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1.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 226: 113506, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Roma are Europe's largest ethnic minority. Their history has been shaped by marginalization, stigmatization, discrimination, slavery, persecution and murder, and to date, they continue to face prejudice and social exclusion. The Roma population is generally poor, living in crowded and low quality housing in segregated communities on the outskirts of cities, often lacking basic physical infrastructure, including adequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). To better understand the obstacles the Roma are facing, we aimed to review and synthesize available peer-reviewed literature, and identify obstacles to improvement. METHODS: We conducted the first systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on water, sanitation and hygiene among Roma communities in Europe, published between 2000 and 2020. A total of 30 publications met the inclusion criteria. We extracted data relating to WASH conditions and services, associated risk factors, exposures and outcomes, examined the role of cultural norms in shaping health behaviors, and obstacles to improvement. RESULTS: Our review shows that across Europe, Roma communities face more challenges than the majority population with respect to access to WASH, waste management and environmental hygiene, appropriate housing and hygienic living environments. Prominent themes in the literature to describe WASH conditions about European Roma populations include limited access, affordability, and quality of WASH services; self-management of WASH as response and adaptive tactic; unsafe WASH as a reason for eviction; and health risks associated with substandard WASH services. The same factors determining the poor quality of WASH services and environmental health impede their improvement. Major barriers to WASH access and affordability among the Roma include discrimination, social exclusion, lack of formal education, poverty, geography, legal and social aspects, and cultural perceptions of health risks, political top-down approaches, lack of political will, and lack of involvement of the Roma community in planning. Besides, Roma are not well represented in national statistics, with data collection being complicated not only by difficulties of access and underfunding, but also by distrust and culturally distinctive health beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: The situation and cultural context of WASH among Roma is challenging and complex. Our review demonstrates not only the urgent need for action for Roma communities in particular, but may have broader applicability to ethnic and social minorities in other parts of the world. Future research to overcome obstacles to improvement needs to be inclusive, and involve community members as key informants, with their participation enhancing the reliability of data, contributing to social justice and solidarity, disseminating information, contributing to feasible recommendations and implementation of interventions.

2.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 223(1): 289-298, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279687

RESUMO

In Urban Africa, water and sanitation utility companies are facing a huge backlog of sanitation provision in the informal settlement areas. In order to clear this backlog, new investment is required. However, to select appropriate sanitation technologies, lifecycle costs need to be assessed. The aim of this research was to establish lifecycle costs for appropriate sanitation technologies in informal settlement areas. Three sanitation options were compared: simplified sewerage, urine diversion dry toilet (UDDT) and Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) latrine. Three scenarios for simplified sewerage were considered; gravity flow into existing conventional sewers with treatment; new-build with pumping and treatment; and new-build gravity flow with treatment. The study revealed that simplified sewerage is the cheapest option for Soweto informal settlement, even when the costs of pumping and treatment are included. Gravity simplified sewerage with treatment is cheaper than the UDDT system and VIP latrine at all population densities above 158 and 172 persons/ha, respectively. The total annual cost per household of simplified sewerage and treatment was US$142 compared to US$156 and US$144 for UDDT and VIP latrine respectively. The costs of simplified sewerage could be recovered through a monthly household surcharge and cross-subsidy summing US$5.3 The study concluded that simplified sewerage system was the first choice for Soweto informal settlement areas, given the current population density.


Assuntos
Saneamento/métodos , Aparelho Sanitário , Custos e Análise de Custo , Saneamento/economia , Esgotos , África do Sul , Toaletes
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 331-340, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132712

RESUMO

The Solomon Islands, like other small island developing states in the Pacific, face significant challenges from a changing climate, and from increasing extreme weather events, while also lagging behind the rest of the world in terms of drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) services. In order to support planning for the implementation of national WaSH strategies and policies, this study contextualizes representative urban and rural baselines for Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 ("by 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation"). We highlight specific threats to the current sanitation services under extreme weather events such as flooding and drought, both of which are commonly observed in the country, and provide suggestions for structural improvements to sanitation facilities to increase resiliency. As the first detailed nationally representative cross-sectional sanitation study in urban and rural areas in the Solomon Islands, the results of this paper inform national WaSH policy, strategic planning and programming by the Solomon Islands Government and stakeholders.

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