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1.
Int Psychogeriatr ; : 1-14, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To perform a meta-analysis of clinical studies on the differences in treatment or research decision-making capacity among patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy comparisons (HCs). DESIGN: A systematic search was conducted on Medline/Pubmed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus. Standardized mean differences and random-effects model were used in all cases. SETTING: The United States, France, Japan, and China. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred and ten patients with MCI, 149 with AD, and 368 HCs were included. MEASUREMENTS: The studies we included in the analysis assessed decisional capacity to consent by the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MAcCAT-T), MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR), Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument (CCTI), and University of California Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent (UBACC). RESULTS: We identified 109 potentially eligible studies from 1672 records, and 7 papers were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that there was significant impairment in a decision-making capacity in MCI patients compared to the HCs group in terms of Understanding (SMD = -1.04, 95% CI: -1.31 to -0.77, P < 0.001; I2 = 52%, P = 0.07), Appreciation (SMD = -0.51, 95% CI: -0.66 to -0.36, P < 0.001; I2 = 0%, P = 0.97), and Reasoning (SMD = -0.62, 95% CI: -0.77, -0.47, P < 0.001; I2=0%, P =0.46). MCI patients scored significantly higher in Understanding (SMD = 1.50, 95% CI: 0.91, 2.09, P = 0.01, I2 = 78%, P = 0.00001) compared to patients affected by AD. CONCLUSIONS: Patients affected by MCI are at higher risk of impaired capacity to consent to treatment and research compared to HCs, despite being at lower risk compared to patients affected by AD. Clinicians and researchers need to carefully evaluate decisional capacity in MCI patients providing informed consent.

2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(12)2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322462

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Italy has proven to be one of the countries with the highest coronavirus-linked death rate. To reduce the impact of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, the Italian Government decision-makers issued a series of law decrees that imposed measures limiting social contacts, stopped non-essential production activities, and restructured public health care in order to privilege assistance to patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Health care services were substantially limited including planned hospitalization and elective surgeries. These substantial measures were criticized due to their impact on individual rights including freedom and autonomy, but were justified by the awareness that hospitals would have been unable to cope with the surge of infected people who needed treatment for COVID-19. The imbalance between the need to guarantee ordinary care and to deal with the pandemic, in a context of limited health resources, raises ethical concerns as well as clinical management issues. The emergency scenario caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in the lockdown phase, led the Government and health care decision-makers to prioritize community safety above the individuals' rights. This new community-centered approach to clinical care has created tension among the practitioners and exposed health workers to malpractice claims. Reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of the COVID-19 pandemic is the priority of every government, but the legitimate question remains whether the policy that supports this measure could be less harmful for the health care system.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Direitos do Paciente , Administração em Saúde Pública/ética , Quarentena/ética , /mortalidade , Emergências , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Administração em Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872189

RESUMO

Clinical risk management constitutes a central element in the healthcare systems in relation to the reverberation that it establishes, and as regards the optimization of clinical outcomes for the patient. The starting point for a right clinical risk management is represented by the identification of non-conforming results. The aim of the study is to carry out a systematic analysis of all data received in the first three years of adoption of a reporting system, revealing the strengths and weaknesses. The results emerged showed an increasing trend in the number of total records. Notably, 86.0% of the records came from the medical category. Moreover, 41.0% of the records reported the possible preventive measures that could have averted the event and in 30% of the reports are hints to be put in place to avoid the repetition of the events. The second experimental phase is categorizing the events reported. Implementing the reporting system, it would guarantee a virtuous cycle of learning, training and reallocation of resources. By sensitizing health workers to a correct use of the incident reporting system, it could become a virtuous error learning system. All this would lead to a reduction in litigation and an implementation of the therapeutic doctor-patient alliance.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/métodos , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Segurança do Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Gestão da Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Itália , Auditoria Administrativa , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Gestão da Qualidade Total/organização & administração
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946065

RESUMO

Despite being an infrequent crime, parental homicide has been associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in adult perpetrators and a history of child abuse and family violence in adolescent perpetrators. Among severe psychiatric disorders there is initial evidence that delusional misidentification might also play a role in parricide. Parricides are often committed with undue violence and may result in overkill. The authors present the case of an adult male affected by schizoaffective disorder and Capgras syndrome who committed patricide. Forensic pathologists classify such cases as overkill by multiple fatal means comprising stabbing, blunt trauma and choking. Accurate crime scene investigations coupled with psychiatric examinations of perpetrator allow reconstruction of the murder stages. This overkill case is discussed in the context of a broad review of the literature.

5.
Riv Psichiatr ; 55(3): 191-194, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489197

RESUMO

PURPOSE: One of the most consistent models investigating the relationship between premorbid personality and depression was described by Tellenbach. According to this model, concern with orderliness, conscientiousness, hyper/hetereonomia and intolerance of ambiguity are the core features of Typus Melancholicus (TM). Previous studies showed a relationship between unipolar depression and TM. The primary hypothesis of this study was that patients affected by unipolar depressive disorders bare more of TM-related features of concern with orderliness and conscientiousness than healthy subjects. METHODS: In this single center cross-sectional study we recruited 74 patients affected by unipolar depressive disorders according to DSM-5 criteria and 60 healthy controls. In order to assess the presence of TM's orderliness and conscientiousness we adopted the factors of Kasahara's Inventory for the Melancholic Type Personality (KIMTP) named "harmony in personal relationships" and "social norms". Stress-Related Vulnerability Scale (SVS) was administered to explore the relationship between measures of TM and perceived stress. RESULTS: Independent sample t test disclosed significantly higher scores on KIMTP "harmony in personal relationships" (orderliness) but not on "social norms" (conscientiousness) in the clinical sample (p<0.001) compared to the non-clinical sample. Pearson's correlation disclosed a significant positive correlation between stress scores and KIMTP'S "harmony in personal relationships" subscale. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: KIMTP's "harmony in personal relationships" (orderliness) was higher in patients with unipolar depression than in non-clinical subjects, and positively associated with perceived stress, while KIMTP's "social norms" (conscientiousness) was (i) similarly represented across the two groups, and (ii) not correlated with perceived stress. This raises the possibility that, among the core features of TM, concern with orderliness can be considered as a relevant and potentially premorbid personality factor in relation to unipolar depressive disorders.

6.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; : 1-7, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543254

RESUMO

Involuntary psychiatric hospitalisation in Italy raises some critical forensic issues. We analysed the sociodemographic, psychopathological, and behavioural characteristics of involuntarily hospitalised psychiatric patients, and the effectiveness of the juridical procedure of guarantee. Case files (n = 2796) related to involuntary psychiatric hospitalisation (IPH) at the Office of the Tutelary Judge of the Ordinary Court of Rome (Italy) between January 2013 and May 2016 were analysed. For each case file sociodemographic, clinical and procedural information were collected. The sample included 53.7% men, patients had a mean age of 41.8 ± 13.9. Most of the IPH proposal certificates reported more than one reason, among which the most frequent were symptoms referring to a psychotic dimension (54.8%), agitation (38.0%), and symptoms of bipolar and related disorders (26.3%) Female patients showed a higher prevalence of symptoms of the bipolar spectrum (F = 29.7%, M = 23.3%; p < 0.05), while male patients showed a higher prevalence of aggressive behaviour (F = 7.7%, M = 12.6%; p < 0.01). Over 85% of the IPH proposal certificates did not explicitly mention issues related to adherence to care, which is the second criterium requested for IH (treatment refusal) and up to 7.3% of the proposals were not properly motivated. However, only 0.8% cases were not validated by the Tutelary Judge. Possible issues in the IPH procedures emerged since a significant number of certifications showed poor concordance with law- criteria for involuntary psychiatric hospitalisation. Despite this evidence, the low rate of unvalidated procedures by the Tutelary Judge, suggests a possible limitation of this form of guarantee.

7.
Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract ; 24(3): 245-249, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362180

RESUMO

Background: Suicide is a severe public health problem, in 2008 the Italian ministerial recommendation n° 4 on the management of suicide defined key areas for the identification of suicidal risk in hospital wards. The guidelines are important in defining professional liability issues, in line with Law 24 of 8/3/2017 'Gelli-Bianco'. Our study aimed to investigate the appropriateness of the official documents on suicide prevention delivered by Italian hospitals and their compliance with the ministerial recommendation.Methods: The Italian hospitals' public procedures on suicide prevention issued between 2008 and 2019 (n = 33) were retrieved thorough web search and further evaluated according to their compliance with the 2008 Italian ministerial recommendations.Results: The guidelines documents were generally in line with the ministerial recommendation. However, we found a lack of implementation in the specific training of health professionals. Most guidelines provided no risk stratification, nor specific procedures for different risk degrees or diagnoses. More than half of the documents did not report standardised tools for the assessment of suicidal risk.Conclusions: The public procedures on suicide prevention in Italian hospitals present general indications, leaving room for interpretation. Public procedures should be implemented with greater attention to the elements of judgement in the assessment of suicidal risk.KEY POINTSProcedures for suicide prevention are of uttermost importance for psychiatrist working in hospital.Standards in suicide risk evaluations are needed.Comparison between procedures can improve risk assessment and evaluation.

8.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(5): 1619-1626, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453452

RESUMO

The present study was designed to compare gender differences in psychiatric diagnosis with the dimension of psychopathy in women and men who had attempted or committed homicide. The study samples consisted of 39 homicidal females and 48 homicidal males who were confined in one of Italy's REMS or prison facilities in two southern provinces of Italy (Puglia and Basilicata). Assessment instruments included the SCID-5, the PID-5 IRF, and the PCL-R. Each gender group was stratified according to the level of criminal responsibility for the homicidal offense (full, partial, absent), and after assessments, according to the degree of the psychopathic dimension. There were clear gender differences in homicidal individuals. Female offenders were less likely to have had a record of criminal charges/convictions or imprisonment, and their homicides were more often intrafamilial, victimizing especially of their children, whereas males targeted intimate partners and extrafamilial victims. In the entire group, there was an inverse relationship between the level of psychopathy and the personality disorder on one side, and the psychotic disturbance on the other. Factor 2 (lifestyle/antisocial dimension) of the PCL-R was higher among the homicidal males, whereas females tended to score higher on Factor 1 (the interpersonal/affective dimension). Finally, if the psychopathic dimension is a qualifier for antisocial personality disorder, as indicated in DSM-5, this appears to be less true for females who tend to have other personality disorders.

10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110141, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945737

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed at analyzing homicide trends and patterns in Italy over the period 1980-2014. METHODS: We collected data from the Italian Mortality Database (Italian National Institute of Statistics), for the study period. Temporal trends were analyzed using joinpoint regression analysis, with estimated annual percentage change computed for each detected trend. The possible effect of the mafia subculture was examined using an indicator of mafia social penetration. Differences between age classes, genders, geographical regions, and homicide methods were also analyzed. RESULTS: The analyses showed an overall reduction in homicides during the study period, including a reduction in homicides by firearm. Further, we found significant differences between homicides involving male and female victims. A peak in male homicides, observed in the early 1990s, was significantly associated with mafia penetration. CONCLUSIONS: The overall reduction in homicides can be interpreted as an expression of a "civilizing process."


Assuntos
Homicídio/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Asfixia/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Armas de Fogo , Medicina Legal , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões do Pescoço/mortalidade , Distribuição por Sexo , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/mortalidade , Ferimentos Penetrantes/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 278, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699969

RESUMO

Insanity definition and the threshold for satisfying its legal criteria tend to vary depending on the jurisdictions. Yet, in Western countries, the legal standards for insanity often rely on the presence of cognitive and/or volitional impairment of the defendant at crime time. Despite some efforts having been made to guide and structure criminal responsibility evaluations, a valid instrument that could be useful to guide forensic psychiatrists' criminal responsibility assessments in different jurisdictions is lacking. This is a gap that needs to be addressed, considering the significant forensic and procedural implications of psychiatric evaluations. In addition, differences in methodology used in insanity assessments may also have consequences for the principle of equal rights for all citizens before the law, which should be guaranteed in the European Union. We developed an instrument, the Defendant's Insanity Assessment Support Scale (DIASS), which can be useful to support, structure, and guide the insanity assessment across different jurisdictions, in order to improve reliability and consistency of such evaluations.


Assuntos
Criminosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Defesa por Insanidade , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Psiquiatria Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
12.
Behav Sci Law ; 37(5): 602-613, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762094

RESUMO

Over the years, the number of homicides in Italy has progressively decreased, ultimately becoming one of the lowest rates in Europe (357 = 0.7 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2017, according to ISTAT). The number of homicides committed by women was about 9% of the total number of homicides during our study period. The percentage has increased in recent years because the total number of homicides has decreased without a proportionate decrease in the number of female homicides. Indeed, murder is an unusual type of crime for a woman and is often associated with a mental disorder, so when a woman committed a homicide, a psychiatric assessment was often performed. A forensic psychiatry expert was assigned to investigate the offender's psychopathology and mental state at the time of the offense. The root causes of the crime remained unexplained, however, due to the lack of a psychiatric precedent to justify this kind of assessment. The role of psychopathy in homicide has seldom been studied in female offenders, even though psychopathy has an important role in violent crimes. The investigators examined, clinically and historically, a sample of women who committed murder with different levels of criminal responsibility (female homicide offenders found not guilty by reason of insanity, having partial criminal responsibility, and convicted as criminally responsible and sentenced to prison) to identify the prevalence of the psychopathic dimension and its possible role in this sample. Prevalence and degree of psychopathic traits were examined in these female offenders using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. This study showed that females who had committed homicide were likely to suffer from mental illness; most of the homicidal acts were committed impulsively; and most female homicides occurred within the family, especially among women who were psychotic, but less so if they were psychopathic. Psychopathy tended to co-occur more with personality disorders than with psychotic psychopathology. Psychopathy was more evident among female homicide offenders who had been abused or traumatized. Psychopathic women who killed had high factor F1 scores and low antisocial component of factor F2.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal , Homicídio/psicologia , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Prevalência , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 66: 101503, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706410

RESUMO

Despite the central role in criminal trials, there is little research on the decision-making processes of experts in forensic psychiatry. We aimed to investigate the role of sociodemographic, psychopathological, and criminological characteristics in forensic psychiatric decisions on criminal responsibility and social dangerousness in criminal trials. We analyzed 302 forensic psychiatric reports provided by 16 forensic psychiatrists from the North, Central and Southern Italy. Defendants' psychiatric symptom severity was evaluated through the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Defendants judged not criminally responsible (Not-CRDs) presented with more severe psychiatric symptoms (positive symptoms, negative symptoms, manic excitement / disorganization), were more likely to be female, to be affected by a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, or bipolar spectrum disorder and to have had a higher number of previous psychiatric treatments and previous involuntary hospitalizations compared to their criminally responsible counterparts. Not-CRDs affected by a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, personality disorder, with severe psychiatric symptoms and with histories of criminal convictions and more victims were more likely to have received a judgment of social dangerousness. The forensic psychiatric evaluations were carried out on average of 770 days after the time of the crime, which in light of the other results, suggests an effect of the perceptions of the expert on the judgment of responsibility, raising the possibility of time bias on forensic judgments concerning defendants' mental responsibility.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Defesa por Insanidade , Competência Mental/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento Criminoso , Prova Pericial , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal/instrumentação , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Distribuição por Sexo , Comportamento Social
15.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 62: 111-116, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616845

RESUMO

Coercive treatments are often regarded as an inevitable and yet highly debated feature of psychiatric care. Perceived coercion is often reported by patients involuntarily committed as well as their voluntary counterparts. The Admission Experience Survey (AES) is a reliable tool for measuring perceived coercion in mental hospital admission. We developed the Italian AES (I-AES) through translation back-translation and administered it to 156 acutely hospitalized patients (48% women, 69% voluntarily committed) in two university hospitals in Rome (Policlinico Umberto I, Sant'Andrea Hospital). A principal component analysis (PCA) with equamax rotation was conducted. The I-AES showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.90); Guttmann split-half reliability coefficient was 0.90. AES total score significantly differed between voluntary and involuntary committed patients (5.08 ±â€¯4.1 vs. 8.1 ±â€¯4.9, p < .05). PCA disclosed a three-factor solution explaining 59.3 of the variance. Some discrepancies were found between the factor structure of the I-AES and the original version. I-AES total score was positively associated with numbers of previous involuntarily hospitalization (r = 0.20, p < .05) and psychiatric symptoms' severity (r = 0.22, p < .02). I-AES and its proposed new factor structure proved to be reliable to assess perceived coercion in mental hospital admission. Consequently, it may represent a helpful instrument for the study and reduction of patients' levels of perceived coercion.


Assuntos
Coerção , Admissão do Paciente , Adulto , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Internação Involuntária , Itália , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Brain Sci ; 8(5)2018 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751598

RESUMO

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has proved useful for several movement disorders (Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, dystonia), in which first and/or second line pharmacological treatments were inefficacious. Initial evidence of DBS efficacy exists for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder, treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, and impulse control disorders. Ethical concerns have been raised about the use of an invasive surgical approach involving the central nervous system in patients with possible impairment in cognitive functioning and decision-making capacity. Most of the disorders in which DBS has been used might present with alterations in memory, attention, and executive functioning, which may have an impact on the mental capacity to give informed consent to neurosurgery. Depression, anxiety, and compulsivity are also common in DBS candidate disorders, and could also be associated with an impaired capacity to consent to treatment or clinical research. Despite these issues, there is limited empirical knowledge on the decision-making levels of these patients. The possible informed consent issues of DBS will be discussed by focusing on the specific treatable diseases.

17.
Riv Psichiatr ; 52(2): 67-74, 2017.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28492576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this longitudinal observational study is to evaluate the course and impact of clinical, social, and behavioral variables on the involuntary readmission of psychiatric patients, during a 6-months follow-up after discharge from a prior involuntary hospitalization. METHODS: N=131 involuntarily committed psychiatric patients were enrolled in three university hospitals (Bari n=57; Perugia n=42; Rome n=32). At the first assessment cognitive functioning (MMSE), psychiatric symptoms severity (BPRS-E), capacity to consent to treatment (MacCAT-T) as well as principal socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected. At 6-months follow-up, we collected data concerning involuntary psychiatric readmissions, pharmacotherapy adherence, new deliberate self-harm or harm to others as well as having been legally prosecuted. RESULTS: N=120 patients were reevaluated at follow-up (M=188 days, SD=12.6); among these n=15 (12.5%) have had a new involuntary psychiatric admission due to an acute mental disorder. Re-hospitalized patients showed higher rates of harm to others (p<0.05) and legal prosecution (p<0.05); there was moreover a trend toward higher pharmacological dropout rates in involuntarily rehospitalized patients. We found no differences between the two groups in baseline psychiatric symptoms severity and cognitive functioning, whereas involuntary re-hospitalization was associated with more frequent involuntary hospitalization during last year (p<0.05) and higher MacCAT-T reasoning (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Involuntary psychiatric readmission rates proved to be poorly associated with clinical features assessed during previous hospitalization. Our data suggest that social and legal factors, including those connected to patients' dangerousness, could play a role also in a civil commitment system based solely on the need for treatment.


Assuntos
Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Competência Mental , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Crime , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Avaliação de Sintomas , Violência , Adulto Jovem
18.
Riv Psichiatr ; 52(1): 9-15, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28287192

RESUMO

Free will has often been considered central to criminal responsibility. Yet, the concept of free will is also difficult to define and operationalize, and, moreover, it is intensely debated. In particular, the very existence of free will has been denied based on recent neuroscience findings. This debate has significant implications on those fields in which the link between free will and behaviour is the main focus of interest, such as forensic psychiatry. In fact, a tension is often experienced between the centrality of the notion of free will on the one hand, and its controversial status on the other. This tension needs to be addressed, especially in forensic psychiatry, since it is relevant for actual assessments of legal insanity. In the present paper we will try to operationalize "free will" using a fourpartite decision-making capacity model, which can be used in forensic assessment of insanity. We will describe its advantages and application to guide mental insanity assessments. Whereas free will is often considered problematic from a neuroscience perspective, this model, we argue, is compatible with neuroscience; moreover, evaluations using this model can also be informed and strengthened by neuroscientific findings, for example regarding inhibitory control.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Psiquiatria Legal , Defesa por Insanidade , Competência Mental , Transtornos Mentais , Neurociências , Psiquiatria Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Itália , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Competência Mental/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Países Baixos , Autonomia Pessoal
19.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 27(5): 462-465, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess treatment decision-making capacity (TDMC) in a child and adolescent psychiatric sample and to verify possible associations between TDMC, psychiatric symptom severity, and cognitive functioning. METHODS: Twenty-two consecutively recruited patients hospitalized for an acute mental disorder, aged 11-18 years, underwent measurement of TDMC by the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T). The MacCAT-T interview focused on patients' current treatment, which comprised second-generation antipsychotics (45.5%), first-generation antipsychotics (13.6%), antiepileptic drugs used as mood stabilizers or lithium carbonate (45.5%), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (32%), and benzodiazepines (18%). We moreover measured cognitive functioning (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III) and psychiatric symptom severity (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale v 4.0). RESULTS: Patients' TDMC varied within the sample, but MacCAT-T scores were good in the sample overall, suggesting that children and adolescents with severe mental disorders could be competent to consent to treatment. The TDMC proved independent of psychiatric diagnosis while being positively associated with cognitive functioning and negatively with excitement. CONCLUSION: The MacCAT-T proved feasible for measuring TDMC in a child and adolescent psychiatric sample. TDMC in minors with severe mental disorders was not necessarily impaired. These results deserve reconsidering the interplay between minors and surrogate decision-makers as concerning treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/psicologia , Competência Mental/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
J Forensic Sci ; 61(2): 388-393, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27404612

RESUMO

Evidence from a few studies indicates the existence of several issues related to psychiatric patients' decisional capacity to give informed consent to clinical research. Clinicians often face difficulties in acquiring valid informed consent in clinical practice and even more so in drug trials. Participants often fail to fully understand or retain information regarding the actual implications of research protocols. The Brief Assessment for Consent to Clinical Research (BACO) was developed to investigate capacity to consent to clinical trials and further compare patients with schizophrenia and healthy comparisons' decisional capacity. A method to avoid possible confounding effects of choosing a treatment regarding a current disease was applied. The study groups were administered the BACO and the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research. Psychiatric patients performed poorer in comprehending, appreciating, and reasoning abilities, than their healthy counterparts. Impaired cognitive functioning and psychiatric symptoms severity were associated with reduced capacity to consent.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Competência Mental , Placebos , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Adulto , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
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