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1.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-23, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We identified common and unique barriers and facilitators of evidence-based suicide prevention practices across primary care practices with integrated behavioral health services and specialty mental health settings to identify generalizable strategies for enhancing future implementation efforts. METHOD: Twenty-six clinicians and practice leaders from behavioral health (n = 2 programs) and primary care (n = 4 clinics) settings participated. Participation included a semi-structured qualitative interview on barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based suicide prevention practices. Within that interview, clinicians participated in a chart-stimulated recall exercise to gather additional information about decision making regarding suicide screening. Interview guides and qualitative coding were informed by leading frameworks in implementation science and behavioral science, and an integrated approach to interpreting qualitative results was used. RESULTS: There were a number of similar themes associated with implementation of suicide prevention practices across settings and clinician types, such as the benefits of inter-professional collaboration and uncertainties about managing suicidality once risk was disclosed. Clinicians also highlighted barriers unique to their settings. For primary care settings, time constraints and competing demands were consistently described as barriers. For specialty mental health settings, difficulties coordinating care with schools and other providers in the community made implementation of suicide prevention practices challenging. CONCLUSION: Findings can inform the development and testing of implementation strategies that are generalizable across primary care and specialty mental health settings, as well as those tailored for unique site needs, to enhance use of evidence-based suicide prevention practices in settings where individuals at risk for suicide are especially likely to present.HIGHLIGHTSWe examined barriers and facilitators to suicide prevention across health settings.Common and unique barriers and facilitators across health-care settings emerged.Findings can enhance suicide prevention implementation across health-care settings.

2.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529251

RESUMO

Autistic individuals who are also people of color or from lower socioeconomic strata are historically underrepresented in research. Lack of representation in autism research has contributed to health and healthcare disparities. Reducing these disparities will require culturally competent research that is relevant to under-resourced communities as well as collecting large nationally representative samples, or samples in which traditionally disenfranchised groups are over-represented. To achieve these goals, a diverse group of culturally competent researchers must partner with and gain the trust of communities to identify and eliminate barriers to participating in research. We suggest community-academic partnerships as one promising approach that results in high-quality research built on cultural competency, respect, and shared decision making.

4.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(10): 66, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402984

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This synthesis of recent mental health services research with autistic individuals presents significant advances, current gaps, and recommendations for improving mental healthcare for this population. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances include improved understanding of co-occurring mental health conditions among autistic individuals, a growing evidence base for interventions to address them, the development and implementation of new service models to support mental health for this population, and a substantial increase in mental health services and implementation research focused on autism. Ongoing challenges include a lack of mental health interventions designed for community implementation with autistic individuals, limited workforce capacity, complex and disconnected service systems, and racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in accessibility and quality of mental health services. Despite the advances in our understanding of mental health needs and mental health services for autistic individuals, several critical gaps remain. We encourage future efforts to develop and test interventions that can be used in community settings, train and incentivize the workforce to provide them, realign policies and funding with best practice, and embrace an equity-focused approach to autism research and care.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Longevidade , Recursos Humanos
5.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(10): 1199-1208, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hazardous drinking imposes a major public health burden worldwide, especially in low-income countries such as Mozambique. Implementation of the Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) approach to address problem drinking is recommended. However, evidence regarding the best strategies to implement SBIRT at scale is needed. METHODS: Guided by the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance model, the authors will conduct a 2-year, cluster-randomized, hybrid type-2 implementation-effectiveness trial in 12 districts in Mozambique evaluating implementation, clinical effectiveness, outcomes, and cost. Eight districts will be randomly assigned to a mobile application-based health SBIRT condition and four to SBIRT-Conventional Training and Supervision. Interventions will be delivered by clinic-based community health workers. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research will guide the authors' mixed-methods assessments throughout the study. RESULTS: The study arm showing better cost-effectiveness will be scaled up in the other arms' districts. During this 12-month scale-up phase, Ministry of Health personnel will be charged with providing training, clinical activities, and supervision in all 12 districts without research team support. The SBIRT scale-up phase is critical to identify facilitators and barriers for tracking internal and external factors in clinics that continue using the superior arm and those that switch to it. NEXT STEPS: In a multistep process with stakeholders from multiple sectors, outcomes and lessons learned from this study will inform the development of an implementation tool kit to guide SBIRT scale-up of community services addressing hazardous drinking in other low- and middle-income countries and low-resource settings in high-income countries.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Telemedicina , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Intervenção na Crise , Humanos , Moçambique , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta
7.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 129: 108377, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use treatment providers have increasingly developed novel engagement and low-threshold treatment services (such as mobile treatment units) to meet the needs of people with opioid use disorder (OUD). Use of these service models has outpaced the research on their effectiveness. The current study examines the effectiveness of a mobile engagement unit in connecting individuals with OUD to a treatment program. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 468 Medicaid-enrolled individuals served through a managed care behavioral health system. Analyses used administrative data from 2018 to 2019 to compare the characteristics and service use of individuals transported to an intake appointment by a mobile engagement unit with individuals who arrived through typical referral routes such as walk-in, other providers, and court order. The authors employed a difference-in-differences analysis to adjust for prior service history. The outcomes of interest were any utilization of substance use treatment services. RESULTS: The groups were virtually identical in age and gender, prior to matching, except for race where there was a lower proportion of Black individuals (17% versus 44%) and lower pre-service utilization of outpatient and methadone services by the mobile group. Following intake, mobile participants used significantly more outpatient substance use treatment services (23 percentage point relative increase) and methadone maintenance (32 percentage point relative increase) than the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that mobile engagement units designed to identify and serve individuals with OUD in the community hold promise for reaching underserved high-risk populations and reduce barriers to treatment entry and recovery.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
8.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966133

RESUMO

Using the 2008-2013 Medicaid Analytic eXtract files, this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the effect of Medicaid home and community-based services (HCBS) waiver programs on emergency department (ED) utilizations among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our study showed that the annual ED utilization rates were 13.5% and 18.8% for individuals on autism specific and intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) waivers respectively, vs. 28.5% for those without a waiver. Multivariable logistic regression showed that, compared to no waiver, autism specific waivers (adjusted odds ratio: 0.62; 95% Confidence Interval: [0.58-0.66]) and IDD waivers (0.65; [0.64-0.66]) were strongly associated with reduced ED. These findings suggest that HCBS waivers are effective in reducing the incidence of ED visits among youth with ASD.

9.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(10): 1219-1221, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853379

RESUMO

Evidence-based practices (EBPs) are frequently proposed as an approach to close the quality chasm in behavioral health treatment, and many U.S. municipalities are investing in EBPs as a primary way to improve the quality of care delivered to individuals most in need. In this Open Forum, the authors argue that EBPs often cannot be successfully implemented because basic organizational needs are not met in the current fiscal environment. The authors summarize research that supports why EBPs, along with other approaches to improve quality, are likely to fail until there is adequate financing. They also propose a policy and research agenda to ameliorate and address the fiscal challenges inherent in community mental health and substance use services.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
10.
Ann Fam Med ; 19(2): 148-156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We developed and implemented a new model of collaborative care that includes a triage and referral management system. We present initial implementation metrics using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. METHODS: Primary care clinicians in 8 practices referred patients with any unmet mental health needs to the Penn Integrated Care program. Assessments were conducted using validated measures. Patients were primarily triaged to collaborative care (26%) or specialty mental health care with active referral management (70%). We conducted 50 qualitative interviews to understand the implementation process and inform program refinement. Our primary outcomes were reach and implementation metrics, including referral and encounter rates derived from the electronic health record. RESULTS: In 12 months, 6,124 unique patients were referred. Assessed patients reported symptoms consistent with a range of conditions from mild to moderate depression and anxiety to serious mental illnesses including psychosis and acute suicidal ideation. Among patients enrolled in collaborative care, treatment entailed a mean of 7.2 (SD 5.1) encounters over 78.1 (SD 51.3) days. Remission of symptoms was achieved by 32.6% of patients with depression and 39.5% of patients with anxiety. Stakeholders viewed the program favorably and had concrete suggestions to ensure sustainability. CONCLUSIONS: The Penn Integrated Care program demonstrated broad reach. Implementation was consistent with collaborative care as delivered in seminal studies of the model. Our results provide insight into a model for launching and implementing collaborative care to meet the needs of a diverse group of patients with the full range of mental health conditions seen in primary care.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Ansiedade , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
11.
Autism ; 25(6): 1734-1745, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740869

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: This study looked at whether access to Board Certified Behavior Analysts for children with autism spectrum disorder is different between U.S. counties. The study included all U.S. counties and county equivalents in 48 states and D.C. (N = 3108). Between March and May 2019, we combined data from the U.S. Department of Education's Civil Rights Data Collection, Behavior Analyst Certification Board's certificant registry, and U.S. Census. We assigned Board Certified Behavior Analysts to counties based on their address, matched children in school districts to counties, and determined how many children with autism spectrum disorder there were in a county compared with how many Board Certified Behavior Analysts there were in a county. The results show uneven numbers of Board Certified Behavior Analysts between U.S. counties. More than half of all counties had no Board Certified Behavior Analysts. National maps illustrate clusters of high and low accessibility to Board Certified Behavior Analysts. To improve access to Board Certified Behavior Analysts in underserved areas, we must identify what contributes to the differences in access.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Terapia Comportamental , Certificação , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos
12.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 103: 106325, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with opioid use disorder (OUD) often have a co-occurring psychiatric disorder, which elevates the risk of morbidity and mortality. Promising evidence supports the use of collaborative care for treating people with OUD in primary care. Whether collaborative care interventions that treat both OUD and psychiatric disorders will result in better outcomes is presently unknown. METHODS: The Whole Health Study is a 3-arm randomized controlled trial designed to test collaborative care treatment for OUD and the psychiatric disorders that commonly accompany OUD. Approximately 1200 primary care patients aged ≥18 years with OUD and depression, anxiety, or PTSD will be randomized to one of three conditions: (1) Augmented Usual Care, which consists of a primary care physician (PCP) waivered to prescribe buprenorphine and an addiction psychiatrist to consult on medication-assisted treatment; (2) Collaborative Care, which consists of a waivered PCP, a mental health care manager trained in psychosocial treatments for OUD and psychiatric disorders, and an addiction psychiatrist who provides consultation for OUD and mental health; or (3) Collaborative Care Plus, which consists of all the elements of the Collaborative Care arm plus a Certified Recovery Specialist to help with treatment engagement and retention. Primary outcomes are six-month rates of opioid use and six-month rates of remission of co-occurring psychiatric disorders. DISCUSSION: The Whole Health Study will investigate whether collaborative care models that address OUD and co-occurring depression, anxiety, or PTSD will result in better patient outcomes. The results will inform clinical care delivery during the current opioid crisis. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT04245423.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 42(1): 23-31, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Guidelines recommend universal screening for developmental concerns in young children in pediatric primary care, with referral to early intervention (EI) as early as possible for children with a positive screen. However, participation in EI differs by child race, ethnicity, language, and sex. This study evaluated disparities in rates of referral to EI and estimated the factors associated with referral before and immediately after a positive developmental screen. METHODS: Children seen in a large primary care network that has implemented universal developmental screening were included if they screened positive on the Survey of Well-being of Young Children (SWYC) Milestones during a 16- to 30-month well-child visit (n = 7358). Demographics, screening results, and referrals were extracted from the electronic health record. RESULTS: Among children who screened positive, 17.5% were already in EI, and 39.9% were referred to EI during the visit with positive screen; 42.5% were not referred. In adjusted regression, the following factors were associated with being in EI before the positive screen: lower SWYC score and being male, older, and White. The following factors were associated with new referral to EI during a visit with positive SWYC: having lower SWYC score or lower income and being male, older, and Black race. CONCLUSION: The finding that White children were more likely referred before developmental screening and non-White children more likely referred at the time of positive screen suggests that screening decreases disparities by increasing referral for children with developmental delays from traditionally underserved backgrounds.

14.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 42(2): 109-113, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003116

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We present the case of a child of color diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at 67 months of age. Drawing from behavioral economics, we used this case to explore errors in decision-making by clinicians and family members and structural factors that may have delayed ASD diagnosis well beyond the national average.

15.
Evid Based Ment Health ; 24(1): 19-24, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the interim results from the training of providers inevidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) and use of mobile applications. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Partnerships in Research to Implement and Disseminate Sustainable and Scalable Evidence (PRIDE) study is a cluster-randomised hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial comparing three delivery pathways for integrating comprehensive mental healthcare into primary care in Mozambique. Innovations include the use of EBPs and scaling-up of task-shifted mental health services using mobile applications. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We examined EBP training attendance, certification, knowledge and intentions to deliver each component. We collected qualitative data through rapid ethnography and focus groups. We tracked the use of the mobile applications to investigate early reach of a valid screening tool (Electronic Mental Wellness Tool) and the roll out of the EBPs PARTICIPANTS: Psychiatric technicians and primary care providers trained in the EBPs. RESULTS: PRIDE has trained 110 EBP providers, supervisors and trainers and will train 279 community health workers in upcoming months. The trainings improved knowledge about the EBPs and trainees indicated strong intentions to deliver the EBP core components. Trained providers began using the mobile applications and appear to identify cases and provide appropriate treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The future of EBPs requires implementation within existing systems of care with fidelity to their core evidence-based components. To sustainably address the vast mental health treatment gap globally, EBP implementation demands: expanding the mental health workforce by training existing human resources; sequential use of EBPs to comprehensively treat mental disorders and their comorbid presentations and leveraging digital screening and treatment applications.

16.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 73(1): 30-38, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Youth with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) experience high rates of psychiatric comorbidities, which may affect medication adherence. We undertook this study to examine the association between psychiatric disorders and hydroxychloroquine adherence and to determine whether psychiatric treatment modifies this association. METHODS: We identified incident hydroxychloroquine users among youth with SLE (ages 10-24 years) using de-identified US commercial insurance claims in Optum Clinformatics Data Mart (2000-2016). Adherence was estimated using medication possession ratios (MPRs) over a 365-day time period. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the effect of having any psychiatric disorder on MPRs, as well as the independent effects of depression, anxiety, adjustment, and other psychiatric disorders. We tested for interactions between psychiatric diagnoses and treatment with psychotropic medications or psychotherapy. RESULTS: Among 873 subjects, 20% had a psychiatric diagnosis, most commonly depression. Only adjustment disorders were independently associated with decreased MPRs (ß -0.12, P = 0.05). We observed significant crossover interactions, in which psychiatric disorders had opposite effects on adherence depending on the receipt of psychiatric treatment. Among youth with any psychiatric diagnosis, psychotropic medication use was associated with a 0.15 increase in the MPR compared with no psychotropic medication use (P = 0.02 for interaction). Among youth with depression or anxiety, psychotherapy was also associated with a higher MPR compared with no psychotherapy (P = 0.05 and P < 0.01 for interaction, respectively). CONCLUSION: The impact of psychiatric disorders on medication adherence differed by whether youth had received psychiatric treatment. Improving recognition and treatment of psychiatric conditions may increase medication adherence in youth with SLE.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Infantil , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/psicologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Adm Policy Ment Health ; 48(2): 266-278, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653973

RESUMO

When parents and teachers align their practices across home and school, it may optimize services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Partners in School is a multi-faceted implementation strategy designed to improve ASD services in schools. The goal is to increase parents' and teachers' use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) and to align those EBPs across settings. We piloted Partners in School with 49 parent-teacher dyads to assess administration and the factors associated with reported fidelity to the model. Specifically, we measured the number of intervention steps both parents and teachers completed (reported alignment) and the characteristics associated with intervention alignment. Partners in School involves parent-teacher participation in a pre-consultation interview, an in-person consultation meeting, active implementation of the same EBPs in their respective settings, and a post-consultation interview. Parents and teachers also completed surveys pre- and post-consultation. On average, parents and teachers completed approximately five EBP steps on their own in their respective settings (i.e., at home or at school). Of these five steps, parents and teachers both completed three of the same EBPs steps, on average. Different factors were related to reported alignment for parents versus teachers; however, a similarity noted for both parents and teachers was that communication variables were associated with reported alignment. Our findings indicate the important role of communication in aligning stakeholders for ASD service delivery models.

18.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 51(9): 3341-3355, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219917

RESUMO

Racial and ethnic disparities in the use of nine common autism-related services among Medicaid-enrolled children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were examined, distinguishing between school and other community-based outpatient settings. Using 2012 Medicaid Analytic Extract data, we identified 117,848 continuously enrolled children with ASD. Several racial and ethnic disparities were found, varying by geography. Black, Asian, and Native American/Pacific Islanders received fewer outpatient services compared with white children, but there was no disparity for Latinx children. Black and Asian children received more school-based services than white children. Disparities in case management/care coordination services were largest and present in each minority group. Geographic variation in receipt of services suggests targets for policy intervention to improve access for minorities with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Criança , Grupos Étnicos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Medicaid , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Estados Unidos
19.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 120: 108176, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298303

RESUMO

Medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) are a first-line treatment for opioid use disorder, yet national surveys indicate that most substance use treatment facilities do not offer MOUD. This article presents the results of a qualitative analysis of interviews with leaders from 25 treatment organizations in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, that investigated attitudes and barriers toward MOUD. Most treatment organizations that we interviewed are adopting at least one MOUD, suggesting that Philadelphia exceeds the national average of organizations with MOUD capacity. Leaders indicated that both practical resources and ideological barriers thwart adoption and implementation of MOUD in publicly funded substance use disorder treatment agencies. Organizations that had recently adopted MOUDs revealed facilitators to MOUD adoption, such as strong leadership that champions the implementation to staff and redefining recovery from substance use disorders throughout the organization. This study's findings highlight that clients, clinicians, and leadership need to address both practical and ideological barriers to expanding MOUD use.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Humanos , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Pennsylvania
20.
Implement Sci Commun ; 1: 81, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005900

RESUMO

Background: Behavioral intention (which captures one's level of motivation to perform a behavior) is considered a causal and proximal mechanism influencing the use of evidence-based practice (EBP). Implementation studies have measured intention differently, and it is unclear which is most predictive. Some use items referring to "evidence-based practice" in general, whereas others refer to a specific EBP. There are also unresolved debates about whether item stems should be worded "I intend to," "I will," or "How likely are you to" and if a single-item measure can suffice. Using each stem to refer to either a specific EBP or to "evidence-based practice," this study compares the ability of these commonly used measures to predict future EBP implementation. The predictive validity is important for causal model testing and the development of effective implementation strategies. Methods: A longitudinal study enrolled 70 teachers to track their use of two EBPs and compare the predictive validity of six different items measuring teachers' intention. The measures differ by whether an item refers to a specific EBP, or to "evidence-based practices" in general, and whether the stem is worded in one of the three ways: "I intend to," "I will," or "How likely are you to." For each item, linear regressions estimated the variance in future behavior explained. We also compared the predictive validity of a single item versus an aggregate of items by inter-correlating the items using different stems and estimating the explained variance in EBP implementation. Results: Depending on the EBP and how intention was measured, the explained variance in implementation ranged from 3.5 to 29.0%. Measures that referred to a specific EBP, rather than "evidence-based practices" in general, accounted for more variance in implementation (e.g., 29.0% vs. 8.6%, and 11.3% vs. 3.5%). The predictive validity varied depending on whether stems were worded "I intend to," "I will," or "How likely are you to." Conclusions: The observed strength of the association between intentions and EBP use will depend on how intention is measured. The association was much stronger if an item referred to a specific EBP, rather than EBP in general. To predict implementation, the results support using an aggregate of two or three intention items that refer to the specific EBP. An even more pragmatic measure of intention consisting of a single item can also predict implementation. As discussed, the relationship will also vary depending on the EBP, which has direct implications for causal model testing and the design of implementation strategies.

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