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1.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaax2166, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579823

RESUMO

RNA binding proteins are key players in posttranscriptional regulation and have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we report a significant burden of heterozygous, likely gene-disrupting variants in CSDE1 (encoding a highly constrained RNA binding protein) among patients with autism and related neurodevelopmental disabilities. Analysis of 17 patients identifies common phenotypes including autism, intellectual disability, language and motor delay, seizures, macrocephaly, and variable ocular abnormalities. HITS-CLIP revealed that Csde1-binding targets are enriched in autism-associated gene sets, especially FMRP targets, and in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity-related pathways. Csde1 knockdown in primary mouse cortical neurons leads to an overgrowth of the neurites and abnormal dendritic spine morphology/synapse formation and impaired synaptic transmission, whereas mutant and knockdown experiments in Drosophila result in defects in synapse growth and synaptic transmission. Our study defines a new autism-related syndrome and highlights the functional role of CSDE1 in synapse development and synaptic transmission.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 844-853, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585108

RESUMO

Lissencephaly is a severe brain malformation in which failure of neuronal migration results in agyria or pachygyria and in which the brain surface appears unusually smooth. It is often associated with microcephaly, profound intellectual disability, epilepsy, and impaired motor abilities. Twenty-two genes are associated with lissencephaly, accounting for approximately 80% of disease. Here we report on 12 individuals with a unique form of lissencephaly; these individuals come from eight unrelated families and have bi-allelic mutations in APC2, encoding adenomatous polyposis coli protein 2. Brain imaging studies demonstrate extensive posterior predominant lissencephaly, similar to PAFAH1B1-associated lissencephaly, as well as co-occurrence of subcortical heterotopia posterior to the caudate nuclei, "ribbon-like" heterotopia in the posterior frontal region, and dysplastic in-folding of the mesial occipital cortex. The established role of APC2 in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to mediate cellular morphological changes suggests shared function with other lissencephaly-encoded cytoskeletal proteins such as α-N-catenin (CTNNA2) and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b regulatory subunit 1 (PAFAH1B1, also known as LIS1). Our findings identify APC2 as a radiographically distinguishable recessive form of lissencephaly.

3.
Neurology ; 93(14): e1360-e1373, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To better evaluate the imaging spectrum of subcortical heterotopic gray matter brain malformations (subcortical heterotopia [SUBH]), we systematically reviewed neuroimaging and clinical data of 107 affected individuals. METHODS: SUBH is defined as heterotopic gray matter, located within the white matter between the cortex and lateral ventricles. Four large brain malformation databases were searched for individuals with these malformations; data on imaging, clinical outcomes, and results of molecular testing were systematically reviewed and integrated with all previously published subtypes to create a single classification system. RESULTS: Review of the databases revealed 107 patients with SUBH, the large majority scanned during childhood (84%), including more than half before 4 years (59%). Although most individuals had cognitive or motor disability, 19% had normal development. Epilepsy was documented in 69%. Additional brain malformations were common and included abnormalities of the corpus callosum (65/102 [64%]), and, often, brainstem or cerebellum (47/106 [44%]). Extent of the heterotopic gray matter brain malformations (unilateral or bilateral) did not influence the presence or age at onset of seizures. Although genetic testing was not systematically performed in this group, the sporadic occurrence and frequent asymmetry suggests either postzygotic mutations or prenatal disruptive events. Several rare, bilateral forms are caused by mutations in genes associated with cell proliferation and polarity (EML1, TUBB, KATNB1, CENPJ, GPSM2). CONCLUSION: This study reveals a broad clinical and imaging spectrum of heterotopic malformations and provides a framework for their classification.

4.
Cell Rep ; 28(6): 1596-1611.e10, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390572

RESUMO

Apical radial glia (aRGs) are predominant progenitors during corticogenesis. Perturbing their function leads to cortical malformations, including subcortical heterotopia (SH), characterized by the presence of neurons below the cortex. EML1/Eml1 mutations lead to SH in patients, as well as to heterotopic cortex (HeCo) mutant mice. In HeCo mice, some aRGs are abnormally positioned away from the ventricular zone (VZ). Thus, unraveling EML1/Eml1 function will clarify mechanisms maintaining aRGs in the VZ. We pinpoint an unknown EML1/Eml1 function in primary cilium formation. In HeCo aRGs, cilia are shorter, less numerous, and often found aberrantly oriented within vesicles. Patient fibroblasts and human cortical progenitors show similar defects. EML1 interacts with RPGRIP1L, a ciliary protein, and RPGRIP1L mutations were revealed in a heterotopia patient. We also identify Golgi apparatus abnormalities in EML1/Eml1 mutant cells, potentially upstream of the cilia phenotype. We thus reveal primary cilia mechanisms impacting aRG dynamics in physiological and pathological conditions.

5.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 66: 228-231, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recessive mutations in the Gap Junction Protein Gamma 2 (GJC2) gene cause Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease type 1, a severe infantile-onset hypomyelinating leukodystrophy. Milder, late-onset phenotypes including complicated spastic paraplegia in one family (SPG44), and mild tremor in one case, were reported associated to GJC2 homozygous missense mutations. Here, we report a new family with two siblings carrying a different homozygous GJC2 mutation, presenting with late-onset ataxic and pyramidal disturbances, and parkinsonism in one of them. METHODS: Two affected siblings were studied by neurological examination and brain MRI. Genetic analyses included genome-wide homozygosity mapping in both siblings, and whole exome sequencing in one sib. The resulting candidate gene variant was validated by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: The affected siblings share a novel homozygous GJC2 missense mutation (c.820G>C, p.Val274Leu), predicted as pathogenic by all used in-silico tools. Brain MRI showed hyperintense signal in T2-weighted images in the internal capsule and subcortical and periventricular white matter, consistent with hypomyelination. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm and further expand the late-onset phenotypes of GJC2 mutations, to include prominent ataxia, pyramidal disturbances and mild parkinsonism, and confirm the distinctive associated MRI pattern.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(17): 2937-2951, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152168

RESUMO

KCNMA1 encodes the large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) potassium channel α-subunit, and pathogenic gain-of-function variants in this gene have been associated with a dominant form of generalized epilepsy and paroxysmal dyskinesia. Here, we genetically and functionally characterize eight novel loss-of-function (LoF) variants of KCNMA1. Genome or exome sequencing and the participation in the international Matchmaker Exchange effort allowed for the identification of novel KCNMA1 variants. Patch clamping was used to assess functionality of mutant BK channels. The KCNMA1 variants p.(Ser351Tyr), p.(Gly356Arg), p.(Gly375Arg), p.(Asn449fs) and p.(Ile663Val) abolished the BK current, whereas p.(Cys413Tyr) and p.(Pro805Leu) reduced the BK current amplitude and shifted the activation curves toward positive potentials. The p.(Asp984Asn) variant reduced the current amplitude without affecting kinetics. A phenotypic analysis of the patients carrying the recurrent p.(Gly375Arg) de novo missense LoF variant revealed a novel syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with severe developmental delay, visceral and cardiac malformations, connective tissue presentations with arterial involvement, bone dysplasia and characteristic dysmorphic features. Patients with other LoF variants presented with neurological and developmental symptoms including developmental delay, intellectual disability, ataxia, axial hypotonia, cerebral atrophy and speech delay/apraxia/dysarthria. Therefore, LoF KCNMA1 variants are associated with a new syndrome characterized by a broad spectrum of neurological phenotypes and developmental disorders. LoF variants of KCNMA1 cause a new syndrome distinctly different from gain-of-function variants in the same gene.

8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(17): 2900-2919, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127942

RESUMO

N-alpha-acetylation is one of the most common co-translational protein modifications in humans and is essential for normal cell function. NAA10 encodes for the enzyme NAA10, which is the catalytic subunit in the N-terminal acetyltransferase A (NatA) complex. The auxiliary and regulatory subunits of the NatA complex are NAA15 and Huntington-interacting protein (HYPK), respectively. Through a genotype-first approach with exome sequencing, we identified and phenotypically characterized 30 individuals from 30 unrelated families with 17 different de novo or inherited, dominantly acting missense variants in NAA10 or NAA15. Clinical features of affected individuals include variable levels of intellectual disability, delayed speech and motor milestones and autism spectrum disorder. Additionally, some subjects present with mild craniofacial dysmorphology, congenital cardiac anomalies and seizures. One of the individuals is an 11-year-old boy with a frameshift variant in exon 7 of NAA10, who presents most notably with microphthalmia, which confirms a prior finding with a single family with Lenz microphthalmia syndrome. Biochemical analyses of variants as part of the human NatA complex, as well as enzymatic analyses with and without the HYPK regulatory subunit, help to explain some of the phenotypic differences seen among the different variants.

9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1276-1286, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124279

RESUMO

Lysine-specific demethylase 6B (KDM6B) demethylates trimethylated lysine-27 on histone H3. The methylation and demethylation of histone proteins affects gene expression during development. Pathogenic alterations in histone lysine methylation and demethylation genes have been associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. We have identified a number of de novo alterations in the KDM6B gene via whole exome sequencing (WES) in a cohort of 12 unrelated patients with developmental delay, intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and other clinical findings. Our findings will allow for further investigation in to the role of the KDM6B gene in human neurodevelopmental disorders.

10.
Brain ; 142(4): 867-884, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879067

RESUMO

Recessive mutations in RTTN, encoding the protein rotatin, were originally identified as cause of polymicrogyria, a cortical malformation. With time, a wide variety of other brain malformations has been ascribed to RTTN mutations, including primary microcephaly. Rotatin is a centrosomal protein possibly involved in centriolar elongation and ciliogenesis. However, the function of rotatin in brain development is largely unknown and the molecular disease mechanism underlying cortical malformations has not yet been elucidated. We performed both clinical and cell biological studies, aimed at clarifying rotatin function and pathogenesis. Review of the 23 published and five unpublished clinical cases and genomic mutations, including the effect of novel deep intronic pathogenic mutations on RTTN transcripts, allowed us to extrapolate the core phenotype, consisting of intellectual disability, short stature, microcephaly, lissencephaly, periventricular heterotopia, polymicrogyria and other malformations. We show that the severity of the phenotype is related to residual function of the protein, not only the level of mRNA expression. Skin fibroblasts from eight affected individuals were studied by high resolution immunomicroscopy and flow cytometry, in parallel with in vitro expression of RTTN in HEK293T cells. We demonstrate that rotatin regulates different phases of the cell cycle and is mislocalized in affected individuals. Mutant cells showed consistent and severe mitotic failure with centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation, leading to aneuploidy and apoptosis, which could relate to depletion of neuronal progenitors often observed in microcephaly. We confirmed the role of rotatin in functional and structural maintenance of primary cilia and determined that the protein localized not only to the basal body, but also to the axoneme, proving the functional interconnectivity between ciliogenesis and cell cycle progression. Proteomics analysis of both native and exogenous rotatin uncovered that rotatin interacts with the neuronal (non-muscle) myosin heavy chain subunits, motors of nucleokinesis during neuronal migration, and in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived bipolar mature neurons rotatin localizes at the centrosome in the leading edge. This illustrates the role of rotatin in neuronal migration. These different functions of rotatin explain why RTTN mutations can lead to heterogeneous cerebral malformations, both related to proliferation and migration defects.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 520-529, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824121

RESUMO

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are essential enzymes responsible for charging tRNA molecules with cognate amino acids. Consistent with the essential function and ubiquitous expression of ARSs, mutations in 32 of the 37 ARS-encoding loci cause severe, early-onset recessive phenotypes. Previous genetic and functional data suggest a loss-of-function mechanism; however, our understanding of the allelic and locus heterogeneity of ARS-related disease is incomplete. Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CARS) encodes the enzyme that charges tRNACys with cysteine in the cytoplasm. To date, CARS variants have not been implicated in any human disease phenotype. Here, we report on four subjects from three families with complex syndromes that include microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair and nails. Each affected person carries bi-allelic CARS variants: one individual is compound heterozygous for c.1138C>T (p.Gln380∗) and c.1022G>A (p.Arg341His), two related individuals are compound heterozygous for c.1076C>T (p.Ser359Leu) and c.1199T>A (p.Leu400Gln), and one individual is homozygous for c.2061dup (p.Ser688Glnfs∗2). Measurement of protein abundance, yeast complementation assays, and assessments of tRNA charging indicate that each CARS variant causes a loss-of-function effect. Compared to subjects with previously reported ARS-related diseases, individuals with bi-allelic CARS variants are unique in presenting with a brittle-hair-and-nail phenotype, which most likely reflects the high cysteine content in human keratins. In sum, our efforts implicate CARS variants in human inherited disease, expand the locus and clinical heterogeneity of ARS-related clinical phenotypes, and further support impaired tRNA charging as the primary mechanism of recessive ARS-related disease.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(4): 582-593, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622326

RESUMO

The Integrator complex subunit 1 (INTS1) is a component of the integrator complex that comprises 14 subunits and associates with RPB1 to catalyze endonucleolytic cleavage of nascent snRNAs and assist RNA polymerase II in promoter-proximal pause-release on protein-coding genes. We present five patients, including two sib pairs, with biallelic sequence variants in INTS1. The patients manifested absent or severely limited speech, an abnormal gait, hypotonia and cataracts. Exome sequencing revealed biallelic variants in INTS1 in all patients. One sib pair demonstrated a missense variant, p.(Arg77Cys), and a frameshift variant, p.(Arg1800Profs*20), another sib pair had a homozygous missense variant, p.(Pro1874Leu), and the fifth patient had a frameshift variant, p.(Leu1764Cysfs*16) and a missense variant, p.(Leu2164Pro). We also report additional clinical data on three previously described individuals with a homozygous, loss of function variant, p.(Ser1784*) in INTS1 that shared cognitive delays, cataracts and dysmorphic features with these patients. Several of the variants affected the protein C-terminus and preliminary modeling showed that the p.(Pro1874Leu) and p.(Leu2164Pro) variants may interfere with INTS1 helix folding. In view of the cataracts observed, we performed in-situ hybridization and demonstrated expression of ints1 in the zebrafish eye. We used Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 to make larvae with biallelic insertion/deletion (indel) variants in ints1. The mutant larvae developed typically through gastrulation, but sections of the eye showed abnormal lens development. The distinctive phenotype associated with biallelic variants in INTS1 points to dysfunction of the integrator complex as a mechanism for intellectual disability, eye defects and craniofacial anomalies.

14.
Neurology ; 92(2): e96-e107, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the epileptology, a key part of the SYNGAP1 phenotypic spectrum, in a large patient cohort. METHODS: Patients were recruited via investigators' practices or social media. We included patients with (likely) pathogenic SYNGAP1 variants or chromosome 6p21.32 microdeletions incorporating SYNGAP1. We analyzed patients' phenotypes using a standardized epilepsy questionnaire, medical records, EEG, MRI, and seizure videos. RESULTS: We included 57 patients (53% male, median age 8 years) with SYNGAP1 mutations (n = 53) or microdeletions (n = 4). Of the 57 patients, 56 had epilepsy: generalized in 55, with focal seizures in 7 and infantile spasms in 1. Median seizure onset age was 2 years. A novel type of drop attack was identified comprising eyelid myoclonia evolving to a myoclonic-atonic (n = 5) or atonic (n = 8) seizure. Seizure types included eyelid myoclonia with absences (65%), myoclonic seizures (34%), atypical (20%) and typical (18%) absences, and atonic seizures (14%), triggered by eating in 25%. Developmental delay preceded seizure onset in 54 of 56 (96%) patients for whom early developmental history was available. Developmental plateauing or regression occurred with seizures in 56 in the context of a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). Fifty-five of 57 patients had intellectual disability, which was moderate to severe in 50. Other common features included behavioral problems (73%); high pain threshold (72%); eating problems, including oral aversion (68%); hypotonia (67%); sleeping problems (62%); autism spectrum disorder (54%); and ataxia or gait abnormalities (51%). CONCLUSIONS: SYNGAP1 mutations cause a generalized DEE with a distinctive syndrome combining epilepsy with eyelid myoclonia with absences and myoclonic-atonic seizures, as well as a predilection to seizures triggered by eating.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/complicações , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Espasmos Infantis/complicações , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico por imagem , Espasmos Infantis/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(12): 783-789, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391508

RESUMO

Heterozygous gain of function mutations in the ZIC1 gene have been described with syndromic craniosynostosis, variable cerebral or cerebellar abnormalities and mild to moderate developmental delay. Deletion of chromosome 3q25.1 including both adjacent ZIC1 and ZIC4 genes have been described as a cause of variable cerebellar abnormalities including Dandy-Walker malformation. We report two siblings presenting with neonatal microcephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, brachycephaly with reduced volume of the posterior fossa, cerebellar and pons hypoplasia, scoliosis and tethered cord (closed neural tube defect). One of the siblings had apparent partial rhombencephalosynapsis. Trio analysis of exome sequencing data revealed a novel heterozygous frameshift mutation in ZIC1 at the end of exon 3 in one sibling and was confirmed by Sanger sequencing in both children. The mutation was not detected in DNA of both parents, which suggests parental gonadal mosaicism. We show that expression of the mutant allele leads to synthesis of a stable abnormal transcript in patient cells, without evidence for nonsense-mediated decay. Craniosynostosis was not present at birth, which explains why ZIC1 mutations were not initially considered. This severe brain malformation indicates that premature closure of sutures can be independent of the abnormal brain development in subjects with pathogenic variants in ZIC1.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471716

RESUMO

To date, mutations in 15 actin- or microtubule-associated genes have been associated with the cortical malformation lissencephaly and variable brainstem hypoplasia. During a multicenter review, we recognized a rare lissencephaly variant with a complex brainstem malformation in three unrelated children. We searched our large brain-malformation databases and found another five children with this malformation (as well as one with a less severe variant), analyzed available whole-exome or -genome sequencing data, and tested ciliogenesis in two affected individuals. The brain malformation comprised posterior predominant lissencephaly and midline crossing defects consisting of absent anterior commissure and a striking W-shaped brainstem malformation caused by small or absent pontine crossing fibers. We discovered heterozygous de novo missense variants or an in-frame deletion involving highly conserved zinc-binding residues within the GAR domain of MACF1 in the first eight subjects. We studied cilium formation and found a higher proportion of mutant cells with short cilia than of control cells with short cilia. A ninth child had similar lissencephaly but only subtle brainstem dysplasia associated with a heterozygous de novo missense variant in the spectrin repeat domain of MACF1. Thus, we report variants of the microtubule-binding GAR domain of MACF1 as the cause of a distinctive and most likely pathognomonic brain malformation. A gain-of-function or dominant-negative mechanism appears likely given that many heterozygous mutations leading to protein truncation are included in the ExAC Browser. However, three de novo variants in MACF1 have been observed in large schizophrenia cohorts.

17.
Genet Med ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349098

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in ARID1B are one of the most frequent causes of intellectual disability (ID) as determined by large-scale exome sequencing studies. Most studies published thus far describe clinically diagnosed Coffin-Siris patients (ARID1B-CSS) and it is unclear whether these data are representative for patients identified through sequencing of unbiased ID cohorts (ARID1B-ID). We therefore sought to determine genotypic and phenotypic differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS. In parallel, we investigated the effect of different methods of phenotype reporting. METHODS: Clinicians entered clinical data in an extensive web-based survey. RESULTS: 79 ARID1B-CSS and 64 ARID1B-ID patients were included. CSS-associated dysmorphic features, such as thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, thick alae nasi, long and/or broad philtrum, small nails and small or absent fifth distal phalanx and hypertrichosis, were observed significantly more often (p < 0.001) in ARID1B-CSS patients. No other significant differences were identified. CONCLUSION: There are only minor differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS patients. ARID1B-related disorders seem to consist of a spectrum, and patients should be managed similarly. We demonstrated that data collection methods without an explicit option to report the absence of a feature (such as most Human Phenotype Ontology-based methods) tended to underestimate gene-related features.

18.
Heart Rhythm ; 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an uncommon inherited arrhythmia disorder characterized by adrenergically evoked ventricular arrhythmias. Mutations in the cardiac calcium release channel/ryanodine receptor gene (RYR2) are identified in the majority of patients with CPVT. RyR2 is also the major RyR isoform expressed in the brain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) and other neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) in RYR2-associated CPVT (CPVT1) and to study the characteristics of these patients. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all CPVT1 patients from 12 international centers and analyzed the characteristics of all CPVT1 patients with concomitant NDDs. We functionally characterized the mutations to assess their response to caffeine activation. We did not correct for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 421 CPVT1 patients, we identified 34 patients with ID (8%; 95% confidence interval 6%-11%). Median age at diagnosis was 9.3 years (interquartile range 7.0-14.5). Parents for 24 of 34 patients were available for genetic testing, and 13 of 24 (54%) had a de novo mutation. Severity of ID ranged from mild to severe and was accompanied by other NDDs in 9 patients (26%). Functionally, the ID-associated mutations showed a markedly enhanced response of RyR2 to activation by caffeine. Seventeen patients (50%) also had supraventricular arrhythmias. During median follow-up of 8.4 years (interquartile range 1.8-12.4), 15 patients (45%) experienced an arrhythmic event despite adequate therapy. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that ID is more prevalent among CPVT1 patients (8%) than in the general population (1%-3%). This subgroup of CPVT1 patients reveals a malignant cardiac phenotype with marked supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias.

19.
Brain ; 141(9): 2576-2591, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107533

RESUMO

Synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1) is a critical mediator of fast, synchronous, calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release and also modulates synaptic vesicle endocytosis. This paper describes 11 patients with de novo heterozygous missense mutations in SYT1. All mutations alter highly conserved residues, and cluster in two regions of the SYT1 C2B domain at positions Met303 (M303K), Asp304 (D304G), Asp366 (D366E), Ile368 (I368T) and Asn371 (N371K). Phenotypic features include infantile hypotonia, congenital ophthalmic abnormalities, childhood-onset hyperkinetic movement disorders, motor stereotypies, and developmental delay varying in severity from moderate to profound. Behavioural characteristics include sleep disturbance and episodic agitation. Absence of epileptic seizures and normal orbitofrontal head circumference are important negative features. Structural MRI is unremarkable but EEG disturbance is universal, characterized by intermittent low frequency high amplitude oscillations. The functional impact of these five de novo SYT1 mutations has been assessed by expressing rat SYT1 protein containing the equivalent human variants in wild-type mouse primary hippocampal cultures. All mutant forms of SYT1 were expressed at levels approximately equal to endogenous wild-type protein, and correctly localized to nerve terminals at rest, except for SYT1M303K, which was expressed at a lower level and failed to localize at nerve terminals. Following stimulation, SYT1I368T and SYT1N371K relocalized to nerve terminals at least as efficiently as wild-type SYT1. However, SYT1D304G and SYT1D366E failed to relocalize to nerve terminals following stimulation, indicative of impairments in endocytic retrieval and trafficking of SYT1. In addition, the presence of SYT1 variants at nerve terminals induced a slowing of exocytic rate following sustained action potential stimulation. The extent of disturbance to synaptic vesicle kinetics is mirrored by the severity of the affected individuals' phenotypes, suggesting that the efficiency of SYT1-mediated neurotransmitter release is critical to cognitive development. In summary, de novo dominant SYT1 missense mutations are associated with a recognizable neurodevelopmental syndrome, and further cases can now be diagnosed based on clinical features, electrophysiological signature and mutation characteristics. Variation in phenotype severity may reflect mutation-specific impact on the diverse physiological functions of SYT1.

20.
Neuron ; 99(5): 905-913.e7, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146301

RESUMO

Channelopathies are disorders caused by abnormal ion channel function in differentiated excitable tissues. We discovered a unique neurodevelopmental channelopathy resulting from pathogenic variants in SCN3A, a gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.3. Pathogenic NaV1.3 channels showed altered biophysical properties including increased persistent current. Remarkably, affected individuals showed disrupted folding (polymicrogyria) of the perisylvian cortex of the brain but did not typically exhibit epilepsy; they presented with prominent speech and oral motor dysfunction, implicating SCN3A in prenatal development of human cortical language areas. The development of this disorder parallels SCN3A expression, which we observed to be highest early in fetal cortical development in progenitor cells of the outer subventricular zone and cortical plate neurons and decreased postnatally, when SCN1A (NaV1.1) expression increased. Disrupted cerebral cortical folding and neuronal migration were recapitulated in ferrets expressing the mutant channel, underscoring the unexpected role of SCN3A in progenitor cells and migrating neurons.

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