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1.
Implement Sci Commun ; 3(1): 1, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sustained delivery of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) is essential to addressing the public health and economic impacts of youth mental health problems, but is complicated by the limited and fragmented funding available to youth mental health service agencies (hereafter, "service agencies"). Strategic planning tools are needed that can guide these service agencies in their coordination of sustainable funding for EBTs. This protocol describes a mixed-methods research project designed to (1) develop and (2) evaluate our novel fiscal mapping process that guides strategic planning efforts to finance the sustainment of EBTs in youth mental health services. METHOD: Participants will be 48 expert stakeholder participants, including representatives from ten service agencies and their partners from funding agencies (various public and private sources) and intermediary organizations (which provide guidance and support on the delivery of specific EBTs). Aim 1 is to develop the fiscal mapping process: a multi-step, structured tool that guides service agencies in selecting the optimal combination of strategies for financing their EBT sustainment efforts. We will adapt the fiscal mapping process from an established intervention mapping process and will incorporate an existing compilation of 23 financing strategies. We will then engage participants in a modified Delphi exercise to achieve consensus on the fiscal mapping process steps and gather information that can inform the selection of strategies. Aim 2 is to evaluate preliminary impacts of the fiscal mapping process on service agencies' EBT sustainment capacities (i.e., structures and processes that support sustainment) and outcomes (e.g., intentions to sustain). The ten agencies will pilot test the fiscal mapping process. We will evaluate how the fiscal mapping process impacts EBT sustainment capacities and outcomes using a comparative case study approach, incorporating data from focus groups and document review. After pilot testing, the stakeholder participants will conceptualize the process and outcomes of fiscal mapping in a participatory modeling exercise to help inform future use and evaluation of the tool. DISCUSSION: This project will generate the fiscal mapping process, which will facilitate the coordination of an array of financing strategies to sustain EBTs in community youth mental health services. This tool will promote the sustainment of youth-focused EBTs.

2.
Autism ; : 13623613211059499, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866429

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: Providers' beliefs about an intervention's fit with a family can affect whether or not they use that intervention with a family. The factors that affect providers' decisions to use evidence-based practices for young autistic children have not been studied. These factors may play a role in the major differences we see in the quality of and access to early intervention services in the community. We looked at differences in providers' use of caregiver coaching, an evidence-based practice, with families from minority or vulnerable backgrounds, and the possible reasons for those differences. We did this to figure out what factors affect providers' use of caregiver coaching. We interviewed 36 early intervention providers from early intervention agencies in two different parts of the United States. Providers pointed out things like what they thought about a family's circumstances that affected their beliefs about how well coaching fits with minority and vulnerable families. Our findings bring attention to these beliefs that likely make accessing evidence-based practices for minority and vulnerable families harder and lessen the quality of care for these families of young autistic children. These findings highlight the need to come up with and use strategies to improve both access to and the quality of evidence-based practices for young autistic children from minority and vulnerable groups.

3.
Am J Manag Care ; 27(12): e429-e434, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889586

RESUMO

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is an urban epicenter of the opioid epidemic, and inappropriate opioid prescribing remains a top concern. To help address this issue, the Philadelphia Medicaid Opioid Prescribing Initiative, a type of community quality collaborative, mailed thousands of local Medicaid providers an individualized prescribing report card in 2017 and 2018. The report card featured details of providers' opioid prescribing, including peer comparison measures and inappropriate prescribing measures like concomitant opioid and benzodiazepine prescribing. This case study describes the unique process of developing and distributing the opioid prescribing report cards, with a particular focus on the role of Medicaid managed care organizations. Using Medicaid pharmacy claims, the extensive variation in prescribing measures within and across specialties is also illustrated. The report card's implementation points to the potential value of collaborations between public health departments and Medicaid managed care organizations and can provide insight for other locally grown policies.

4.
Implement Sci Commun ; 2(1): 144, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advancing causal implementation theory is critical for designing tailored implementation strategies that target specific mechanisms associated with evidence-based practice (EBP) use. This study will test the generalizability of a conceptual model that integrates organizational constructs and behavioral theory to predict clinician use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) techniques in community mental health centers. CBT is a leading psychosocial EBP for psychiatric disorders that remains underused despite substantial efforts to increase its implementation. METHODS: We will leverage ongoing CBT implementation efforts in two large public health systems (Philadelphia and Texas) to recruit 300 mental health clinicians and 600 of their clients across 40 organizations. Our primary implementation outcomes of interest are clinician intentions to use CBT and direct observation of clinician use of CBT. As CBT comprises discrete components that vary in complexity and acceptability, we will measure clinician use of six discrete components of CBT. After finishing their CBT training, participating clinicians will complete measures of organizational and behavior change constructs delineated in the model. Clinicians also will be observed twice via audio recording delivering CBT with a client. Within 48 h of each observation, theorized moderators of the intention-behavior gap will be collected via survey. A subset of clinicians who report high intentions to use CBT but demonstrate low use will be purposively recruited to complete semi-structured interviews assessing reasons for the intention-behavior gap. Multilevel path analysis will test the extent to which intentions and determinants of intention predict the use of each discrete CBT component. We also will test the extent to which theorized determinants of intention that include psychological, organizational, and contextual factors explain variation in intention and moderate the association between intentions and CBT use. DISCUSSION: Project ACTIVE will advance implementation theory, currently in its infancy, by testing the generalizability of a promising causal model of implementation. These results will inform the development of implementation strategies targeting modifiable factors that explain substantial variance in intention and implementation that can be applied broadly across EBPs.

5.
J Educ Psychol Consult ; 31(4): 438-462, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955622

RESUMO

Partners in School is a consultation model with the goal of enhancing communication between two of the most important stakeholders in children's lives - parents and teachers. Using a single-group pre-post design, this preliminary study examined the effect of Partners in School on parent-teacher communication outcomes and the factors associated with these outcomes. Participants were 26 teachers and 49 parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Parents and teachers completed surveys before and after participating in Partners in School. Teachers reported an increase in their communication to parents. However, parents did not report an increase in their communication to teachers. Teachers' self-efficacy, expectations, and intervention fidelity were associated with increased communication to parents. Parental self-efficacy and teacher experience were associated with parents' reports of communication to teachers. Our findings suggest that family-school consultation services may be used to enhance teachers' communication with parents.

6.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 119, 2021 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) face access barriers to evidence-based treatment, and the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the United States (US) opioid overdose crisis. However, the pandemic has also ushered in rapid transitions to telehealth in the USA, including for substance use disorder treatment with buprenorphine. These changes have the potential to mitigate barriers to care or to exacerbate pre-existing treatment inequities. The objective of this study was to qualitatively explore Philadelphia-based low-barrier, harm-reduction oriented, opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment provider perspectives about and experiences with telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to assess their desire to offer telehealth to patients at their programs in the future. METHODS: We interviewed 22 OUD treatment prescribers and staff working outpatient programs offering OUD treatment with buprenorphine in Philadelphia during July and August 2020. All participants worked at low-barrier treatment programs that provide buprenorphine using a harm reduction-oriented approach and without mandating counseling or other requirements as a condition of treatment. We analyzed the data using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Our analysis yielded three themes: 1/ Easier access for some: telehealth facilitates care for many patients who have difficulty attending in-person appointments due to logistical and psychological barriers; 2/ A layered digital divide: engagement with telehealth can be seriously limited by patients' access to and comfort with technology; and 3/ Clinician control: despite some clinic staff beliefs that patients should have the freedom to choose their treatment modality, patients' access to treatment via telehealth may hinge on clinician perceptions of patient "stability" rather than patient preferences. CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth may address many access issues, however, barriers to implementation remain, including patient ability and desire to attend healthcare appointments virtually. In addition, the potential for telehealth models to extend OUD care to patients currently underserved by in-person models may partially depend on clinician comfort treating patients deemed "unstable" via this modality. The ability of telehealth to expand access to OUD care for individuals who have previously struggled to engage with in-person care will likely be limited if these patients are not given the opportunity to receive treatment via telehealth.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , COVID-19 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Telemedicina , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
7.
Med Care Res Rev ; : 10775587211051185, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632834

RESUMO

Enrollment in Medicaid facilitates access to needed services among transition-age youth on the autism spectrum and youth with intellectual disability (ID). There are long-standing programs to ensure that individuals with ID remain enrolled as they age; similar programs for autistic youth are newer, not as widespread, and may not be as effective. We compared Medicaid disenrollment and re-enrollment between transition-age youth on the autism spectrum, youth with ID, and youth with both diagnoses using a national claims-based prospective cohort study from 2008 through 2012. Autistic youth were most likely to disenroll and least likely to re-enroll. Disenrollment peaked for all three groups at ages 19 and 21. Transition-age youth on the autism spectrum experience more disruptions in access to Medicaid-reimbursed services than youth with ID. More equitable Medicaid enrollment options for autistic individuals are needed to ensure their access to critical health care as they age.

8.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-23, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We identified common and unique barriers and facilitators of evidence-based suicide prevention practices across primary care practices with integrated behavioral health services and specialty mental health settings to identify generalizable strategies for enhancing future implementation efforts. METHOD: Twenty-six clinicians and practice leaders from behavioral health (n = 2 programs) and primary care (n = 4 clinics) settings participated. Participation included a semi-structured qualitative interview on barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based suicide prevention practices. Within that interview, clinicians participated in a chart-stimulated recall exercise to gather additional information about decision making regarding suicide screening. Interview guides and qualitative coding were informed by leading frameworks in implementation science and behavioral science, and an integrated approach to interpreting qualitative results was used. RESULTS: There were a number of similar themes associated with implementation of suicide prevention practices across settings and clinician types, such as the benefits of inter-professional collaboration and uncertainties about managing suicidality once risk was disclosed. Clinicians also highlighted barriers unique to their settings. For primary care settings, time constraints and competing demands were consistently described as barriers. For specialty mental health settings, difficulties coordinating care with schools and other providers in the community made implementation of suicide prevention practices challenging. CONCLUSION: Findings can inform the development and testing of implementation strategies that are generalizable across primary care and specialty mental health settings, as well as those tailored for unique site needs, to enhance use of evidence-based suicide prevention practices in settings where individuals at risk for suicide are especially likely to present.HIGHLIGHTSWe examined barriers and facilitators to suicide prevention across health settings.Common and unique barriers and facilitators across health-care settings emerged.Findings can enhance suicide prevention implementation across health-care settings.

9.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716842

RESUMO

Participation in research can provide direct and indirect benefit to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), their caregivers, families, and society at large. Unfortunately, individuals with high support needs, including those with intellectual disability, cognitive disability or minimal verbal ability, are often systematically excluded from research on ASD. This limits the ability to generalize discoveries to all people with ASD, and results in a disparity in who benefits from research. This piece outlines the importance and extent of the problem, which is part of a broader lack of inclusivity in ASD research. It also provides examples of studies that have directly addressed issues that arise when conducting inclusive research and makes recommendations for researchers to reduce disparities in research participation.

10.
Implement Sci ; 16(1): 87, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation science studies often express interest in "attitudes," a term borrowed from psychology. In psychology, attitude research has an established methodological and theoretical base, which we briefly summarize here. We then review implementation studies designed to measure attitudes and compare their definitions and methods with those from psychology. METHODS: A recent review identified 46 studies empirically examining factors associated with implementation. For each of these studies, we evaluated whether authors included attitudes as a construct of interest, and if so, whether and how the construct was defined, measured, and analyzed. RESULTS: Most of the articles (29/46 [63%]) mention attitudes as an implementation factor. Six articles include a definition of the construct. Nineteen studies were designed to measure attitudes but lacked clarity in describing how attitudes were measured. Those that explained their measurement approach used methods that differed from one another and from validated methods in social psychology. Few articles described associated analyses or provided results specific to attitudes. Despite the lack of specificity regarding relevant measurement, analysis, and results, the articles often included causal conclusions about the role of attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Attitudes may be an important construct to implementation scientists, but studies to date are ambiguous in their definitions of attitudes and inconsistent in the methods used to measure and analyze attitudes. We discuss how implementation studies can apply psychology's standardized definitions, validated measurement approaches, and causal models that include attitudes. This application of attitude theory and methods could offer implementation research valuable scientific opportunities.


Assuntos
Atitude , Ciência da Implementação , Humanos
11.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529251

RESUMO

Autistic individuals who are also people of color or from lower socioeconomic strata are historically underrepresented in research. Lack of representation in autism research has contributed to health and healthcare disparities. Reducing these disparities will require culturally competent research that is relevant to under-resourced communities as well as collecting large nationally representative samples, or samples in which traditionally disenfranchised groups are over-represented. To achieve these goals, a diverse group of culturally competent researchers must partner with and gain the trust of communities to identify and eliminate barriers to participating in research. We suggest community-academic partnerships as one promising approach that results in high-quality research built on cultural competency, respect, and shared decision making.

12.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(10): 66, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402984

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This synthesis of recent mental health services research with autistic individuals presents significant advances, current gaps, and recommendations for improving mental healthcare for this population. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances include improved understanding of co-occurring mental health conditions among autistic individuals, a growing evidence base for interventions to address them, the development and implementation of new service models to support mental health for this population, and a substantial increase in mental health services and implementation research focused on autism. Ongoing challenges include a lack of mental health interventions designed for community implementation with autistic individuals, limited workforce capacity, complex and disconnected service systems, and racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in accessibility and quality of mental health services. Despite the advances in our understanding of mental health needs and mental health services for autistic individuals, several critical gaps remain. We encourage future efforts to develop and test interventions that can be used in community settings, train and incentivize the workforce to provide them, realign policies and funding with best practice, and embrace an equity-focused approach to autism research and care.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Longevidade , Recursos Humanos
14.
Value Health ; 24(9): 1245-1253, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452703

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Programmatic cost assessment of novel clinical interventions can inform their widespread dissemination and implementation. This study aimed to determine the programmatic costs of a telehealth Ostomy Self-Management Training (OSMT) intervention for cancer survivors using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing (TDABC) methodology. METHODS: We demonstrated a step-by-step application of TDABC based on a process map with core OSMT intervention activities and associated procedures and determined resource use and costs, per unit procedure. We also assessed per-patient costs from a payer perspective and provided estimates of total hours and costs by personnel, activity, and procedure. RESULTS: The per-patient cost of the OSMT was $1758. Personnel time accounted for 91% of the total cost. Site supervisor and information technology technician time were the most expensive personnel resources. Telehealth technical and communication equipment accounted for 8% of the total cost. Intervention coordination and monitoring efforts represented most of the total time cost (62%), followed by the intervention delivery (35%). The procedures with the highest cost were communication via phone or virtual meetings (24%), email exchanges (18%), and telehealth session delivery (18%). CONCLUSIONS: Future efforts to replicate, disseminate, and implement the OSMT intervention should anticipate funding for nonclinical components of the intervention, including coordination and monitoring, and consider how these activities can be performed most efficiently. For institutions without established telemedicine programs, selection of videoconferencing platforms and adequate staffing for participant technical support should be considered. Our step-by-step application of TDABC serves as a case study demonstrating how interventionists can gather data on resource use and costs of intervention activities concurrently with their collection of trial data.

15.
Health Serv Res ; 56(6): 1207-1214, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of Medicaid programs, including waivers, to address the needs of aging autistic individuals. DATA SOURCES: We gathered data on Medicaid programs in place between 2004 and 2015 for 50 states and the District of Columbia from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services website, by contacting state Medicaid administrators and advocacy groups, and by reviewing the Medicaid Analytic eXtract Waiver Crosswalk. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective analysis classified each Medicaid program and documented state changes over time in eligibility criteria: those serving autism spectrum disorder only, autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability, and intellectual disability only. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: We captured age and diagnosis eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs serving any of the three target groups. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 269 Medicaid programs met our criteria and most programs (51%) were 1915(c) waivers. The number of autism-specific 1915(c) waivers grew more than fivefold during the study period, outpacing increases in waivers serving individuals with intellectual disability. CONCLUSIONS: States varied in their use of Medicaid to address the needs of the aging autism population. Further study of characteristics of states that changed their Medicaid programs, and of the health care use and outcomes associated with these changes, are needed to identify opportunities to replicate effective approaches to meeting the needs of this population.

16.
Soc Sci ; 10(7)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305199

RESUMO

Children with autism situated in lower income families often receive intensive educational interventions as their primary form of treatment, due to financial barriers for community interventions. However, the continuity of care can be disrupted by school transitions. The quality of social relationships during the transition to a new school among parents, school staff and community providers, called the team-around-the-child (TAC), can potentially buffer a child with autism from the adverse effects caused by care disruptions. Qualities of social relationships, including trust and collaborative problem solving, can be measured using social network analysis. This study investigates if two different types of TAC relationships, defined as (1) the level of trust among team members and (2) the degree of collaborative problem solving among team members, are associated with perceived successful transitions for children with autism from lower income families. Findings suggested that TAC trust is significantly associated with the outcome of transition success for children with autism immediately post-transition.

19.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(10): 1199-1208, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hazardous drinking imposes a major public health burden worldwide, especially in low-income countries such as Mozambique. Implementation of the Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) approach to address problem drinking is recommended. However, evidence regarding the best strategies to implement SBIRT at scale is needed. METHODS: Guided by the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance model, the authors will conduct a 2-year, cluster-randomized, hybrid type-2 implementation-effectiveness trial in 12 districts in Mozambique evaluating implementation, clinical effectiveness, outcomes, and cost. Eight districts will be randomly assigned to a mobile application-based health SBIRT condition and four to SBIRT-Conventional Training and Supervision. Interventions will be delivered by clinic-based community health workers. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research will guide the authors' mixed-methods assessments throughout the study. RESULTS: The study arm showing better cost-effectiveness will be scaled up in the other arms' districts. During this 12-month scale-up phase, Ministry of Health personnel will be charged with providing training, clinical activities, and supervision in all 12 districts without research team support. The SBIRT scale-up phase is critical to identify facilitators and barriers for tracking internal and external factors in clinics that continue using the superior arm and those that switch to it. NEXT STEPS: In a multistep process with stakeholders from multiple sectors, outcomes and lessons learned from this study will inform the development of an implementation tool kit to guide SBIRT scale-up of community services addressing hazardous drinking in other low- and middle-income countries and low-resource settings in high-income countries.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Telemedicina , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Intervenção na Crise , Humanos , Moçambique , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta
20.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 129: 108377, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use treatment providers have increasingly developed novel engagement and low-threshold treatment services (such as mobile treatment units) to meet the needs of people with opioid use disorder (OUD). Use of these service models has outpaced the research on their effectiveness. The current study examines the effectiveness of a mobile engagement unit in connecting individuals with OUD to a treatment program. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 468 Medicaid-enrolled individuals served through a managed care behavioral health system. Analyses used administrative data from 2018 to 2019 to compare the characteristics and service use of individuals transported to an intake appointment by a mobile engagement unit with individuals who arrived through typical referral routes such as walk-in, other providers, and court order. The authors employed a difference-in-differences analysis to adjust for prior service history. The outcomes of interest were any utilization of substance use treatment services. RESULTS: The groups were virtually identical in age and gender, prior to matching, except for race where there was a lower proportion of Black individuals (17% versus 44%) and lower pre-service utilization of outpatient and methadone services by the mobile group. Following intake, mobile participants used significantly more outpatient substance use treatment services (23 percentage point relative increase) and methadone maintenance (32 percentage point relative increase) than the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that mobile engagement units designed to identify and serve individuals with OUD in the community hold promise for reaching underserved high-risk populations and reduce barriers to treatment entry and recovery.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
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