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1.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(5): 5097-5144, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402592

RESUMO

In recent years, traditional high-temperature food processing is continuously being replaced by nonthermal processes. Nonthermal processes have a positive effect on food quality, including color and maintaining natural food pigments. Thus, this article describes the influence of nonthermal, new, and traditional treatments on natural food pigments and color changes in plant materials. Characteristics of natural pigments, such as anthocyanins, betalains, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and so forth available in the plant tissue, are shortly presented. Also, the characteristics and mechanism of nonthermal processes such as pulsed electric field, ultrasound, high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed light, cold plasma, supercritical fluid extraction, and lactic acid fermentation are described. Furthermore, the disadvantages of these processes are mentioned. Each treatment is evaluated in terms of its effects on all types of natural food pigments, and the possible applications are discussed. Analysis of the latest literature showed that the use of nonthermal technologies resulted in better preservation of pigments contained in the plant tissue and improved yield of extraction. However, it is important to select the appropriate processing parameters and to optimize this process in relation to a specific type of raw material.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Manipulação de Alimentos , Carotenoides/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Pressão Hidrostática
2.
Foods ; 9(10)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066677

RESUMO

Radiant Energy Vacuum (REV)-dried broccoli, oranges, and carrots prepared by the optimal drying protocols determined in this study were compared to the freeze-dried and air-dried samples based on the nutritional values before and after drying. An accelerated shelf-life study for REV-dried broccoli, oranges, and carrots was also conducted. For all the samples, REV drying significantly shortened the processing time. The REV-dried samples had much higher retention of the nutritional values (vitamin C, ß-carotene) compared to the conventional air-drying process, and the values were also competitive to those of the freeze-dried samples. Although freeze-drying resulted in the best rehydration property, the REV-dried samples still earned the highest scores in the sensory test. In the accelerated shelf-life study conducted on the REV-dried samples, the moisture content and water activity stayed at the same level, but the nutritional values showed a downward trend. The sensory properties fluctuated in the shelf-life but still gained positive feedback from the panelists. Moreover, the testing method for ß-carotene content was uniquely designed in this project and could be a semi-quantitative method to refer to.

3.
J Nutr ; 150(12): 3208-3215, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice is one of the most commonly consumed cereal grains and is part of staple diets in the majority of the world. However, it is regarded as an incomplete protein, with lysine being a limiting amino acid. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine the bioavailability of lysine in school-age children consuming cooked white rice and to assess the effect of rice starch retrogradation. METHODS: Bioavailability or metabolic availability (MA) of lysine was determined using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method in a repeated-measures design. Six healthy school-age children (3 boys, 3 girls) with a mean ± SD age of 6.8 ± 0.98 y randomly received 4 crystalline l-lysine intakes (2, 6, 10, 14 mg · kg-1 · d-1), and 5 rice intakes to provide lysine at 8, 11, or 14 mg · kg-1 · d-1. The 14 mg · kg-1 · d-1 intakes were measured twice as warm rice and once as cold rice (to assess the impact of starch retrogradation on MA). Diets provided protein at 1.5 g · kg-1 · d-1 and calories at 1.7 times the participant's measured resting energy requirement, and were isonitrogenous. Breath samples were collected at baseline and during an isotopic steady state for 13C enrichment measurement. The MA of lysine from rice was determined by comparing the IAAO response of rice with l-lysine using the slope-ratio and single intake methods. Starch retrogradation was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry. RESULTS: MA of lysine in warm rice measured in school-age children was 97.5% and was similar to a repeated rice study (97.1%) within the same study population. MA of lysine was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) to 86.1% when the cooked rice was consumed cold, which corresponded to detectable starch retrogradation. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure the MA of lysine from rice in school-age children. Although the bioavailability of lysine from rice is high, it can be reduced by retrogradation of its starch component.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04135040.


Assuntos
Lisina/farmacocinética , Oryza , Amido/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Criança , Culinária , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Temperatura
4.
Foods ; 9(6)2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580405

RESUMO

Some chemical compounds, especially alcohol, sugars, and alkaloids such as hordenine, have been reported as elicitors of different emotional responses. This preliminary study was based on six commercial beers selected according to their fermentation type, with two beers of each type (spontaneous, bottom, and top). Chemometry and sensory analysis were performed for all samples to determine relationships and patterns between chemical composition and emotional responses from consumers. The results showed that sweeter samples were associated with higher perceived liking by consumers and positive emotions, which corresponded to spontaneous fermentation beers. There was high correlation (R = 0.91; R2 = 0.83) between hordenine and alcohol content. Beers presenting higher concentrations of both, and higher bitterness, were related to negative emotions. Further studies should be conducted, giving more time for emotional response analysis between beer samples, and comparing alcoholic and non-alcoholic beers with similar styles, to separate the effects of alcohol and hordenine. This preliminary study was a first attempt to associate beer compounds with the emotional responses of consumers using non-invasive biometrics.

5.
Foods ; 8(9)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480632

RESUMO

Pulsed light (PL) is one of the most promising non-thermal technologies used in food preservation and processing. Its application results in reduction of microbial load as well as influences the quality of food. The data about the impact of PL on bioactive compounds is ambiguous, therefore the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of PL treatment of a gallic acid aqueous solution-as a model system of phenolic abundant liquid food matrices. The effect of PL treatment was evaluated based on colour, phenolic content concentration and antioxidant activity measured by DPPH assay using a design of experiments approach. The PL fluence (which is the cumulative energy input) was varied by varying the pulse frequency and time. Using Response Surface Methodology, prediction models were developed for the effect of fluence on gallic acid properties. It was demonstrated that PL can modify the optical properties of gallic acid and cause reactions and degradation of gallic acid. However, application of PL did not significantly alter the overall quality of the model gallic acid solution at low fluence levels. Cluster analysis revealed that below 3.82 J/cm2, changes in gallic acid were minimal, and this fluence level could be used as the critical level for food process design aiming to minimize nutrient loss.

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