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1.
Neurol Sci ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is a common symptom during the trajectory of ALS, and it can significantly impact on the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Nowadays, no specific tool for the screening of dysphagia in ALS is validated, and the approach is heterogeneous across the Italian centres. OBJECTIVE: To validate the DYALS (dysphagia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) questionnaire, adapting the DYMUS (dysphagia in multiple sclerosis) questionnaire, for the assessment of dysphagia in ALS patients, in order to uniform the evaluations across the Italian ALS network. METHODS: We included 197 patients diagnosed with ALS following the El Escorial criteria, in sixteen Italian ALS centres between 1st December 2019 and 1st July 2020. For each patient, we collected clinical and demographic data and obtained ALSFRS-r score, ALSAQ-5 score, DYMUS score, and EAT-10 score. RESULTS: Across the 197 patients, the ratio M/F was 113/84, and the median age was 64 years (IQR 56-72.5). Bulbar patients were 20%, and spinal patients 80%. The median ALSFRSr total score of patients was 35 (IQR 28-39). DYALS score was statistically higher in bulbar ALS than in spinal ALS (median = 6, IQR 4.5-9 vs median = 1, IQR 0-5, z = 6.253, p < 0.0001). DYALS questionnaire showed a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88). There was a statistically significant correlation between DYALS and EAT-10 (rho = 0.90, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: DYALS scale is reliable, manageable, and easily usable for the screening of dysphagia in ALS. It can be shared with all the Italian ALS centres in order to collect uniform data for therapeutic strategies and clinical trials.

2.
Epilepsia ; 2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806176

RESUMO

Biomarkers of neuronal damage in status epilepticus (SE) would be of great relevance for clinical and research purposes. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels were measured in patients with SE (30 subjects), patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (30 subjects), and healthy controls (30 subjects). Serum NfL levels were higher in patients with SE (median = 26.15 pg/ml) compared to both epilepsy patients (median = 7.35 pg/ml) and healthy controls (median = 6.81 pg/ml; p < .001). In patients with SE, serum NfL levels showed a high correlation with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NfL (τ = .68, p < .001) as well as with CSF total tau (t-tau) levels (τ = .627, p < .001); they were higher in SE lasting >24 h (p = .013), in refractory/superrefractory SE (p = .004), and in patients who died within 30 days or who presented a worsening of clinical conditions (p = .001). Values of >28.8 pg/ml predicted 30-day clinical worsening or death (odds ratio [OR] = 10.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96-59.83, p = .006) and SE refractoriness (OR = 9.33, 95% CI = 1.51-57.65, p = .016). In conclusion, serum NfL levels are increased in SE and correlate with SE treatment response, duration, and outcomes, therefore representing a promising biomarker of seizure-related neuronal damage.

3.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829852

RESUMO

Objective: To assess whether phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNfH) can discriminate different upper motor neuron (UMN) syndromes, namely, ALS, UMN-predominant ALS, primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and hereditary spastic paraparesis (hSP) and to test the prognostic value of pNfH in UMN diseases. Methods: CSF and serum pNfH were measured in 143 patients presenting with signs of UMN and later diagnosed with classic/bulbar ALS, UMNp-ALS, hSP, and PLS. Between-group comparisons were drawn by ANOVA and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The prognostic value of pNfH was tested by the Cox regression model. Results: ALS and UMNp-ALS patients had higher CSF pNfH compared to PLS and hSP (p < 0.001). ROC analysis showed that CSF pNfH could differentiate ALS, UMNp-ALS included, from PLS and hSP (AUC = 0.75 and 0.95, respectively), while serum did not perform as well. In multivariable survival analysis among the totality of UMN patients and classic/bulbar ALS, CSF pNfH independently predicted survival. Among UMNp-ALS patients, only the progression rate (HR4.71, p = 0.01) and presence of multifocal fasciculations (HR 15.69, p = 0.02) were independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: CSF pNfH is significantly higher in classic and UMNp-ALS compared to UMN diseases with a better prognosis such as PLS and hSP. Its prognostic role is confirmed in classic and bulbar ALS, but not among UMNp, where clinical signs remained the only independent prognostic factors.

4.
Neurol Sci ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665352

RESUMO

Mutations in Matrin-3 (MATR3) gene have been described in ALS, suggesting a role for this gene in the disease pathogenesis. While most of MATR3 mutations are point mutations, here we report the first case of ALS associated with duplication in exons 15 and 16. The patient presented with limb-onset ALS and a complex past medical history because of Sjögren syndrome, antiphospholipid antibodies positivity, polyallergies, endometriosis, aldosterone-secreting adrenal cortical adenoma, congenital vesicoureteral reflux, and right breast hypoplasia. We discuss MATR3 effect in ALS and the role of this previously undescribed mutation in this peculiar ALS phenotype associated with systemic autoimmunity involvement.

5.
Front Neurol ; 12: 637939, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393966

RESUMO

Background/objectives: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating and still untreatable motor neuron disease. The causes of ALS are unknown, but nutritional factors may impact the rate of disease progression. We aimed to ascertain the influence of coffee and tea consumption on ALS progression rate. Subjects/methods: In this multicenter cross-sectional study, we recruited 241 patients, 96 females, and 145 males; the mean age at onset was 59.9 ± 11.8 years. According to El Escorial criteria, 74 were definite ALS, 77 probable, 55 possible, and 35 suspected; 187 patients had spinal onset and 54 bulbar. Patients were categorized into three groups, according to their ΔFS (derived from ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised score and disease duration from onset): slow (81), intermediate (80), and fast progressors (80). Results: Current coffee consumers were 179 (74.3%), 34 (14.1%) were non-consumers, and 22 (9.1%) were former consumers, whereas six (2.5%) consumed decaffeinated coffee only. The log-ΔFS was weakly correlated with the duration of coffee consumption (p = 0.034), but not with the number of cup-years, or the intensity of coffee consumption (cups/day). Current tea consumers were 101 (41.9%), 6 (2.5%) were former consumers, and 134 (55.6%) were non-consumers. Among current and former consumers, 27 (25.2%) consumed only green tea, 51 (47.7%) only black tea, and 29 (27.1%) both. The log-ΔFS was weakly correlated only with the consumption duration of black tea (p = 0.028) but not with the number of cup-years. Conclusions: Our study does not support the hypothesis that coffee or tea consumption is associated with the ALS progression rate.

6.
Biomedicines ; 9(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209688

RESUMO

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder with an unknown etiology and no effective treatment, and is characterized by large phenotypic heterogeneity, including variable sites, ages of symptom onset and rates of disease progression. Increasing data support the role of the microbiota-immunity axis in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we compared the inflammatory and microbiota profile of ALS patients with different clinical characteristics, with healthy family caregivers. Measuring a panel of 30 inflammatory cytokines in serum and fecal samples, we observed a distinct cytokine profile both at the systemic and intestinal level in patients compared to controls and even in patients with different clinical phenotypes and progression rates. The 16S targeted metagenome analysis revealed slight differences in patients compared to controls as well as in patients with slow progression, marked by the reduction of butyrate-producing bacteria and a decrease of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in ALS. Finally, the short chain fatty acid analysis did not show a different distribution among the groups. If confirmed in a larger number of patients, the inflammatory cytokine profile and the microbial composition could be appropriate biomarker candidates for deciphering ALS heterogeneity.

7.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(8): 1750-1754, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264016

RESUMO

Peripherin (PRPH), a type III intermediate filament, assembles with neurofilaments in neurons of the peripheral nervous system, including lower motor neurons (LMN). To evaluate the role of PRPH in LMN degeneration, we assessed PRPH and neurofilament light chain (NfL) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of 91 patients with motor neuron diseases (MND) and 69 controls. Overall, we found PRPH to be more concentrated in serum than in CSF. Serum PRPH resulted significantly increased in MND patients but it was unrelated to CSF-NfL or survival in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) subset. PRPH might represent a marker of LMN involvement.

9.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e048293, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011601

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic compelled health systems to protect patients and medical personnel during transit in hospitals by minimising transfers, prompting the use of telehealth systems. In the field of neurology, telemedicine has been used in emergency settings for acute stroke management between spoke and hub hospital networks, where good outcomes have been achieved. However, data on the use of telemedicine in non-stroke acute neurological conditions accessing the emergency department (ED) are currently missing. METHODS AND ANALYSES: This is an interventional, open-label trial on the use of teleconsultation in the ED for neurological diseases other than stroke. The study aims to develop a remote consultancy system (TeleNeurological Evaluation and Support, TeleNS) for patients with acute neurological symptoms referred to hospital facilities without a 24-hour availability of a neurologist consultant (spoke hospitals). The study population will include 100 ED patients referred to two spoke hospitals in 6 months, who will be asked to perform teleconsultation instead of inperson visits. As a control group, retrospectively available data from patients admitted to the ED of spoke hospitals during the same time period over the last 2 years will be evaluated. The primary objective is to assess whether a TeleNS for the ED guarantees a faster but qualitatively non-inferior diagnostic/therapeutic work-up if compared with inperson examination, assuring the availability of all the necessary examinations and treatments with consistent time-saving. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial was designed following the national guidelines on clinical investigation on telemedicine provided by the Italian Ministry of Health and according to the Standard Protocol Items for Randomized Trials statement guidelines. This research protocol was approved by Comitato Etico Area Vasta Emilia Nord in September 2020 (number/identification: 942/2020/DISP/AOUMO SIRER ID 805) and was written without patient involvement. Patients' associations will be involved in the dissemination of study design and results. The results of the study will be presented during scientific symposia or published in scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04611295.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Brain ; 144(9): 2635-2647, 2021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905493

RESUMO

Strong evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through altered regulation of proteostasis. Robust preclinical findings demonstrated that guanabenz selectively inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced eIF2α-phosphatase, allowing misfolded protein clearance, reduces neuronal death and prolongs survival in in vitro and in vivo models. However, its safety and efficacy in patients with ALS are unknown. To address these issues, we conducted a multicentre, randomized, double-blind trial with a futility design. Patients with ALS who had displayed an onset of symptoms within the previous 18 months were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive 64 mg, 32 mg or 16 mg of guanabenz or placebo daily for 6 months as an add-on therapy to riluzole. The purpose of the placebo group blinding was to determine safety but not efficacy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients progressing to higher stages of disease within 6 months as measured using the ALS Milano-Torino staging system, compared with a historical cohort of 200 patients with ALS. The secondary outcomes were the rate of decline in the total revised ALS functional rating scale score, slow vital capacity change, time to death, tracheotomy or permanent ventilation and serum light neurofilament level at 6 months. The primary assessment of efficacy was performed using intention-to-treat analysis. The treatment arms using 64 mg and 32 mg guanabenz, both alone and combined, reached the primary hypothesis of non-futility, with the proportions of patients who progressed to higher stages of disease at 6 months being significantly lower than that expected under the hypothesis of non-futility and a significantly lower difference in the median rate of change in the total revised ALS functional rating scale score. This effect was driven by patients with bulbar onset, none of whom (0/18) progressed to a higher stage of disease at 6 months compared with those on 16 mg guanabenz (4/8; 50%), the historical cohort alone (21/49; 43%; P = 0.001) or plus placebo (25/60; 42%; P = 0.001). The proportion of patients who experienced at least one adverse event was higher in any guanabenz arm than in the placebo arm, with higher dosing arms having a significantly higher proportion of drug-related side effects and the 64 mg arm a significantly higher drop-out rate. The number of serious adverse events did not significantly differ between the guanabenz arms and the placebo. Our findings indicate that a larger trial with a molecule targeting the unfolded protein response pathway without the alpha-2 adrenergic related side-effect profile of guanabenz is warranted.

11.
Life (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920645

RESUMO

Background-Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating and untreatable motor neuron disease; smoking and alcohol drinking may impact its progression rate. Objective-To ascertain the influence of smoking and alcohol consumption on ALS progression rates. Methods-Cross-sectional multicenter study, including 241 consecutive patients (145 males); mean age at onset was 59.9 ± 11.8 years. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption data were collected at recruitment through a validated questionnaire. Patients were categorized into three groups according to ΔFS (derived from the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised and disease duration from onset): slow (n = 81), intermediate (80), and fast progressors (80). Results-Current smokers accounted for 44 (18.3%) of the participants, former smokers accounted for 10 (4.1%), and non-smokers accounted for 187 (77.6%). The age of ALS onset was lower in current smokers than non-smokers, and the ΔFS was slightly, although not significantly, higher for smokers of >14 cigarettes/day. Current alcohol drinkers accounted for 147 (61.0%) of the participants, former drinkers accounted for 5 (2.1%), and non-drinkers accounted for 89 (36.9%). The log(ΔFS) was weakly correlated only with the duration of alcohol consumption (p = 0.028), but not with the mean number of drinks/day or the drink-years. Conclusions: This cross-sectional multicenter study suggested a possible minor role for smoking in worsening disease progression. A possible interaction with alcohol drinking was suggested.

12.
EMBO Rep ; 22(5): e51740, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738926

RESUMO

Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic condensates associated with protein misfolding diseases. They sequester stalled mRNAs and signaling factors, such as the mTORC1 subunit raptor, suggesting that SGs coordinate cell growth during and after stress. However, the molecular mechanisms linking SG dynamics and signaling remain undefined. We report that the chaperone Hsp90 is required for SG dissolution. Hsp90 binds and stabilizes the dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 3 (DYRK3) in the cytosol. Upon Hsp90 inhibition, DYRK3 dissociates from Hsp90 and becomes inactive. Inactive DYRK3 is subjected to two different fates: it either partitions into SGs, where it is protected from irreversible aggregation, or it is degraded. In the presence of Hsp90, DYRK3 is active and promotes SG disassembly, restoring mTORC1 signaling and translation. Thus, Hsp90 links stress adaptation and cell growth by regulating the activity of a key kinase involved in condensate disassembly and translation restoration.


Assuntos
Grânulos Citoplasmáticos , Transdução de Sinais , Citoplasma , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Fosforilação , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499343

RESUMO

(1) Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with still unknown etiology. Some occupational and environmental risk factors have been suggested, including long-term air pollutant exposure. We carried out a pilot case-control study in order to evaluate ALS risk due to particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) as a proxy of vehicular traffic exposure. (2) Methods: We recruited ALS patients and controls referred to the Modena Neurology ALS Care Center between 1994 and 2015. Using a geographical information system, we modeled PM10 concentrations due to traffic emissions at the geocoded residence address at the date of case diagnosis. We computed the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of ALS according to increasing PM10 exposure, using an unconditional logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex. (3) Results: For the 132 study participants (52 cases and 80 controls), the average of annual median and maximum PM10 concentrations were 5.2 and 38.6 µg/m3, respectively. Using fixed cutpoints at 5, 10, and 20 of the annual median PM10 levels, and compared with exposure <5 µg/m3, we found no excess ALS risk at 5-10 µg/m3 (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.39-1.96), 10-20 µg/m3 (0.94, 95% CI 0.24-3.70), and ≥20 µg/m3 (0.87, 95% CI 0.05-15.01). Based on maximum PM10 concentrations, we found a statistically unstable excess ALS risk for subjects exposed at 10-20 µg/m3 (OR 4.27, 95% CI 0.69-26.51) compared with those exposed <10 µg/m3. However, risk decreased at 20-50 µg/m3 (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.39-5.75) and ≥50 µg/m3 (1.16, 95% CI 0.28-4.82). ALS risk in increasing tertiles of exposure showed a similar null association, while comparison between the highest and the three lowest quartiles lumped together showed little evidence for an excess risk at PM10 concentrations (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.50-2.55). After restricting the analysis to subjects with stable residence, we found substantially similar results. (4) Conclusions: In this pilot study, we found limited evidence of an increased ALS risk due to long-term exposure at high PM10 concentration, though the high statistical imprecision of the risk estimates, due to the small sample size, particularly in some exposure categories, limited our capacity to detect small increases in risk, and further larger studies are needed to assess this relation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/induzido quimicamente , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Projetos Piloto
14.
Mol Neurodegener ; 15(1): 58, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059698

RESUMO

Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are etiologically and biologically heterogeneous diseases. The pathobiology of motor neuron degeneration is still largely unknown, and no effective therapy is available. Heterogeneity and lack of specific disease biomarkers have been appointed as leading reasons for past clinical trial failure, and biomarker discovery is pivotal in today's MND research agenda.In the last decade, neurofilaments (NFs) have emerged as promising biomarkers for the clinical assessment of neurodegeneration. NFs are scaffolding proteins with predominant structural functions contributing to the axonal cytoskeleton of myelinated axons. NFs are released in CSF and peripheral blood as a consequence of axonal degeneration, irrespective of the primary causal event. Due to the current availability of highly-sensitive automated technologies capable of precisely quantify proteins in biofluids in the femtomolar range, it is now possible to reliably measure NFs not only in CSF but also in blood.In this review, we will discuss how NFs are impacting research and clinical management in ALS and other MNDs. Besides contributing to the diagnosis at early stages by differentiating between MNDs with different clinical evolution and severity, NFs may provide a useful tool for the early enrolment of patients in clinical trials. Due to their stability across the disease, NFs convey prognostic information and, on a larger scale, help to stratify patients in homogenous groups. Shortcomings of NFs assessment in biofluids will also be discussed according to the available literature in the attempt to predict the most appropriate use of the biomarker in the MND clinic.


Assuntos
Filamentos Intermediários , Doença dos Neurônios Motores , Animais , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Prognóstico
16.
Cell Stress Chaperones ; 25(6): 1045-1058, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696179

RESUMO

Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic ribonucleoprotein granules induced by environmental stresses. They play an important role in the stress response by integrating mRNA stability, translation, and signaling pathways. Recent work has connected SG dysfunction to neurodegenerative diseases. In these diseases, SG dynamics are impaired because of mutations in SG proteins or protein quality control factors. Impaired SG dynamics and delayed SG dissolution have also been observed for SGs that accumulate misfolding-prone defective ribosomal products (DRiPs). DRiP accumulation inside SGs is controlled by a surveillance system referred to as granulostasis and encompasses the molecular chaperones VCP and the HSPB8-BAG3-HSP70 complex. BAG3 is a member of the BAG family of proteins, which includes five additional members. One of these proteins, BAG6, is functionally related to BAG3 and able to assist degradation of DRiPs. However, whether BAG6 is involved in granulostasis is unknown. We report that BAG6 is not recruited into SGs induced by different types of stress, nor does it affect SG dynamics. BAG6 also does not replace BAG3's function in SG granulostasis. We show that BAG3 and BAG6 target different subsets of DRiPs, and BAG3 binding to DRiPs is mediated by HSPB8 and HSP70. Our data support the idea that SGs are sensitive to BAG3-HSP70-bound DRiPs but not to BAG6-bound DRiPs. Additionally, only BAG3 is strongly upregulated in the stress recovery phase, when SGs dissolve. These data exclude a role for BAG6 in granulostasis and point to a more specialized function in the clearance of a specific subset of DRiPs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Ribossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Metallomics ; 12(5): 668-681, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373852

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by a loss of function of motor neurons. The etiology of this disorder is still largely unknown. Gene-environment interaction arises as a possible key factor in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We assessed the levels of trace metals, copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), of 9 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases and 40 controls by measuring their content in cerebrospinal fluid. The following trace element species were quantified using ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: univalent copper (Cu-I), divalent Cu (Cu-II), divalent Fe (Fe-II), trivalent Fe (Fe-III), divalent Mn (Mn-II), trivalent Mn (Mn-III), and also unidentified Mn species (Mn-unknown) were present in some samples. When computing the relative risks for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis through an unconditional logistic regression model, we observed a weak and imprecise positive association for iron (Fe III, adjusted odds ratio 1.48, 95% CI 0.46-4.76) and manganese (total-Mn and Mn-II; adjusted odds ratio 1.11, 95% CI 0.74-1.67, and 1.13, 95% CI 0.79-1.61, respectively). Increased risk for copper was found both in the crude analysis (odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 0.99-1.31) and in multivariable analysis after adjusting for sex, age, and year of storage (1.09, 95% CI 0.90-1.32). Our results suggest a possible positive association between Cu and genetic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, while they give little indication of involvement of Fe and Mn in disease, though some correlations found also for these elements deserve further investigation.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Cobre/metabolismo , Marcadores Genéticos , Mutação , Oligoelementos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Adolescente , Adulto , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Cobre/deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(11): e015119, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468902

RESUMO

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a comorbidity associated with heart failure and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Despite the Ca2+-dependent nature of both of these pathologies, AF often responds to Na+ channel blockers. We investigated how targeting interdependent Na+/Ca2+ dysregulation might prevent focal activity and control AF. Methods and Results We studied AF in 2 models of Ca2+-dependent disorders, a murine model of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and a canine model of chronic tachypacing-induced heart failure. Imaging studies revealed close association of neuronal-type Na+ channels (nNav) with ryanodine receptors and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Catecholamine stimulation induced cellular and in vivo atrial arrhythmias in wild-type mice only during pharmacological augmentation of nNav activity. In contrast, catecholamine stimulation alone was sufficient to elicit atrial arrhythmias in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia mice and failing canine atria. Importantly, these were abolished by acute nNav inhibition (tetrodotoxin or riluzole) implicating Na+/Ca2+ dysregulation in AF. These findings were then tested in 2 nonrandomized retrospective cohorts: an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis clinic and an academic medical center. Riluzole-treated patients adjusted for baseline characteristics evidenced significantly lower incidence of arrhythmias including new-onset AF, supporting the preclinical results. Conclusions These data suggest that nNaVs mediate Na+-Ca2+ crosstalk within nanodomains containing Ca2+ release machinery and, thereby, contribute to AF triggers. Disruption of this mechanism by nNav inhibition can effectively prevent AF arising from diverse causes.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Riluzol/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/farmacologia , Canais de Sódio/efeitos dos fármacos , Taquicardia Ventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Tetrodotoxina/farmacologia , Adulto , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Catecolaminas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Canais de Sódio/metabolismo , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/metabolismo , Taquicardia Ventricular/metabolismo , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Utah
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331298

RESUMO

Objectives: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease with still unknown etiology. We aimed at investigating the association between environmental and occupational factors with ALS risk. Methods: We performed a population-based case-control study in four Italian provinces (Catania, Modena, Novara, and Reggio Emilia) by administration of tailored questionnaires to ALS cases (n = 95) and randomly selected population referents (n = 135). We estimated ALS risk by calculating the odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) using an unconditional logistic regression model. Results: We found a positive association with disease risk for history of occupation in the agricultural sector (OR = 2.09, 95% CI 0.79-7.54), especially for longer than 10 years (OR = 2.72, 95% 1.02-7.20). Overall occupational exposure to solvents also suggested a positive association, especially for thinners (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.14-4.54) and paint removers (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 0.90-4.48). Both occupational and environmental exposure to electromagnetic fields show a slightly increased risk with OR = 1.69 (95% CI 0.70-4.09) and 2.41 (95% CI 1.13-5.12), respectively. Occupational but not environmental exposure to pesticides (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.63-2.37), particularly fungicides, and exposure to metals (OR = 4.20, 95% CI 1.88-9.38), particularly lead, mercury, and selenium, showed an imprecise but positive association. Finally, there was an indication of increased risk for living in proximity to water bodies. Conclusions: Despite the caution that needs to be used due to some study limitations, such as the low number of exposed subjects and the possibility of recall bias, these results suggest the potential role of some environmental and occupational factors in ALS etiology.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Exposição Ocupacional , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
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