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1.
Cancer ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With limited information on germline mutations in biliary tract cancers, this study performed somatic and germline testing for patients at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center with known biliary tract carcinoma with the aim of determining the frequency and range of pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs). METHODS: Patients with biliary tract carcinoma were consented for somatic tumor and matched blood testing of up to 468 genes via the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets next-generation sequencing platform. A germline variant analysis was performed on a panel of up to 88 genes associated with an increased predisposition for cancer. Demographic and diagnostic details were collected. RESULTS: Germline mutations were tested in 131 patients. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was the most common cancer (63.4%), and it was followed by gallbladder adenocarcinoma (16.8%), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (16%), and otherwise unspecified biliary tract cancer (3.8%). Known and likely PGAs were present in 21 patients (16.0%), with 9.9% harboring a PGA in a high/moderate-penetrance cancer predisposition gene. Among high-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes, PGAs were most commonly observed in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (33.3%), which made up 5.3% of the entire cohort, and they were followed by PALB2, BAP1, and PMS2. Mutations in ATM, MITF, and NBN, moderate-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes, were identified in 1 patient each. There was no observed difference in the types of mutations among the subtypes of biliary tract cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of PGAs found was comparable to existing data on the prevalence of germline mutations in other solid tumor types with matched tumor analysis. This provides support for the role of the BRCA1/2, ATM, and BAP1 genes in biliary tract cancer susceptibility.

2.
Trends Cancer ; 6(1): 31-39, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952779

RESUMO

Molecular tests assist at various stages of cancer patient management, including providing diagnosis, predicting prognosis, identifying therapeutic targets, and determining hereditary cancer risk. The current testing paradigm involves germline testing in a subset of patients determined to be at high risk for having a hereditary cancer syndrome, and tumor-only sequencing for treatment decisions in advanced cancer patients. A major limitation of tumor-only sequencing is its inability to distinguish germline versus somatic mutations. Tumor-normal sequencing has emerged as a comprehensive analysis for both hereditary cancer predisposition and somatic profiling. Here, we review recent studies involving tumor-normal sequencing, discuss its benefits in clinical care, challenges for its implementation, and novel insights it has provided regarding tumor biology and germline contribution to cancer.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 41(1): 103-109, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444830

RESUMO

Fumarate hydratase (FH) mutations underpin the autosomal recessive syndrome. FH deficiency and the autosomal dominant syndrome hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC). The FH c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) genomic alteration has been conclusively shown to contribute to FH deficiency when occurring with another FH germline alteration. However, a sufficiently large dataset has been lacking to conclusively determine its clinical significance to cancer predisposition in the heterozygous state. We reviewed a series of 7,571 patients with cancer who received germline results through MSK-IMPACT testing at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The FH c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) variant was detected in 24 individuals, none of whom was affected with renal cancer. Eleven of the 372 patients with renal cancer were identified to carried pathogenic FH variants associated with HLRCC. None of these 372 patients with renal cancer carried the FH c.1431_1433dupAAA variant. Our data indicate the FH c.1431_1433dupAAA is not associated with cancer including renal cell carcinoma.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1901395, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Urothelial cancers (UCs) have a substantial hereditary component, but, other than their association with Lynch syndrome, the contribution of genetic risk factors to UC pathogenesis has not been systematically defined. We sought to determine the prevalence of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) germline variants in patients with UC and identify associated clinical factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 586 patients with UC underwent prospective, matched tumor-normal DNA sequencing. Seventy-seven genes associated with cancer predisposition were analyzed; allele frequencies were compared with publicly available database. RESULTS: P/LP germline variants were identified in 80 (14%) of 586 individuals with UC. The most common P/LP variants in high- or moderate-penetrance genes were BRCA2 (n = 9; 1.5%), MSH2 (n = 8; 1.4%), BRCA1 (n = 8; 1.4%), CHEK2 (n = 6; 1.0%), ERCC3 (n = 4; 0.7%), and NBN and RAD50 (n = 3; 0.5% each). Sixty-six patients (83%) had germline P/LP variants in DNA-damage repair (DDR) genes, of which 28 (42%) had biallelic inactivation. Patients with P/LP variants were more commonly diagnosed at an early age (22% v 6% in those without variants; P = .01). BRCA2 and MSH2 were significantly associated with an increased risk for UC (odds ratio, 3.7 [P = .004] and 4.6 [P = .001], respectively). Current clinical guidelines for referral for genetic testing failed to identify 6 (26%) patients with high-penetrance variants. CONCLUSION: Clinically significant P/LP germline variants in DDR genes frequently are present in patients with advanced UC. The presence of DDR germline variants could guide cancer screening for patients and their families and serve as predictive biomarkers of response to targeted or immunotherapies. Family history-based criteria to identify patients with hereditary UC susceptibility are insensitive. Broader germline testing in UC, particularly in those of young ages, should be considered.

6.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887429

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) has brought insight into critical mutations or pathways (e.g., DNA damage sensing and repair) involved in the etiology of many cancers and has directed new screening, prevention, and therapeutic approaches for patients and families, it has only recently been used in malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPMs). METHODS: We analyzed the blood samples from patients with MPM using the NGS platform MSK-IMPACT to explore cancer-predisposing genes. The loss-of-function variants or pathogenic entries were identified, and clinicopathologic information was collected. RESULTS: Of 84 patients with MPM, 12% (10 of 84) had pathogenic variants. Clinical characteristics were similar between cohorts, although patients with germline pathogenic variants were more likely to have more than two first-degree family members with cancer than those without germline mutations (40% versus 12%; Fisher's exact test, p < 0.05). Novel, deleterious variants in mesotheliomas included MutS homolog 3 (1% [one of 84]; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-7%), breast cancer gene 1-associated ring domain 1 (1% [one of 84]; 95% CI: 0%-7%), and RecQ-like helicase 4 (2% [two of 84]; 95% CI: 0%-9%). Pathogenic variants previously reported on germline testing in patients with mesotheliomas were breast cancer gene 1-associated protein 1 (4% [three of 84]; 95% CI: 1%-10%), breast cancer gene 2 (1% [one of 84]; 95% CI: 0%-7%), and MRE11 homolog, double strand break repair nuclease (1% [one of 84]; 95% CI: 0%-7%). One patient (1% [one of 84]; 95% CI: 0%-7%) had a likely pathogenic alteration in SHQ1, H/ACA ribonucleoprotein assembly factor that has not been associated with a heritable susceptibility to cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our study lends further support for the role of aberrations in DNA damage repair genes in the pathogenesis of MPMs and suggests that targeting the members of these pathways for screening and treatment warrants further study.

7.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1839-1842, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768065

RESUMO

Histiocytoses are clonal hematopoietic disorders frequently driven by mutations mapping to the BRAF and MEK1 and MEK2 kinases. Currently, however, the developmental origins of histiocytoses in patients are not well understood, and clinically meaningful therapeutic targets outside of BRAF and MEK are undefined. In this study, we uncovered activating mutations in CSF1R and rearrangements in RET and ALK that conferred dramatic responses to selective inhibition of RET (selpercatinib) and crizotinib, respectively, in patients with histiocytosis.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Histiocitose/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Histiocitose/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Ácidos Picolínicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(11): 1989-1994, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323388

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inherited mutations are easily detected factors that influence the disease courses and optimal treatment strategies of some cancers. Germline mutations in BRCA1 associated protein 1 (BAP1) are associated with unique disease profiles in mesothelioma, atypical spitz nevi, and uveal melanoma, but the patient characteristics of an unselected population of BAP1 carriers identified by an ascertainment prevalence study are unknown. METHODS: We collected blood samples, cancer histories, and occupational exposures from 183 unselected patients with BAP1-related diseases. Clinical information for each patient was obtained from medical records. Germline DNA was extracted from blood samples and sequenced using a next-generation sequencing assay. We tested screening criteria developed to identify patients with a possible germline BAP1 mutation. RESULTS: Pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline BAP1 mutations were observed in 5 of 180 sequenced specimens and were exclusively found in patients identified by our screening criteria. Several patients with characteristics suspicious for a heritable deleterious mutation did not have a germline BAP1 mutation. The prevalence of pathogenic germline BAP1 mutations in patients with mesothelioma was 4.4% (95% confidence interval 1.1-11.1). CONCLUSIONS: Results from the first unselected prevalence ascertainment study of germline BAP1 alterations suggest that the frequency of this mutation is low among patients with mesothelioma. The proposed screening criteria successfully identified all patients with germline BAP1-mutant mesothelioma. These screening guidelines may assist physicians in selecting patients who would benefit from genetic testing. Future efforts should validate and refine these criteria and search for other germline mutations associated with mesothelioma and related diseases.

9.
Nature ; 571(7766): 576-579, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292550

RESUMO

Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose individuals to certain cancers1-3, and disease-specific screening and preventative strategies have reduced cancer mortality in affected patients4,5. These classical tumour-suppressor genes have tumorigenic effects associated with somatic biallelic inactivation, although haploinsufficiency may also promote the formation and progression of tumours6,7. Moreover, BRCA1/2-mutant tumours are often deficient in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination8-13, and consequently exhibit increased therapeutic sensitivity to platinum-containing therapy and inhibitors of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP)14,15. However, the phenotypic and therapeutic relevance of mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 remains poorly defined in most cancer types. Here we show that in the 2.7% and 1.8% of patients with advanced-stage cancer and germline pathogenic or somatic loss-of-function alterations in BRCA1/2, respectively, selective pressure for biallelic inactivation, zygosity-dependent phenotype penetrance, and sensitivity to PARP inhibition were observed only in tumour types associated with increased heritable cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers (BRCA-associated cancer types). Conversely, among patients with non-BRCA-associated cancer types, most carriers of these BRCA1/2 mutation types had evidence for tumour pathogenesis that was independent of mutant BRCA1/2. Overall, mutant BRCA is an indispensable founding event for some tumours, but in a considerable proportion of other cancers, it appears to be biologically neutral-a difference predominantly conditioned by tumour lineage-with implications for disease pathogenesis, screening, design of clinical trials and therapeutic decision-making.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(18): 5537-5547, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The genomic landscape of gliomas has been characterized and now contributes to disease classification, yet the relationship between molecular profile and disease progression and treatment response remain poorly understood.Experimental Design: We integrated prospective clinical sequencing of 1,004 primary and recurrent tumors from 923 glioma patients with clinical and treatment phenotypes. RESULTS: Thirteen percent of glioma patients harbored a pathogenic germline variant, including a subset associated with heritable genetic syndromes and variants mediating DNA repair dysfunctions (29% of the total) that were associated with somatic biallelic inactivation and mechanism-specific somatic phenotypes. In astrocytomas, genomic alterations in effectors of cell-cycle progression correlated with aggressive disease independent of IDH mutation status, arose preferentially in enhancing tumors (44% vs. 8%, P < 0.001), were associated with rapid disease progression following tumor recurrence (HR = 2.6, P = 0.02), and likely preceded the acquisition of alkylating therapy-associated somatic hypermutation. Thirty-two percent of patients harbored a potentially therapeutically actionable lesion, of whom 11% received targeted therapies. In BRAF-mutant gliomas, response to agents targeting the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling axis was influenced by the type of mutation, its clonality, and its cellular and genomic context. CONCLUSIONS: These data reveal genomic correlates of disease progression and treatment response in diverse types of glioma and highlight the potential utility of incorporating genomic information into the clinical decision-making for patients with glioma.

11.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 3(2): pkz027, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360903

RESUMO

Pathogenic germline variants in checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2), which plays pivotal roles in DNA damage response and cell cycle regulation, confer an increased breast cancer (BC) risk. Here, we investigated the phenotypic and genomic characteristics of 33 BCs from CHEK2 germline mutation carriers (16 high-risk variants and 17 low-risk p.Ile157Thr variants). CHEK2-associated BCs from patients with high-risk germline variants were largely hormone receptor-positive (87%, 13/15), and 81% (13/16) exhibited loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the CHEK2 wild-type allele. Conversely, CHEK2-associated BCs from patients with the low-risk p.Ile157Thr variant displayed less-frequent loss of heterozygosity (5/17, 29%) and higher levels of CHEK2 protein expression than those with high-risk germline variants. CHEK2-associated BCs lacked a dominant mutational signature 3, a genomics feature of homologous recombination DNA repair deficiency (HRD). Our findings indicate that CHEK2-associated BCs are generally hormone receptor-positive and lack HRD-related mutational signatures, recapitulating the features of ATM-associated BCs. Specific CHEK2 germline variants may have a distinct impact on tumor biology.

12.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1668, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894706

RESUMO

An update to the original published conflict of interest for author Liying Zhang, PhD. L.Z. received compensation from Future Technology Research LLC (seminar on precision medicine), Roche Diagnostics Asia Pacific, BGI, Illumina (speaking activities at conferences/workshop). L.Z.'s family member has a leadership position and ownership interest of Shanghai Genome Center. This correction has been made.

13.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2116-2125, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787465

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer care professionals are confronted with interpreting results from multiplexed gene sequencing of patients at hereditary risk for cancer. Assessments for variant classification now require orthogonal data searches and aggregation of multiple lines of evidence from diverse resources. The clinical genetics community needs a fast algorithm that automates American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) based variant classification and provides uniform results. METHODS: Pathogenicity of Mutation Analyzer (PathoMAN) automates germline genomic variant curation from clinical sequencing based on ACMG guidelines. PathoMAN aggregates multiple tracks of genomic, protein, and disease specific information from public sources. We compared expertly curated variant data from clinical laboratories to assess performance. RESULTS: PathoMAN achieved a high overall concordance of 94.4% for pathogenic and 81.1% for benign variants. We observed negligible discordance (0.3% pathogenic, 0% benign) when contrasted against expert curated variants. Some loss of resolution (5.3% pathogenic, 18.9% benign) and gain of resolution (1.6% pathogenic, 3.8% benign) were also observed. CONCLUSION: Automation of variant curation enables unbiased, fast, efficient delivery of results in both clinical and laboratory research. We highlight the advantages and weaknesses related to the programmable automation of variant classification. PathoMAN will aid in rapid variant classification by generating robust models using a knowledgebase of diverse genetic data ( https://pathoman.mskcc.org).

14.
Gynecol Oncol ; 152(1): 11-19, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415991

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mutational signatures provide insights into the biological processes shaping tumor genomes and may inform patient therapy. We sought to define the mutational signatures of i) endometrioid and serous endometrial carcinomas (ECs), stratified into the four molecular subtypes, ii) uterine carcinosarcomas, and iii) matched primary and metastatic ECs. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing MC3 data from primary endometrioid and serous carcinomas (n = 232) and uterine carcinosarcomas (n = 57) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and matched primary and metastatic ECs (n = 61, 26 patients) were reanalyzed, subjected to mutational signature analysis using deconstructSigs, and correlated with clinicopathologic and genomic data. RESULTS: POLE (ultramutated) and MSI (hypermutated) molecular subtypes displayed dominant mutational signatures associated with POLE mutations (15/17 cases) and microsatellite instability (55/65 cases), respectively. Most endometrioid and serous carcinomas of copy-number low (endometrioid) and copy-number high (serous-like) molecular subtypes, and carcinosarcomas displayed a dominant aging-associated signature 1. Only 15% (9/60) of copy-number high (serous-like) ECs had a dominant signature 3 (homologous recombination DNA repair deficiency (HRD)-related), a prevalence significantly lower than that found in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (54%, p < 0.001) or basal-like breast cancers (46%, p < 0.001). Shifts from aging- or POLE- to MSI-related mutational processes were observed in the progression from primary to metastatic ECs in a subset of cases. CONCLUSIONS: The mutational processes underpinning ECs vary even among tumors of the same TCGA molecular subtype and in the progression from primary to metastatic ECs. Only a minority of copy-number high (serous-like) ECs display genomics features of HRD and would likely benefit from HRD-directed therapies.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Mutação , Carcinossarcoma/genética , Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética
15.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(4): 286-295, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376427

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or mismatch repair deficiency (MMR-D) testing has traditionally been performed in patients with colorectal (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) to screen for Lynch syndrome (LS)-associated cancer predisposition. The recent success of immunotherapy in high-frequency MSI (MSI-H) and/or MMR-D tumors now supports testing for MSI in all advanced solid tumors. The extent to which LS accounts for MSI-H across heterogeneous tumor types is unknown. Here, we establish the prevalence of LS across solid tumors according to MSI status. METHODS: MSI status was determined using targeted next-generation sequencing, with tumors classified as MSI-H, MSI-indeterminate, or microsatellite-stable. Matched germline DNA was analyzed for mutations in LS-associated mismatch repair genes ( MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, EPCAM). In patients with LS with MSI-H/I tumors, immunohistochemical staining for MMR-D was assessed. RESULTS: Among 15,045 unique patients (more than 50 cancer types), LS was identified in 16.3% (53 of 326), 1.9% (13 of 699), and 0.3% (37 of 14,020) of patients with MSI-H, MSI-indeterminate, and microsatellite-stable tumors, respectively ( P < .001). Among patients with LS with MSI-H/I tumors, 50% (33 of 66) had tumors other than CRC/EC, including urothelial, prostate, pancreas, adrenocortical, small bowel, sarcoma, mesothelioma, melanoma, gastric, and germ cell tumors. In these patients with non-CRC/EC tumors, 45% (15 of 33) did not meet LS genetic testing criteria on the basis of personal/family history. Immunohistochemical staining of LS-positive MSI-H/I tumors demonstrated MMR-D in 98.2% (56 of 57) of available cases. CONCLUSION: MSI-H/MMR-D is predictive of LS across a much broader tumor spectrum than currently appreciated. Given implications for cancer surveillance and prevention measures in affected families, these data support germline genetic assessment for LS for patients with an MSI-H/MMR-D tumor, regardless of cancer type or family cancer history.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Transcriptoma
16.
Hum Pathol ; 83: 1-6, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121369

RESUMO

Mutations of Hepatocyte-Nuclear-Factor-1-Homeobox-A (HNF1A) gene and loss of Liver-Fatty-Acid-Binding-Protein (LFABP) are well documented in hepatocellular adenoma. However, the role of HNF1A mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma remains to be determined. In this study, all hepatocellular neoplasms evaluated by our institutional Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutational Profiling of Actionable Clinical Targets assay or the Cancer Genome Atlas sequencing, and cases reported in the literature, were queried for HNF1A mutations. Together, 11 of 672 (1.6%) hepatocellular carcinomas harbored HNF1A mutations. The single case from our institution (n = 153) was extremely well differentiated, arising in a background of adenomatosis. Both the adenoma and carcinoma component contained the same 2 somatic HNF1A mutations (p. E32* and L214Q), with loss of LFABP. From the literature, 2 of 146 (1.4%) hepatocellular carcinomas had HNF1A mutations, and both arose in a background of adenomatosis. Information on pre-existing adenoma for the remaining cases (8/373, from The Cancer Genome Atlas) was not available. HNF1A mutations in carcinomas were associated with negative viral hepatitis status (p = .004), mutually exclusive with catenin beta-1 (CTNNB1) hotspot mutations, and trended to occur more in females (p = .06) and without cirrhosis (p = .03). Grade was not associated with HNF1A status (p = .28). Somatic HNF1A mutations occur in approximately 1% to 2% of hepatocellular carcinoma, often in a background of adenomatosis. Our findings suggest that malignant transformation of HNF1A-mutated hepatocellular adenoma occurs, albeit infrequently. Hepatocellular adenomas with HNF1A mutation or adenomatosis with loss of LFABP warrant thorough sampling and examination.


Assuntos
Adenoma de Células Hepáticas/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Adenoma de Células Hepáticas/genética , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 173(1): 79-86, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255452

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mutations in PALB2 have been associated with a predisposition to breast and pancreatic cancers. This study aims to characterize a novel PALB2 synonymous variant c.18G>T (p.Gly6=) identified in a family with pancreatic and breast cancers. METHODS: The PALB2 c.18G>T (p.Gly6=) variant in this family was identified using Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT™). RT-PCR and subsequent cloning were performed to investigate whether this variant affects normal splicing. RESULTS: This variant completely disrupts normal splicing and leads to several abnormal transcripts, which presumably leads to premature protein truncation. The major abnormal transcript resulted in a deletion of 32 base pairs in exon 1 and frameshift. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the PALB2 c.18G>T (p.Gly6=) variant is likely pathogenic. This study provided important laboratory evidence for classification of this variant and guided improved patient management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas , Adulto , Éxons , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Linhagem
18.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1542-1552, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311369

RESUMO

In its landmark paper about Standards and Guidelines for the Interpretation of Sequence Variants, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), and Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) did not address how to use tumor data when assessing the pathogenicity of germline variants. The Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) established a multidisciplinary working group, the Germline/Somatic Variant Subcommittee (GSVS) with this focus. The GSVS implemented a survey to determine current practices of integrating somatic data when classifying germline variants in cancer predisposition genes. The GSVS then reviewed and analyzed available resources of relevant somatic data, and performed integrative germline variant curation exercises. The committee determined that somatic hotspots could be systematically integrated into moderate evidence of pathogenicity (PM1). Tumor RNA sequencing data showing altered splicing may be considered as strong evidence in support of germline pathogenicity (PVS1) and tumor phenotypic features such as mutational signatures be considered supporting evidence of pathogenicity (PP4). However, at present, somatic data such as focal loss of heterozygosity and mutations occurring on the alternative allele are not recommended to be systematically integrated, instead, incorporation of this type of data should take place under the advisement of multidisciplinary cancer center tumor-normal sequencing boards.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Mutação/genética , Alelos , Biologia Computacional , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genômica , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068732

RESUMO

Mutations in succinate dehydrogenase complex genes predispose to familial paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndrome (FPG) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Here we describe cancer patients undergoing agnostic germline testing at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and found to harbor germline SDHA mutations. Using targeted sequencing covering the cancer census genes, we identified 10 patients with SDHA germline mutations. Cancer diagnoses for these patients carrying SDHA germline mutations included neuroblastoma (n = 1), breast (n = 1), colon (n = 1), renal (n = 1), melanoma and uterine (n = 1), prostate (n = 1), endometrial (n = 1), bladder (n = 1), and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) (n = 2). Immunohistochemical staining and assessment of patient tumors for second hits and loss of heterozygosity in SDHA confirmed GIST as an SDHA-associated tumor and suggests SDHA germline mutations may be a driver in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(9): 1228-1235, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978187

RESUMO

Importance: Identification of patients with hereditary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is important for cancer screening and, in patients with advanced disease, for guiding treatment. The prevalence of cancer-related germline mutations in patients with advanced RCC and the phenotypes associated with some rare mutations are unknown. Objectives: To examine the prevalence of germline mutations in both known RCC predisposition genes and other cancer-associated genes and to identify clinical and pathologic factors associated with germline mutations. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study conducted from October 1, 2015, to July 31, 2017, 254 of 267 patients with advanced (American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III or IV) RCC who were seen in medical oncology or urology clinics agreed to germline sequencing and disclosure of results under an institutional protocol of matched tumor-germline DNA sequencing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mutation prevalence and spectrum in patients with advanced RCC were determined. Clinical characteristics were assessed by mutation status. Results: Of the 254 patients (median age [range], 56 [13-79] years; 179 [70.5%] male; 211 [83.1%] non-Hispanic white), germline mutations were identified in 41 (16.1%); 14 (5.5%) had mutations in syndromic RCC-associated genes (7 in FH, 3 in BAP1, and 1 each in VHL, MET, SDHA, and SDHB). The most frequent mutations were CHEK2 (n = 9) and FH (n = 7). Of genes not previously associated with RCC risk, CHEK2 was overrepresented in patients compared with the general population, with an odds ratio of RCC of 3.0 (95% CI, 1.3-5.8; P = .003). Patients with non-clear cell RCC were significantly more likely to have an RCC-associated gene mutation (9 [11.7%] of 74 vs 3 [1.7%] of 177; P = .001), and 8 (10.0%) had a mutation in a gene that could guide therapy. Of patients with mutations in RCC-associated genes, 5 (35.7%) failed to meet current clinical guidelines for genetic testing. Conclusions and Relevance: Of patients with non-clear cell RCC, more than 20% had a germline mutation, of which half had the potential to direct systemic therapy. Current referral criteria for genetic testing did not identify a substantial portion of patients with mutations, supporting the role of a more inclusive sequencing approach.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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