferentes características ecológicas e morfológicas as quais provavelmente regulam a dispersão de invertebrados entre áreas úmidas neotropicais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Áreas Alagadas , Invertebrados , Estações do Ano , Aves
2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e250280, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932625

RESUMO

Endozoochory by waterbirds is particularly relevant to the dispersal of non-flying aquatic invertebrates. This ecological function exercised by birds has been demonstrated in different biogeographical regions, but there are no studies for the neotropical region. In this work, we identified propagules of invertebrates in faeces of 14 syntopic South American waterbird species representing six families, and hatched additional invertebrates from cultured faeces. We tested whether propagule abundance, species richness and composition varied among bird species, and between the cold and warm seasons. We found 164 invertebrate propagules in faecal samples from seven different waterbirds species, including eggs of the Temnocephalida and Notonectidae, statoblasts of bryozoans (Plumatella sp.) and ephippia of Cladocera. Ciliates (including Paramecium sp. and Litostomatea), nematodes and rotifers (Adineta sp. and Nottomatidae) hatched from cultured samples. Potential for endozoochory was confirmed for 12 of 14 waterbird species. Our statistical models suggest that richness and abundance of propagules are associated with bird species and not affected by seasonality. Dispersal by endozoochory is potentially important to a broad variety of invertebrates, being promoted by waterbirds with different ecological and morphological traits, which are likely to drive the dispersal of invertebrates in neotropical wetlands.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Aves , Humanos , Estações do Ano
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 224-232, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888863

RESUMO

Abstract Recent studies indicate that rice fields contribute to the conservation of aquatic plants, however, repeated cultivation can reduce the species diversity harbored by rice fields. Repeated tillage, agrochemical application and environmental homogeneity can reduce plant diversity and select for species more tolerant to disturbance. Our hypotheses were: 1) macrophyte richness and biomass decrease with increased rice crop age; and 2) macrophyte species of rice fields are a subsample of natural wetlands and species loss will increase with crop age. We investigated three rice fields of each different ages (old, intermediate and new ones) and three natural intermittent wetlands for this study. Each area was sampled four times throughout the rice cultivation cycle (off-season, initial growth, final growth and post-harvest). Our results showed that the mean macrophyte richness and biomass were similar between rice fields of different ages and lower than that of natural wetlands. Although species composition in the different-aged rice fields was not markedly different, there was nestedness in the rice fields as age increased. In this study, we verified that macrophyte richness and biomass in rice fields was lower than natural wetlands and the species composition was different among wetland types (rice fields and natural wetlands), however our hypothesis that species richness and biomass will decrease with crop age was not confirmed. All rice crops had similar macrophyte assemblage structure (richness, biomass and species composition). However, the another hypothesis tested was confirmed, macrophyte assemblage of rice fields is a subset of natural wetlands and as, the age of a rice field increases, the species that occur in older rice field are subsets of species that occur in younger ones.


Resumo Estudos recentes indicam que arrozais contribuem para a conservação de plantas aquáticas, entretanto cultivos repetidos podem reduzir a diversidade de espécies nos arrozais. Cultivos repetidos, aplicação de agrotóxicos e homogeneização ambiental podem reduzir a diversidade de plantas e selecionar espécies mais tolerantes a perturbações. Nossas hipóteses foram: 1) a riqueza e a biomassa de macrófitas reduzem com o aumento do tempo de cultivo dos arrozais; e 2) as espécies de macrófitas aquáticas dos arrozais são subamostras das áreas úmidas naturais e a perda de espécies aumentará com o tempo de cultivo. Nós investigamos três arrozais de cada uma das diferentes idades (antigos, intermediários e novos) e três áreas úmidas naturais temporárias. Cada área foi amostrada quatro vezes ao longo do ciclo de cultivo (resteva, crescimento inicial, crescimento final e pós-colheita). Nossos resultados indicaram que a riqueza e a biomassa média de macrófitas foram similares entre os arrozais de diferentes idades e menor do que nas áreas úmidas naturais. Embora a composição de espécies nos arrozais de diferentes idades não tenha sido marcadamente diferente, houve aninhamento nos arrozais e este aumentou com tempo de cultivo do arrozal. Neste estudo, nós verificamos que a riqueza e biomassa de macrófitas nos arrozais eram menores que nas áreas úmidas naturais e a composição de espécies era diferente entre os tipos de áreas úmidas (arrozais e áreas úmidas naturais), entretanto nossa hipótese de que a riqueza e a biomassa de macrófitas diminuiriam com a idade do cultivo não foi confirmada. Todos os arrozais foram similares quanto à estrutura da assembleia de macrófitas (riqueza, biomassa e composição de espécies). No entanto, a outra hipótese testada foi confirmada, a assembleia de macrófitas dos arrozais é um subconjunto das áreas úmidas naturais e, conforme aumenta a idade do arrozal, as espécies que ocorrem nos arrozais mais antigos são subconjuntos das espécies que ocorrem nos mais jovens.


Assuntos
Oryza/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Biomassa , Áreas Alagadas , Plantas , Agricultura , Organismos Aquáticos
4.
Biol Lett ; 14(12): 20180703, 2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958251

RESUMO

For the first time to our knowledge, we demonstrate that whole angiosperm individuals can survive gut passage through birds, and that this occurs in the field. Floating plants of the genus Wolffia are the smallest of all flowering plants. Fresh droppings of white-faced whistling duck Dendrocygna viduata ( n = 49) and coscoroba swan Coscoroba coscoroba ( n = 22) were collected from Brazilian wetlands. Intact Wolffia columbiana were recovered from 16% of D. viduata and 32% of Coscoroba samples (total = 164 plantlets). The viability of plants was tested, and asexual reproduction was confirmed. Wolffia columbiana is an expanding alien in Europe. Avian endozoochory of asexual angiosperm propagules may be an important, overlooked dispersal means for aquatic plants, and may contribute to the invasive character of alien species.


Assuntos
Araceae/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Dispersão Vegetal , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Brasil , Fezes , Espécies Introduzidas , Reprodução Assexuada
5.
Braz J Biol ; 78(2): 224-232, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977044

RESUMO

Recent studies indicate that rice fields contribute to the conservation of aquatic plants, however, repeated cultivation can reduce the species diversity harbored by rice fields. Repeated tillage, agrochemical application and environmental homogeneity can reduce plant diversity and select for species more tolerant to disturbance. Our hypotheses were: 1) macrophyte richness and biomass decrease with increased rice crop age; and 2) macrophyte species of rice fields are a subsample of natural wetlands and species loss will increase with crop age. We investigated three rice fields of each different ages (old, intermediate and new ones) and three natural intermittent wetlands for this study. Each area was sampled four times throughout the rice cultivation cycle (off-season, initial growth, final growth and post-harvest). Our results showed that the mean macrophyte richness and biomass were similar between rice fields of different ages and lower than that of natural wetlands. Although species composition in the different-aged rice fields was not markedly different, there was nestedness in the rice fields as age increased. In this study, we verified that macrophyte richness and biomass in rice fields was lower than natural wetlands and the species composition was different among wetland types (rice fields and natural wetlands), however our hypothesis that species richness and biomass will decrease with crop age was not confirmed. All rice crops had similar macrophyte assemblage structure (richness, biomass and species composition). However, the another hypothesis tested was confirmed, macrophyte assemblage of rice fields is a subset of natural wetlands and as, the age of a rice field increases, the species that occur in older rice field are subsets of species that occur in younger ones.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Ecossistema , Oryza/fisiologia , Áreas Alagadas , Agricultura , Organismos Aquáticos , Plantas
6.
J Fish Biol ; 89(5): 2345-2364, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27607142

RESUMO

Seven ephemeral pools on the coastal plain of southern Brazil were found to be inhabited by three annual and 22 non-annual fish species. Two common annual species (Austrolebias minuano and Cynopoecilus fulgens) exhibited clear seasonal dynamics, with the appearance of young fishes in the austral autumn (May to June) and a decline in abundance over the seasonal cycle. The third annual species, Austrolebias wolterstorffii, was rare. No seasonal dynamics were observed in non-annual fishes. The relative abundance of non-annual fishes compared with annual fishes increased over the seasonal cycle, but they coexisted widely. The size structure of annual fishes suggested the presence of a single age cohort in most pools though a second age cohort was registered in one pool in August, coinciding with a large flooding. Strong sexual dimorphism in body size was found in C. fulgens throughout the seasonal cycle, while no sexual dimorphism in body size was found in A. minuano. Female-biased sex ratios were recorded in both common annual fish species in the last three sampling dates (in spring), but not during the first two sampling dates (in winter). The natural lifespan of annual fishes was <8 months. Annual fishes disappeared before habitat desiccation in half of the pools, while non-annual fishes were still present.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Ciprinodontiformes , Estações do Ano , Razão de Masculinidade , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Feminino , Peixes , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 93(4): 442-5, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25168694

RESUMO

The sensitivity of Danio rerio to three chemicals was compared at two growth stages [larval (10 ± 2 after hatching) and post-larval (60 ± 4 days after hatching)] based on acute toxicity tests. Thirty-nine 48 h acute toxicity tests were performed with the substances CuSO4, NaCl and KCl. The 48 h LC50 values at the two growth stages were compared by independent samples t-tests. The results showed a clear decrease in sensitivity when post-larval organisms were used. Since acute toxicity test methods for D. rerio that recommend using post-larval stage fish do not represent the most sensitive stage of the test organism, our study suggests a revision of the methods to use larval fish.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Cobre/toxicidade , Modelos Animais , Cloreto de Potássio/toxicidade , Cloreto de Sódio/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda/métodos , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 70(4,supl.0): 1179-1184, Dec. 2010. mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-570546

RESUMO

Wetlands are important sites for biological conservation because they support rich biodiversity and present high productivity. Species-area relationship is an important tool in conservation planning and it has been extensively used for wetland management. This study had as aims: (1) to analyse macrophyte and macroinvertebrate diversity in the fragmented wetlands of the Sinos River basin; and (2) to investigate whether wetland areas could work as a tool for selecting the important habitats for biodiversity conservation. Throughout the study, 56 species of macrophytes and 57taxa of macroinvertebrates were identified. Macrophyte richness was related to the wetland area, but macroinvertebrate richness, however, was not related to the wetland area. The macrophyte and macroinvertebrate composition were not related to the wetland area. Species composition varied between the regions of the basin and the difference in the species composition occurred mainly by the distribution of macroinvertebrates. With regard to the biodiversity conservation of the Sinos River basin, the wetland area must not be a priority criterion for choosing the important wetlands for conservation. The environmental policies for biodiversity conservation must include management actions focused also on the protection of small wetlands. Moreover, other criteria should be analysed in further research such as habitat diversity, hydroperiod, geographic distribution and connectivity.


As áreas úmidas são locais importantes para a conservação da biodiversidade, pois suportam uma alta diversidade de espécies e alta produtividade. A relação espécie- área é uma ferramenta importante em planos de conservação e amplamente utilizada no manejo de áreas úmidas. Este estudo teve como objetivos: (1) analisar a diversidade de macrófitas aquáticas e macroinvertebrados em áreas úmidas fragmentadas da bacia do rio dos Sinos; e (2) investigar se o tamanho da área úmida é um critério válido para selecionar locais importantes para a conservação da biodiversidade. Ao longo do estudo, foram identificadas 56 espécies de macrófitas aquáticas e 57 taxas de macroinvertebrados. A riqueza de macrófitas esteve relacionada com o tamanho da área úmida, porém, a riqueza de macroinvertebrados não esteve associada ao tamanho da área úmida. A composição de macrófitas e macroinvertebrados não esteve relacionada ao tamanho dos sistemas. A composição de espécies variou entre as regiões da bacia hidrográfica e a diferença na composição ocorreu principalmente devido à distribuição dos macroinvertebrados. Em relação à conservação da biodiversidade na bacia do rio dos Sinos, o tamanho da área úmida não deve ser o critério prioritário para a seleção de locais importantes para a conservação. A política ambiental para a conservação da biodiversidade deve incluir ações de manejo focadas também na proteção de áreas úmidas pequenas. Além disso, outros critérios devem ser avaliados, tais como, diversidade de hábitats, hidroperíodo, distribuição geográfica e conectividade.


Assuntos
Animais , Biodiversidade , Invertebrados/classificação , Plantas/classificação , Rios , Áreas Alagadas , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 70(4,supl.0): 1207-1215, Dec. 2010. mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-570549

RESUMO

Macroinvertebrate communities are one of the most used groups in assessments of water quality, since they respond directly to the level of contamination of aquatic ecosystems. The main objective of this study was the assessment of the water quality of the Sinos River basin (Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil) through biotic indices based on the macroinvertebrate community ("Family Biotic Index - FBI", and "Biological Monitoring Working Party Score System - BMWP"). Three lower order streams (2nd order) were selected in each one of three main regions of the basin. In each stream, the samplings were performed in three reaches (upper, middle, and lower), totalling 27 reaches. Two samplings were carried in each reach over one year (winter and summer). A total of 6,847 macroinvertebrates distributed among 54 families were sampled. The streams from the upper region were of better water quality than the lower region. The water quality did not change between the upper, middle and lower reaches of the streams. However, the upper reaches of the streams were of better water quality in all the regions of the basin. The water quality of the streams did not vary between the summer and the winter. This result demonstrated that water quality may be analysed in both studied seasons (summer and winter) using biotic indices. The analysis of the results allows us to conclude that the biotic indices used reflected the changes related to the water quality along the longitudinal gradient of the basin. Thus, aquatic macroinvertebrates were important bioindicators of the water and environmental quality of the streams of the Sinos River basin.


A comunidade de macroinvertebrados aquáticos é um dos grupos mais utilizados na avaliação da qualidade da água, pois respondem de forma diferente ao grau de contaminação dos ecossistemas aquáticos. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade da água na bacia hidrográfica do Rio dos Sinos (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil) através de índices bióticos baseados em comunidades de macroinvertebrados aquáticos (Family Biotic Index - FBI, e Biological Monitoring Working Party Score System - BMWP). Três arroios de pequena ordem (2º ordem) foram selecionados em cada uma das três principais regiões da bacia. Em cada arroio foram realizadas coletas em três trechos (superior, médio e inferior), totalizando 27 trechos. Foram realizadas duas coletas ao longo de um ano em cada trecho de arroio (inverno e verão). Um total de 6.847 macroinvertebrados distribuídos em 54 famílias foi coletado nos arroios. Os arroios da região superior da bacia apresentaram uma melhor qualidade da água do que os da região inferior. A qualidade da água não variou entre os trechos superior, médio e inferior dos arroios. Entretanto, os trechos superiores dos arroios apresentaram uma melhor qualidade da água em todas as regiões da bacia. A qualidade da água nos arroios não variou entre o verão e o inverno. Este resultado demonstrou que a qualidade da água pode ser analisada em ambas as estações do ano (verão e inverno), utilizando os índices bióticos. A análise dos resultados nos permite concluir que os índices bióticos utilizados refletiram as mudanças relacionadas à qualidade da água ao longo do gradiente longitudinal da bacia. Portanto, os macroinvertebrados aquáticos foram importantes bioindicadores da qualidade da água e da qualidade ambiental dos arroios da bacia hidrográfica do Rio dos Sinos.


Assuntos
Animais , Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Invertebrados/classificação , Rios , Brasil , Estações do Ano , Poluição da Água
10.
Braz J Biol ; 70(3): 473-82, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20737115

RESUMO

Freshwater molluscs play an important role in aquatic ecosystems, providing food for many fish species and vertebrates. Investigations on factors that determine mollusc species richness and distribution in wetland systems are scarce in the Neotropical region. The main goal of this study was to determine how much variation in mollusc richness and composition is explained by area, hydroperiod, altitude, water conductivity, and dominant aquatic vegetation. This survey was performed in an extensive area of a Neotropical region (approximately 280,000 km(2) in southern Brazil), with a large number of wetland systems (111) and covering a wide gradient of altitude and wetland surface area. The mollusc richness was positively associated with wetland area and negatively associated with altitude. The richness and composition of the freshwater molluscs were similar between permanent and intermittent wetlands and it did not differ significantly between aquatic bed and emergent wetlands. The first three axes of CCA explained 16.2% of the total variation in the composition of the freshwater mollusc observed. The variation in the composition had a correlation with wetland area, altitude and water conductivity. Our results showed that the wetlands are important habitats for molluscs in southern Brazil, and that the richness and the composition of molluscs were associated with area, altitude, water conductivity and dominant vegetation.


Assuntos
Água Doce , Moluscos/classificação , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 70(3): 473-482, Aug. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-555286

RESUMO

Freshwater molluscs play an important role in aquatic ecosystems, providing food for many fish species and vertebrates. Investigations on factors that determine mollusc species richness and distribution in wetland systems are scarce in the Neotropical region. The main goal of this study was to determine how much variation in mollusc richness and composition is explained by area, hydroperiod, altitude, water conductivity, and dominant aquatic vegetation. This survey was performed in an extensive area of a Neotropical region (~280,000 km² in southern Brazil), with a large number of wetland systems (111) and covering a wide gradient of altitude and wetland surface area. The mollusc richness was positively associated with wetland area and negatively associated with altitude. The richness and composition of the freshwater molluscs were similar between permanent and intermittent wetlands and it did not differ significantly between aquatic bed and emergent wetlands. The first three axes of CCA explained 16.2 percent of the total variation in the composition of the freshwater mollusc observed. The variation in the composition had a correlation with wetland area, altitude and water conductivity. Our results showed that the wetlands are important habitats for molluscs in southern Brazil, and that the richness and the composition of molluscs were associated with area, altitude, water conductivity and dominant vegetation.


Moluscos límnicos desempenham um papel importante em ecossistemas aquáticos, fornecendo alimento para diversos peixes e vertebrados. Investigações sobre os fatores que determinam a riqueza e a distribuição das espécies de moluscos em áreas úmidas são escassos na região neotropical. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a variação na riqueza e na composição de moluscos em função da área, hidroperíodo, altitude, condutividade da água e tipo de vegetação aquática dominante. Este estudo foi desenvolvido em uma extensa área Neotropical (~280.000 km² no sul do Brasil), com um elevado número de áreas úmidas (111) e compreendeu um amplo gradiente de altitude e tamanho de áreas úmidas. A riqueza de moluscos foi positivamente relacionada com o tamanho da área úmida e negativamente relacionada com a altitude. A riqueza e a composição de moluscos foram similares entre áreas úmidas permanentes e intermitentes e não diferiram significativamente entre áreas úmidas herbáceas e emergentes. Os três primeiros eixos da CCA explicaram 16,2 por cento da variação na composição de moluscos. A variação na composição foi correlacionada com a área, altitude e condutividade da água. Nossos resultados mostraram que as áreas úmidas são ecossistemas importantes para os moluscos límnicos no sul do Brasil e que a riqueza e a composição de moluscos estiveram relacionadas à área, altitude, condutividade da água e tipo de vegetação aquática dominante.


Assuntos
Animais , Água Doce , Moluscos/classificação , Áreas Alagadas , Biodiversidade , Brasil
12.
Braz J Biol ; 70(4 Suppl): 1179-84, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21225159

RESUMO

Wetlands are important sites for biological conservation because they support rich biodiversity and present high productivity. Species-area relationship is an important tool in conservation planning and it has been extensively used for wetland management. This study had as aims: (1) to analyse macrophyte and macroinvertebrate diversity in the fragmented wetlands of the Sinos River basin; and (2) to investigate whether wetland areas could work as a tool for selecting the important habitats for biodiversity conservation. Throughout the study, 56 species of macrophytes and 57 taxa of macroinvertebrates were identified. Macrophyte richness was related to the wetland area, but macroinvertebrate richness, however, was not related to the wetland area. The macrophyte and macroinvertebrate composition were not related to the wetland area. Species composition varied between the regions of the basin and the difference in the species composition occurred mainly by the distribution of macroinvertebrates. With regard to the biodiversity conservation of the Sinos River basin, the wetland area must not be a priority criterion for choosing the important wetlands for conservation. The environmental policies for biodiversity conservation must include management actions focused also on the protection of small wetlands. Moreover, other criteria should be analysed in further research such as habitat diversity, hydroperiod, geographic distribution and connectivity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Invertebrados/classificação , Plantas/classificação , Rios , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
13.
Braz J Biol ; 70(4 Suppl): 1207-15, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21225162

RESUMO

Macroinvertebrate communities are one of the most used groups in assessments of water quality, since they respond directly to the level of contamination of aquatic ecosystems. The main objective of this study was the assessment of the water quality of the Sinos River basin (Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil) through biotic indices based on the macroinvertebrate community ("Family Biotic Index - FBI", and "Biological Monitoring Working Party Score System - BMWP"). Three lower order streams (2nd order) were selected in each one of three main regions of the basin. In each stream, the samplings were performed in three reaches (upper, middle, and lower), totalling 27 reaches. Two samplings were carried in each reach over one year (winter and summer). A total of 6,847 macroinvertebrates distributed among 54 families were sampled. The streams from the upper region were of better water quality than the lower region. The water quality did not change between the upper, middle and lower reaches of the streams. However, the upper reaches of the streams were of better water quality in all the regions of the basin. The water quality of the streams did not vary between the summer and the winter. This result demonstrated that water quality may be analysed in both studied seasons (summer and winter) using biotic indices. The analysis of the results allows us to conclude that the biotic indices used reflected the changes related to the water quality along the longitudinal gradient of the basin. Thus, aquatic macroinvertebrates were important bioindicators of the water and environmental quality of the streams of the Sinos River basin.


Assuntos
Biota , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Invertebrados/classificação , Rios , Animais , Brasil , Estações do Ano , Poluição da Água
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 68(4): 763-769, Nov. 2008. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-504493

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the richness, abundance and composition of the terrestrial amphibian assemblage in a flooded riparian forest fragment in a Neotropical region in the south of Brazil over a year (2002-2003). A total of 1,265 terrestrial amphibians were captured, representing 12 species and six families. Leiuperidae represented 41.7 and 56.3 percent of the total number of species and individuals captured, respectively. The amphibian richness and abundance were higher in the Spring-Summer than in the Autumn-Winter period, and these attributes did not change after the flood events. However, the floods homogeneously distributed the amphibian species over the fragment. Our study documented the terrestrial amphibian's use in a riparian forest fragment associated to a floodplain system in the south of Brazil, showing the importance of these habitats as possible dispersal corridors among nearby wetlands.


O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a riqueza, a abundância e a composição da comunidade de anfíbios terrestres em um fragmento de floresta ripária na região Neotropical no sul do Brasil ao longo de um ano (2002-2003). Um total de 1.265 anfíbios terrestres foi capturado, representando 12 espécies e seis famílias. A família Leiuperidae representou 41,7 e 56,3 por cento do número total de espécies e indivíduos capturados, respectivamente. A riqueza e a abundância de anfíbios foram maiores no período primavera-verão do que no período outono-inverno, e esses atributos não variaram após as inundações. Entretanto, as inundações distribuíram homogeneamente as espécies de anfíbios ao longo do fragmento. Nosso estudo verificou o uso dos anfíbios terrestres em um fragmento de floresta ripária associada a uma planície de inundação no sul do Brasil, destacando a importância desses hábitats como possíveis corredores de dispersão entre áreas úmidas próximas.


Assuntos
Animais , Anfíbios/classificação , Árvores , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Inundações , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
15.
Braz J Biol ; 68(4): 763-9, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19197493

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the richness, abundance and composition of the terrestrial amphibian assemblage in a flooded riparian forest fragment in a Neotropical region in the south of Brazil over a year (2002-2003). A total of 1,265 terrestrial amphibians were captured, representing 12 species and six families. Leiuperidae represented 41.7 and 56.3% of the total number of species and individuals captured, respectively. The amphibian richness and abundance were higher in the Spring-Summer than in the Autumn-Winter period, and these attributes did not change after the flood events. However, the floods homogeneously distributed the amphibian species over the fragment. Our study documented the terrestrial amphibian's use in a riparian forest fragment associated to a floodplain system in the south of Brazil, showing the importance of these habitats as possible dispersal corridors among nearby wetlands.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/classificação , Árvores , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Inundações , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
16.
Braz J Biol ; 66(2B): 575-85, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16906290

RESUMO

The dynamics of aquatic macrophytes in intermittent rivers is generally related to the characteristics of the resistance and resilience of plants to hydrologic disturbances of flood and drought. In the semi-arid region of Brazil, intermittent rivers and streams are affected by disturbances with variable intensity, frequency, and duration throughout their hydrologic cycles. The aim of the present study is to determine the occurrence and variation of biomass of aquatic macrophyte species in two intermittent rivers of distinct hydrologic regimes. Their dynamics were determined with respect to resistance and resilience responses of macrophytes to flood and drought events by estimating the variation of biomass and productivity throughout two hydrologic cycles. Twenty-one visits were undertaken in the rewetting, drying, and drought phases in a permanent puddle in the Avelós stream and two temporary puddles in the Taperoá river, state of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. The sampling was carried out by using the square method. Floods of different magnitudes occurred during the present study in the river and in the stream. The results showed that floods and droughts are determining factors in the occurrence of macrophytes and in the structure of their aquatic communities. The species richness of the aquatic macrophyte communities was lower in the puddles of the river and stream subject to flood events, when compared to areas where the run-off water is retained. At the beginning of the recolonization process, the intensity of the floods was decisive in the productivity and biomass of the aquatic macrophytes in the Taperoá river and the Avelós stream. In intermediate levels of disturbance, the largest values of productivity and biomass and the shortest time for starting the recolonization process occurred.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Plantas , Rios , Brasil , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Movimentos da Água
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 66(2b): 575-585, May 2006. mapas, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-433143

RESUMO

A dinâmica de macrófitas aquáticas em rios intermitentes está relacionada com as características de resistência e resiliência das plantas as perturbações hidrológicas da cheia e da seca. A região semi-árida do Brasil apresenta rios e riachos intermitentes, com ocorrência de eventos de perturbação em diferentes graus de intensidade, freqüência e duração ao longo de um ciclo hidrológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência e variação de biomassa de espécies de macrófitas aquáticas em dois rios intermitentes de regime hidrológico distintos. A dinâmica foi determinada pelas respostas de resistência e resiliência das plantas aos eventos de cheia e de seca, através da variação da biomassa e produtividade ao longo de dois ciclos hidrológicos. Foram realizadas 21 visitas de campo durante as fases de reinundação, vazante e seca, em uma poça permanente localizada no riacho Avelós e duas poças temporárias no rio Taperoá, estado da Paraíba, Brasil. A amostragem foi feita de acordo com o método dos quadrados. Durante o estudo ocorreram cheias de diferentes magnitudes no rio e no riacho. Os resultados mostram a cheia e a seca como fatores determinantes na ocorrência e na estrutura da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas. A riqueza da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas foi menor nas poças do rio e riacho, sujeitos a eventos de cheia, quando comparada com a área de retenção de água, formada principalmente por escoamento superficial. A intensidade das cheias foi determinante no início da recolonização, na produtividade e na biomassa das espécies de macrófitas aquáticas no rio Taperoá e no riacho Avelós. Os maiores valores de produtividade, biomassa e o menor tempo para o início da recolonização ocorreram em níveis intermediários de perturbação.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Plantas , Rios , Brasil , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Movimentos da Água
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