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1.
Georgian Med News ; (244-245): 106-10, 2015.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26177144

RESUMO

Investigation of leptospirosis was initiated in 1950s, when the first cases in humans were detected in Gudauta rayon. Serology test confirmed the diagnose. High level of antibodies to serogroup Pomona was revealed in all cases. Later on the infection encountered as sporadic cases, the exception was 1986, when a large outbreak was reported in Sukhumi. At present leptospirosis is widely spread in the country, especially in Ajara region, where indicators of morbidity recently reached 11.4 per 100 thousand population. It is likely that warm humid climate creates exceptionally favorite conditions for spreading of Leptospira. In order to determine the true magnitude of the infection in the country a seroprevalence study was carried out in 50-60-ies of the past century in humans, agricultural animals and rodents. It was found that serotgroups Pomona, Icteroheamorrhagiae and Grippothypos prevailed in humans, Serogroup L. Pomona - dominated in animals, while in rodents the dominated serotgrouo was L. Icteroheamorrhagiae. Similar study, conducted by us in 1990-2005 showed that L.Pomona and L. Icteroheamorrhagiae prevailed in humans and rodents while L. Icteroheamorrhagiae was the only serogroup isolated in gray rats, trapped in Tbilisi. Infectivity of rodants composed 70%. Currently lesptosirosis is caused by a new serogroups of Leptospira - L. Sejroe, namely by serotypes Wolfii and Hardjo, L. Australis (serotype Bratislava) and L. Autumnalis along with the previously occurring serogroups L. Icteroheamorrhagiae, L. Bataviae, L. Hebdomadis. In our opinion the recent increase in leptospirosis in the country is attributable to the improvements in diagnostics of the infection as well as to the emergence of new serogroups of Leptospira, which in turn is a result of intensive migration processes in the country.


Assuntos
Leptospira/patogenicidade , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Animais , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Ratos
2.
Georgian Med News ; (228): 63-6, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24743125

RESUMO

The aim of the article was to study epidemiological patterns of leptospirosis in Georgia from 2001 to 2011. The investigation revealed that formal registration of the infection began in 1950s. Single cases were reported annually in the country with the exception of 1986, when water-borne outbreak broke out in Sukhumi with 21 detected cases. Low morbidity level of disease was reported during 2001-2005. Since 2006 significant increase of leptospirosis has been observed. The highest incidence was reported in 2011-1.81 per 100 000 population. The increase is likely to be mainly attributed to the improvements in diagnostics of the infection. Young and middle-age persons are more frequently vulnerable to leptospirosis in Georgia, 54.8% of the cases are reported among age group of 30-59. Incidence of the infection is the highest in males - 60-65% of the detected cases. In addition, leptospirosis is characterized by high case-fatality rate - 8.7 ± 3.6% (95% CI=5.7-11.7). Case fatality is especially high in persons over 60 and over reaching 24.3 ± 8.1%. Only single cases are observed in children under 14. In 21st century ethiological structure of leptospirosis has being changed somehow. By contrast, in the earlier period the disease was mainly caused by L. icterohaemorrhagiae and L.grippotyphosa, nowadays we encounter such causative agents which were not observed in 20th century - L. autunnalis, L. mankarso, L. wolffii and others. Water is mainly implicated as a risk factor in the infection transmission. Finally, to study of epidemiological characteristics of leptospirosis in Georgia, identified that, the infection is widely distributed in the country, has an increasing tendency and duration of the disease frequently is a severe.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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