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1.
Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028502

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of old age and frailty on complication rates after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to identify patients who underwent surgery for prolapse from 2010 to 2017. We compared our control group (45-64 years, index population) to those aged 65-79 years (elderly) and 80 years and older (very elderly). Frailty was assessed using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Modified Frailty Index-5. The primary outcome was the composite rate of serious complications and mortality. RESULTS: We analyzed 27,403 patients in the index population, 20,567 in the elderly group, and 3,088 in the very elderly group. The composite rate of serious complications in the index population was 4.5%, compared with 4.7% in the elderly group (odds ratio [OR] 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1) and 9.0% in the very elderly group (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.8-2.4). Compared with the index group, the very elderly group had notably elevated risks of cardiac complications (OR 11.9, 95% CI 6.2-23.0), stroke (OR 26.6, 95% CI 5.4-131.8), and mortality (OR 39.9, 95% CI 8.6-184.7). On multivariate logistic regression, the only age group independently associated with serious complications was the very elderly group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.01, 95% CI 1.8-2.3). The Modified Frailty Index-5 score was independently predictive of complications (aOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-2.0). Stratified analysis using interaction terms revealed the Modified Frailty Index-5 score to be predictive of complications in the elderly age group (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.6), but not in the very elderly group. CONCLUSION: Serious complications surrounding prolapse surgery increase substantially in the cohort of patients older than 80 years of age, independent of frailty and medical or surgical risk factors.

2.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(2): 483-484, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977789
4.
J Urol ; 203(1): 185-192, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347955

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sacral neuromodulation is a guideline recommended treatment of urinary dysfunction and fecal incontinence in patients in whom conservative treatments have failed. Historically sacral neuromodulation has been delivered using a nonrechargeable device with an average life span of 4.4 years. Surgery is required to replace the implanted neurostimulator due to battery depletion. Implantation of a long-lived implanted neurostimulator can eliminate the need for replacement surgeries, potentially reducing patient surgical risks and health care costs. The Axonics r-SNM System™ is a miniaturized, rechargeable sacral neuromodulation system designed to deliver therapy for at least 15 years. The ARTISAN-SNM (Axonics® Sacral Neuromodulation System for Urinary Urgency Incontinence Treatment) study is a pivotal study using rechargeable sacral neuromodulation therapy to treat urinary urgency incontinence. Six-month results are presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 129 eligible patients with urinary urgency incontinence were treated. All participants were implanted with a tined lead and the rechargeable sacral neuromodulation system in a nonstaged procedure. Efficacy data were collected using a 3-day bladder diary, the validated ICIQ-OABqol (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder quality of life) questionnaire and a participant satisfaction questionnaire. Therapy responders were identified as participants with a 50% or greater reduction in urinary urgency incontinence episodes compared to baseline. We performed an as-treated analysis in all implanted participants. RESULTS: At 6 months 90% of participants were therapy responders. The mean ± SE number of urinary urgency incontinence episodes per day was reduced from 5.6 ± 0.3 at baseline to 1.3 ± 0.2. Participants experienced a clinically meaningful 34-point improvement on the ICIQ-OABqol questionnaire. There were no serious device related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The Axonics r-SNM System is safe and effective with 90% of participants experiencing clinically and statistically significant improvements in urinary urgency incontinence symptoms.


Assuntos
Neuroestimuladores Implantáveis , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Sacro , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/fisiopatologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651539

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether levels of choline (Ch) and acetylcholine (Ach) differ between responders and nonresponders to anticholinergic therapy. METHODS: Patients prescribed an anticholinergic were evaluated using the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score; Medical, Epidemiologic and Social Aspects of Aging and Incontinence Questionnaire; and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7. A 1-day voiding diary and a urine sample were collected. After treatment for 12 weeks, the questionnaires were administered and 1-day voiding diary was completed. Levels of Ach and Ch were measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Subjects were divided into responders and nonresponders. Wilcoxon rank sum test and Fisher exact test were used to express differences between groups. Spearman ρ correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between Ach and Ch and symptom severity, patient demographics, and questionnaire scores. RESULTS: Thirty-one women were included in the analysis. The treatment response rate was 48.8%. The median age was 67 years (interquartile range, 50-76 years), and median body mass index was 32.3 kg/m (27.5-40.6 kg/m), with 41.2% having an additional complaint of stress incontinence. There were no significant differences in symptom severity or questionnaire scores between groups.The median Ch and Ach levels were higher in responders (28.6 vs 9.2 µL, P = 0.04) and (83.1 vs 18.7 nL, P = 0.02), respectively. Levels of both Ch and Ach had moderate positive correlations with the Medical, Epidemiologic and Social Aspects of Aging and Incontinence Questionnaire urgency urinary incontinence score (ρ = 0.533 [P = 0.002] and ρ = 0.453 [P = 0.01], respectively). CONCLUSION: In women with overactive bladder, urinary Ach and Ch levels are higher in responders to anticholinergic therapy compared with nonresponders.

6.
Obstet Gynecol ; 134(5): 946-957, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and externally validate a prediction model for anticholinergic response in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). METHODS: A machine learning model to predict the likelihood of anticholinergic treatment failure was constructed using a retrospective data set (n=559) of female patients with OAB who were treated with anticholinergic medications between January 2010 and December 2017. Treatment failure was defined as less than 50% improvement in frequency, urgency, incontinence episodes, and nocturia, and the patient's subjective impression of symptomatic relief. Patients were stratified by age (younger than 40 years, 40-60 years, and older than 60 years), and number of previously failed medications. K-fold stratified cross-validation was performed on each stratum using machine learning algorithms. Of these, the random forest model was the most accurate. This model was refined using internal cross validation within each stratum. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each stratum and used to identify the optimal operating points for prediction of treatment failure. The random forest model was then externally validated using a prospectively collected data set (n=82) of women treated with anticholinergic medications at a different clinical site between January 2018 and December 2018. RESULTS: The global accuracy of the final model was 80.3% (95% CI 79.1-81.3), and the AUC was 0.77 (95% CI 0.74-0.79). Using the external validation data set, the model's sensitivity and specificity was 80.4% (95% CI 66.5-89.7%) and 77.4% (95% CI 58.6-89.7%), respectively. The model performed best in women aged younger than 40 years (AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.81-0.84) and worst in women aged older than 60 years who had previously failed medication (AUC 0.71, 95% CI 0.67-0.75). CONCLUSION: Our externally validated machine learning prediction model can predict anticholinergic treatment failure during the standard 3-month treatment trial period with greater than 80% accuracy. The model can be accessed at https://oabweb.herokuapp.com/app/pre/.

7.
Int Urogynecol J ; 30(10): 1755-1761, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the presence of cerebral white matter disease (WMD) affects the response to anti-cholinergic medications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort of age-matched patients treated for OAB with anti-cholinergic medications between January 2010 and December 2017. Inclusion criteria were a chief complaint of OAB, never evaluated by a urogynecologist for OAB, treated with a maximum dose for a minimum of 4 weeks, and underwent head computed tomography (CT) within 12 months of starting therapy. Patients with WMD were matched 1:1 by age and number of prior failed antimuscarinics to controls with normal head CTs. Exclusion criteria included incomplete documentation of therapeutic response, non-WMD CT abnormalities, and non-idiopathic OAB. The primary outcome was anti-cholinergic treatment failure. Pairwise analysis between groups was performed using Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher's exact test where appropriate. Univariate logistic regression was performed, and any variable that was associated with treatment failure and a p value ≤ 0.2 was included in the multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS: Sixty-eight cases were matched with 68 controls. Patients with WMD were more likely to have undergone hysterectomy (57.4% vs. 41.2%, p = 0.04) and to use diuretics (31.1% vs. 19.1%, p = 0.04). Patients with WMD were more likely to fail treatment compared with controls (60.7% vs. 29.4%, p = 0.004). After adjusting for confounders, WMD was strongly associated with an increased probability of failure (aOR = 7.31, 95% CI: 1.49-12.20). Additional significant risk factors for treatment failure were the previous number of failed medications (aOR = 3.65 per medication, 95% CI: 1.48-9.01) and a rising HbA1c (aOR: 1.39 per 1.0% increase, 95% CI: 1.0-1.91). CONCLUSION: WMD is independently associated with anti-muscarinic treatment failure in women with overactive bladder symptoms.

8.
Obstet Gynecol ; 134(1): 141-148, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the decision-making process in women who do not pursue treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA, sacral neuromodulation, or percutaneous nerve stimulation in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). METHODS: This was a qualitative research study. Participants were females aged 18-80 years with a diagnosis of OAB and were evaluated by a urologic or urogynecologic physician between January 2017 and March 2018. Patients who were counseled for third-line therapy, refractory to two or more medications, or lost to follow-up after initiating a second medication were considered study candidates. Data were gathered using a semi-structured phone interview. Interview topics included medical knowledge and beliefs, quality of life, and treatment experience. The interviews were transcribed and coded thematically using grounded theory. RESULTS: Of a total of 381 women, 56 women qualified for our study. The average interview length was 30 minutes, and theoretical saturation occurred at 30 interviews. General themes included treatment delay, education, treatment attitudes, and office factors. The most common modifiable barrier to third-line therapy was insufficient in-office education. Participants expressed a poor understanding of the etiology, natural history, and treatment options for OAB. Participants were heavily influenced by outside factors including the opinions of friends and the media. Negative experiences with less-advanced options and treatment fatigue negatively affected participants' perceptions of third-line therapies. Office factors such as wait times and male physicians also negatively affected participants' ability to discuss their bladder symptoms. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, office education is tremendously important to patients' understanding of OAB, expectations of therapy, and treatment compliance. Education about third-line therapy counseling should be incorporated into the initial office visit. This may mitigate expectations, improve patient compliance, and promote graduation to advanced therapy in women who later go on to develop refractory symptoms.

9.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 221(5): 511.e1-511.e10, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain control after urogynecological surgery has traditionally been opioid centered with frequent narcotic administration. Few studies have addressed optimal pain control strategies for vaginal pelvic reconstructive surgery that limit opioid use. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether, ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol, a novel opioid-sparing multimodal postoperative pain regimen has improved pain control compared with the standard postoperative pain regimen in patients undergoing inpatient vaginal pelvic reconstructive surgery. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicenter randomized controlled trial of women undergoing vaginal pelvic reconstructive surgery. Patients were randomized to the ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol postoperative pain regimen or the standard regimen. The ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol regimen consists of around-the-clock ice packs, around-the-clock oral acetaminophen, around-the-clock intravenous ketorolac, and intravenous hydromorphone for breakthrough pain. The standard regimen consists of as-needed ibuprofen, as-needed acetaminophen/oxycodone, and intravenous hydromorphone for breakthrough pain. The primary outcome was postoperative day 1 pain evaluated the morning after surgery using a visual analog scale. Secondary outcomes included the validated Quality of Recovery Questionnaire, satisfaction scores, inpatient narcotic consumption, outpatient pain medication consumption, and visual analog scale scores at other time intervals. In all, 27 patients in each arm were required to detect a mean difference of 25 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale (90% power). RESULTS: Thirty patients were randomized to ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol and 33 to the standard therapy. Patient and surgical demographics were similar. The median morning visual analog scale pain score was lower in the ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol group (20 mm vs 40 mm, P = .03). Numerical median pain scores were lower at the 96 hour phone call in the ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol group (2 vs 3, P = .04). Patients randomized to the ICE-T regimen received fewer narcotics (expressed in oral morphine equivalents) from the postanesthesia care unit exit to discharge (2.9 vs 20.4, P < .001) and received fewer narcotics during the entire hospitalization (55.7 vs 91.2, P < .001). At 96 hour follow up, patients in the ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol group used 4.9 ketorolac tablets compared with 4.6 oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets in the standard group (P = .81); however, ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol patients required more acetaminophen than ibuprofen by patients in the standard arm (10.7 vs 6.2 tablets, P = .012). There were no differences in Quality of Recovery Questionnaire or satisfaction scores either in the morning after surgery or at 96 hour follow up. CONCLUSION: The ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol multimodal pain regimen offers improved pain control the morning after surgery and 96 hours postoperatively compared with the standard regimen with no differences in patient satisfaction and quality of recovery. Ice packs, Tylenol, and Toradol can significantly limit postoperative inpatient narcotic use and eliminate outpatient narcotic use in patients undergoing vaginal pelvic reconstructive surgery.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether utilization of apical suspension procedures at the time of vaginal hysterectomy for pelvic organ prolapse varies with surgeon specialty. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2014 to 2016. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification with a diagnosis of pelvic organ prolapse who underwent vaginal hysterectomy with any combination of pelvic reconstructive procedures. Propensity score matching using available preoperative clinical data was used to ameliorate selection bias by specialty at a ratio of 1 female pelvic reconstructive surgeon (FPMRS) surgeon to 2 obstetrician-gynecologists (OBG). Descriptive statistics were reported as means with standard deviations. Pairwise analysis using Student t test and Fisher exact test was performed where appropriate. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, there were 901 cases performed by FPMRS and 1802 performed by OBG. The overall utilization rate of apical suspension in the matched cohort was 81.7% for FPMRS and 19.8% for OBG (P < 0.001). Obstetrician-gynecologists were more likely to perform vaginal hysterectomy without apical suspension compared with FPMRS (44.3% vs 5.8%; P < 0.001) and were also more likely to perform nonapical vaginal repair without also performing an apical suspension, (17.7% vs 9.3%, P < 0.001), compared to urogynecologists. On multivariable logistic regression, having surgery performed by FPMRS was the only significant variable associated with an increased likelihood of undergoing apical suspension (adjusted odds ratio, 5.34; 95% confidence interval, 4.48-6.36). CONCLUSIONS: The FPMRS physicians are more likely to perform apical suspension with vaginal hysterectomy for prolapse repair compared with OBG.

11.
Int Urogynecol J ; 30(7): 1153-1161, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651517

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The current urogynecological surgical experience of recent OB/GYN graduates in different practice settings is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in urogynecological surgical care between private practitioners (PPs) and other generalist OB/GYN oral board examinees. METHODS: A total of 699 OB/GYN oral board examination examinees were administered a survey during board preparatory courses with a 70.7% response rate. The primary outcome was to determine differences in subjective reported performance of urogynecological surgery with and without apical support procedures (female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery, FPMRS, ± apical) between PP and generalists in other practice models (academic, managed care, other). Secondary outcomes included urogynecological case list reporting, referral patterns, and residency training. RESULTS: A total of 473 surveys were completed; after excluding subspecialists, 210 surveys were completed by PP and 162 by individuals in other settings. 6.7% of PPs subjectively reported that they perform FPMRS + apical surgery compared with 4.3% of those in other practice settings (p = 0.33). Although 29.2% of PPs reported adequate FPMRS training in residency compared with 39.7% of those in other practice settings (p = 0.04), 53.6% of PPs reported that they refer patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP), compared with 66.5% of those in other practice settings (p = 0.013). 38.9% of PPs report that they performed POP surgery compared with 27.8% of non-PPs (p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of practice setting, surgical volumes are low and few general OB/GYN board examinees report that they perform comprehensive FPMRS ± apical support surgery. The practice environment may affect providers' management of patients with pelvic floor disorders.

12.
Int Urogynecol J ; 30(3): 447-453, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656331

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Opportunistic salpingectomy (OS) at the time of benign hysterectomy has recently emerged as a potential primary preventive modality for ovarian cancer. Our objective was to determine whether the reported rate of OS at the time of prolapse surgery is similar to the rate of OS at the time of gynecologic surgery for non-prolapse indications. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was sent to the Society of Gynecologic Surgery members. Responses were divided into surgeons who did and did not perform OS at the time of prolapse repair. Differences between surgeons who did and did not perform OS were evaluated using the chi-square test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify which responses related to increased odds of performing OS. RESULTS: There were 117 (33.1%) completed responses; of these, 98 (83.8%) reported performing OS at the time of prolapse repair, which was similar to the reported rate of OS at the time of hysterectomy for non-prolapse indications, 82.1%. After multivariable logistic regression, performance of salpingectomy at the time of hysterectomy for a non-prolapse indication (aOR: 17.9, 95% CI: 3.11-42.01), use of a laparoscopic or robotic surgical approach (aOR 14.1, 95% CI: 1.81-32.21) and completion of an FPMRS fellowship (aOR: 3.47, 95% CI: 1.20-10.02) were associated with a higher likelihood of performing OS at the time of prolapse repair. CONCLUSIONS: OS at the time prolapse repair is performed more frequently with concomitant hysterectomy compared with OS at the time of post-hysterectomy prolapse repair and is similar to rates of OS performed at the time of hysterectomy for non-prolapse indications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/cirurgia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Profiláticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Salpingectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Bolsas de Estudo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Histerectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Fish Biol ; 94(1): 77-85, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421420

RESUMO

Reports were compiled of sunfish (family Molidae) by-catch in Peruvian small-scale fisheries and sunfish by-catch rates were estimated using data from shore-based and onboard monitoring programmes. A total of 114 sunfishes were reported in the longline and gillnet fisheries along the Peru coast from 2005 to 2017. Systematic monitoring effort of small-scale gillnets leads to an estimate of between 23 and 352 individuals captured annually by the fleet fishing from the northern port of Salaverry and central ports of Ancon and Chorrillos and suggests that the actual number captured by the Peruvian gillnet fleet is in the thousands of individuals. Thus, Peruvian small-scale fisheries have the potential to greatly affect populations of these still poorly studied species. Moreover, new occurrence locations are reported for the newly described Mola tecta, which was only observed south of 11° S. Because of physical similarities among Mola species it was difficult to identify sunfishes to the species level and thus further studies (e.g., genetics) will be required to provide more detailed information on individual species vulnerability to by-catch in Peruvian waters.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Tetraodontiformes/fisiologia , Animais , Oceano Pacífico , Peru , Densidade Demográfica
14.
Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg ; 25(5): 351-357, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Trainee involvement in surgical procedures has been associated with longer surgical times and increased rates of certain complications. There has been limited study of the impact trainee involvement has on outcomes in urogynecologic surgery. We sought to determine the impact of resident and fellow involvement in pelvic reconstructive surgeries on 30-day complication rates. METHODS: Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, patients who underwent pelvic floor surgery were identified between 2010 and 2015. Patients were stratified into 3 groups: no trainee, resident, or fellow involvement. The primary outcome was the composite complication rate. Three-group comparison was performed using Kruskal-Wallis analysis. If statistically significant, then pairwise analysis was performed between the reference group (attending alone) and experimental groups (resident or fellow). Additional pairwise analysis was performed between the fellow and resident groups. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with an increased risk of complications. RESULTS: Seven thousand seven hundred fifty-two surgical cases met all criteria for inclusion; 2440 (31.4%) included residents, and 646 (8.3%) included fellows. The median operating times were significantly higher in the resident and fellow groups compared with the attending-alone group (109 minutes [interquartile range, 55-164 minutes) compared with 110 minutes [interquartile range, 61-174 minutes] compared with 72 minutes [interquartile range, 38-113 minutes], P < 0.001). After multivariable logistic regression, trainee participation did not result in an increase in complication rate. Preoperative transfusion (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 7.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.03-30.09), coagulopathy (aOR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.74-5.82), nonwhite race (aOR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.31-1.89), insulin-dependent diabetes (aOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.03-2.72), American Society of Anesthesiologists class greater than 2 (aOR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.21-1.77), length of stay (aOR, 1.04, 95%CI:1.02-1.06), operating time (aOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03), and undergoing a sling procedure (aOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.41) were associated with higher complication rates. CONCLUSIONS: Resident and fellow involvement during pelvic reconstructive surgery is associated with longer operating times but does not increase the risk of complications within 30 days of the procedure.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effect of tamsulosin on postoperative urinary retention in female patients after pelvic reconstructive surgery. METHODS: Data were obtained from a retrospective, matched cohort of female patients who were admitted after pelvic reconstructive surgery at a single academic institution. Patients who received tamsulosin were compared with those who did not at a 1:4 ratio, matched by surgical procedure. Patients were excluded if they were discharged on the day of surgery or if an intraoperative complication necessitated prolonged postoperative bladder drainage. Information on demographics, preoperative diagnoses, prolapse stage, preoperative voiding dysfunction, urodynamic findings, intraoperative details, postoperative complications, and voiding outcomes up to 6 weeks after surgery was gathered. The primary outcome was postoperative urinary retention, defined by failure of an active voiding trial. RESULTS: Patients underwent surgery between January 2016 and March 2018. We identified 35 patients who received tamsulosin and matched to 140 controls. Patients in the tamsulosin group were younger; groups were otherwise similar. Patients who received tamsulosin after surgery were less likely to develop postoperative urinary retention (2.9% vs 24.3%, P = 0.004). After controlling for confounders, multivariable logistic regression identified tamsulosin use as the only independent predictor of postoperative urinary retention with a significant protective effect (odds ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.67; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic tamsulosin use may be effective in preventing postoperative urinary retention in female patients undergoing pelvic reconstructive surgery.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether levels of choline (Ch) differ in women with and without overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. METHODS: New patients were evaluated using the overactive bladder symptom score; Medical, Epidemiologic, and Social Aspects of Aging (MESA) urgency incontinence questionnaire; and Impact Questionnaire 7 and provided a urine sample. Patients were stratified into asymptomatic controls, scoring 0 on overactive bladder symptom score and the MESA questionnaire, and patients with OAB and urgency incontinence (OAB-wet). Patients with conditions predisposing to OAB or had a history of OAB treatment were excluded. Choline detection was accomplished using a commercially available kit. Wilcoxon rank sum test and Fisher exact test were used to express differences between groups. Spearman ρ correlation was used to determine the relationship between Ch and questionnaire scores. Logistic regression was used to identify significant variables associated with OAB. RESULTS: Sixty-three women were included in the final analysis. Patients with OAB-wet were older (P = 0.001), more likely to be obese (P = 0.04), had greater apical descent (P = 0.02), were more likely to be postmenopausal (P = 0.01), and were more likely to have stress incontinence (P = 0.005). Choline was 34.8% lower in OAB compared with the controls (P = 0.014). Lower Ch levels were associated with higher MESA (Spearman ρ = -0.311, P = 0.03). After logistic regression, lower Ch (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-0.98), age (aOR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.18), and body mass index (aOR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18) were significantly associated with OAB-wet. CONCLUSIONS: Choline levels are significantly decreased in women complaining of OAB with urgency incontinence, and lower levels are associated with higher MESA scores.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine if race affects complication rates after colpopexy. METHODS: This was an observational study exempt from institutional review board review. Data were obtained from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2010 to 2015. Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to identify patients with a history of colpopexy. Patients were stratified into 3 groups: White, Hispanic, and African American. Descriptive statistics were reported as means with standard deviations. Three-group comparison was performed using Kruskal-Wallis or 1-way analysis of variance. Pairwise analysis was performed with Student t test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, χtest, or Fisher exact test. Stepwise backward multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the composite complication rate. RESULTS: A total of 13,206 patients met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seven hundred thirty-eight patients (5.5%) were African American, and 1210 (9.2%) were Hispanic. The overall complication rate for African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites was 15.0%, 12.0%, and 11.5% (P = 0.006), respectively. The most common complication in the African American group was postoperative transfusion. Multivariable logistic regression found significant associations with perioperative complications and being African American (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.29), higher body mass index (aOR, 1.02), inpatient status (aOR, 1.45), coagulopathy (aOR, 2.77), preoperative transfusion (aOR, 5.09), American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or higher (aOR, 1.45), higher preoperative white blood cell count (aOR, 1.04), concomitant sling placement (aOR, 1.19), longer operating time (aOR, 1.003), and longer length of stay (aOR, 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: African Americans are at an increased risk of perioperative complications after colpopexy, although the reason for this increase is unknown.

18.
R Soc Open Sci ; 5(7): 180254, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109081

RESUMO

Bycatch in net fisheries is recognized as a major source of mortality for many marine species, including seabirds. Few mitigation solutions, however, have been identified. We assessed the effectiveness of illuminating fishing nets with green light emitting diodes (LEDs) to reduce the incidental capture of seabirds. Experiments were conducted in the demersal, set gillnet fishery of Constante, Peru and compared 114 pairs of control and illuminated nets. We observed captures of a total of 45 guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii), with 39 caught in control nets and six caught in illuminated nets. Seabird bycatch in terms of catch-per-unit-effort was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in control nets than in illuminated nets, representing an 85.1% decline in the cormorant bycatch rate. This study, showing that net illumination reduces seabird bycatch and previous studies showing reductions in sea turtle bycatch without reducing target catch, indicates that net illumination can be an effective multi-taxa bycatch mitigation technique. This finding has broad implications for bycatch mitigation in net fisheries given LED technology's relatively low cost, the global ubiquity of net fisheries and the current paucity of bycatch mitigation solutions.

19.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 34(10): 1771-1776, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29458265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous randomized controlled trials have reported a 6.1-6.9% incidence of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) following treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA in non-neurogenic overactive bladder (OAB) patients who were inadequately managed by ≥1 anticholinergic. A multi-center retrospective chart review assessed the real-world rate of voiding dysfunction requiring catheterization. METHODS: Patients received onabotulinumtoxinA 100 U (approved dose) administered by experienced injectors between January 2013 and June 2015. Patients using CIC or an indwelling catheter for ≥24 hours for voiding dysfunction prior to onabotulinumtoxinA injections were excluded. The primary outcome was post-treatment CIC (lasting >24 hours; per individual physician's clinical judgment considering patient's voiding symptoms, post-void residual [PVR] urine volumes and patient bother). Potential baseline predictors of CIC (history of pelvic prolapse, cystocele, diabetes, PVR urine volume and age) were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 299 patients received their first treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA 100 U. Mean age was 66.4 years; 98.3% were female. The incidence of CIC was 2.7% in the total study population after the first treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA. The de novo CIC rate in treatments 2 and 3 combined was similarly low (3.2%). None of the evaluated baseline characteristics were significant predictors of CIC initiation due to the low CIC incidence. CONCLUSIONS: This real-world study of non-neurogenic OAB patients treated with onabotulinumtoxinA suggests that the CIC rate is lower than the rates reported in previous studies. There were no significant correlations between baseline predictors and CIC initiation, although statistical significance may not have been reached because of the low incidence of CIC.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Cateterismo Uretral Intermitente , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/tratamento farmacológico , Retenção Urinária , Idoso , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Injeções , Cateterismo Uretral Intermitente/métodos , Cateterismo Uretral Intermitente/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Retenção Urinária/induzido quimicamente , Retenção Urinária/epidemiologia , Retenção Urinária/terapia
20.
J Urol ; 199(6): 1557-1564, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29175541

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The cough stress test is a common and accepted tool to evaluate stress urinary incontinence but there is no agreement on how the test should be performed. We assessed the diagnostic ability of different cough stress tests performed when varying patient position and bladder volume using urodynamic stress urinary incontinence as the gold standard. The 24-hour pad test was also evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited women who presented to specialty outpatient clinics with the complaint of urinary incontinence and who were recommended to undergo urodynamic testing. A total of 140 patients were randomized to 4 cough stress test groups, including group 1-a comfortably full bladder, group 2-an empty bladder, group 3- a bladder infused with 200 cc saline and group 4-a bladder filled to half functional capacity. The sequence of standing and sitting was randomly assigned. The groups were compared by 1-way ANOVA or the generalized Fisher exact test. The κ statistic was used to evaluate agreement between the sitting and standing positions. The 95% CIs of sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the Wilson method. ROC analysis was done to evaluate the performance of the 24-hour pad test. RESULTS: The cough stress test performed with a bladder filled to half functional capacity was the best performing test with 83% sensitivity and 90% specificity. There was no statistically significant evidence that the sensitivity or specificity of 1 cough stress test differed from that of the others. The pad test had no significant predictive ability to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence (AUC 0.60, p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Cough stress tests were accurate to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence. The 24-hour pad test was not predictive of urodynamic stress urinary incontinence and not helpful when used in conjunction with the cough stress test.


Assuntos
Tosse , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/diagnóstico , Urodinâmica , Adulto , Idoso , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Tampões Absorventes para a Incontinência Urinária , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/fisiopatologia
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