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Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 12(5): 558-565, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727518


The 1918 devastating influenza pandemic left a lasting impact on influenza experts and the public, and the importance of global influenza surveillance was soon recognized. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN) was founded in 1952 and renamed to Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System in 2011 upon the adoption by the World Health Assembly, of the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework for the Sharing of Influenza Viruses and Access to Vaccines and Other Benefits ("PIP Framework"). The importance of influenza surveillance had been recognized and promoted by experts prior to the years leading up to the establishment of WHO. In the 65 years of its existence, the Network has grown to comprise 143 National Influenza Centers recognized by WHO, 6 WHO Collaborating Centers, 4 Essential Regulatory Laboratories, and 13 H5 Reference Laboratories. The Network has proven its excellence throughout these 65 years, providing detailed information on circulating seasonal influenza viruses, as well as immediate response to the influenza pandemics in 1957, 1968, and 2009, and to threats caused by animal influenza viruses and by zoonotic transmission of coronaviruses. For its central role in global public health, the Network has been highly recognized by its many partners and by international bodies. Several generations of world-renowned influenza scientists have brought the Network to where it is now and they will take it forward to the future, as influenza will remain a preeminent threat to humans and to animals.

Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Saúde Global , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Epidemias , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
AIDS Behav ; 21(Suppl 1): 15-22, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28401415


Although not originally part of the MDGs, HIV treatment has been at the center of global HIV reporting since 2003, marked by achievement of the target of 15 million people receiving treatment before 2015 and 18.2 million (16.1-19.0 million) by mid 2016. Monitoring of treatment has been strengthened with harmonized partner reporting and accountability with regular, annual reports. Beyond treatment numbers, increasingly measures of treatment adherence, retention and outcomes have been reported though with varying quality and completeness. However, with the sustainable development goals (SDGs), monitoring treatment is changing in three important ways. First, treatment monitoring is shifting from numbers to coverage and gaps in a cascade of services to achieve universal access. Secondly, this requires greater emphasis on disaggregated, individual level patient and case monitoring systems, which can better support linkage, retention and chronic, long term care. Thirdly, the prevention, testing and treatment cascade with a clear results chain, links treatment numbers to impact, in terms of reduced viral load, mortality and incidence. This agenda will require a greater contribution of routine impact evaluation alongside monitoring, with treatment seen as part of a cascade of services to ensure impact on mortality and incidence. In conclusion, the shift from monitoring treatment numbers to treatment linked to universal access to prevention, testing and treatment and impact on mortality and incidence, will be critical to monitor, evaluate, and improve HIV programs as part of the SDGs.

Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Vigilância da População/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Programas Governamentais , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Saúde Pública , Resultado do Tratamento
AIDS Behav ; 21(Suppl 1): 23-33, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28063074


Progress towards achievement of global targets for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and paediatric HIV care and treatment is an integral part of global and national HIV and AIDS responses. This paper documents the development of the global and national monitoring and reporting systems for PMTCT and paediatric HIV care and treatment programmes, achievements and remaining challenges. A review of the development of the monitoring and reporting process since 2002-2016 was conducted using existing published literature and taking into account changes in WHO HIV treatment guidelines, global HIV goals and targets, programmatic and methodological developments, and increased need for interagency partnerships, coordination and harmonization of global monitoring and reporting mechanisms. The number and type of indicators reported increased and evolved from monitoring of existence of national policies and guidelines, service delivery sites and trained health workers and coverage of PMTCT and paediatric HIV interventions to measuring outcomes and impact in reducing new HIV infections and AIDS related deaths, including efforts to validate elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. These changes were required to mirror changes in WHO and national PMTCT and HIV treatment guidelines. The number of countries reporting PMTCT coverage increased from 53 in 2003 to over 130 in 2015. National monitoring processes have also expanded in scope and the capacity to report on disaggregated data by type of ARV regimen and for paediatric HIV care and treatment has increased. Monitoring of PMTCT and paediatric HIV programmes has contributed a rich body of evidence that helped monitor how quickly countries were adopting and implementing the latest WHO HIV treatment guidelines for pregnant and breastfeeding women and children. The reported data and experiences were instrumental in shaping global policies, national programmes, and investment choices.

Assistência à Saúde/normas , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde