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1.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: After exceptional research efforts, several vaccines were developed against SARS-CoV-2 which sustains the pandemic COVID-19. The Comirnaty vaccine showed high efficacy in clinical trials and was the first to be approved for its distribution to the general population. We evaluated the immune response induced by the first vaccine dose in different sex/age groups and subjects with or without naturally present anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. METHODS: As part of an Italian multicenter project (Covidiagnostix), serum samples from 4,290 health-professionals were serologically tested the day of the first vaccination dose, and 21 days later, using two different instrumentations (Siemens-Healthineers and Roche). RESULTS: In total, 97% of samples showed the presence of specific antibodies 21 days after the vaccination dose; the percentage of non-responders increased with age in both genders. Remarkably, naturally seropositive individuals showed antibody persistence up to 11 months and an exceptionally higher vaccination response compared to subjects never infected by SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the importance of the serological test i) to identify naturally SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals and ii) to evaluate the antibody level elicited by the first vaccination dose. Both tests, highlighted differences in the immune response, when subjects were stratified by sex and age, and between naturally seropositive and seronegative subjects.The data obtained show how serological tests could play a crucial role in the triage of the population subjected to the vaccination campaign for COVID-19. The definition of suitable instrumentation-specific thresholds is needed to correctly follow eventually acquired post-vaccination immunity in the general population.

2.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(9): 1924-1928, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465694

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated 8, 12, or 24 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in patients with hepatitis C virus and end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis. METHODS: Primary efficacy end point was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment. Primary safety end point was treatment discontinuation because of adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Ninety-four percent (89/95) achieved sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment. Six patients died during treatment (n = 4) or before study completion (n = 2); no deaths were related to treatment. No patients discontinued treatment because of AEs. Thirteen percent had serious AEs; none were related to treatment. DISCUSSION: Treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir was safe and effective in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C/complicações , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Clin Chim Acta ; 522: 144-151, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vaccines, to limit SARS-CoV-2 infection, were produced and reliable assays are needed for their evaluation. The WHO produced an International-Standard (WHO-IS) to facilitate the standardization/comparison of serological methods. The WHO-IS, produced in limited amount, was never tested for reproducibility. This study aims at developing a reproducible and accessible working standard (WS) to complement the WHO-IS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sera from vaccinated individuals were used to produce the WSs. The WHO-IS, the WSs and single serum samples (n = 48) were tested on 6 quantitative serological devices. Neutralization assays were performed for the 48 samples and compared with their antibody titers. RESULTS: The WS carry an antibody titer 20-fold higher than the WHO-IS. It was reproducible, showed both good linearity and insignificant intra- and inter-laboratory variability. However, the WSs behave differently from the WHO-IS. Analysis of the 48 samples showed that single correlation factors are not sufficient to harmonize results from different assays. Yet, all the devices predict neutralization activity based on the antibody titer. CONCLUSIONS: A reproducible and highly concentrated WS, specific for IgG against SARS-CoV-2 Spike-glycoprotein was produced. Such characteristics make it particularly suited for the harmonization of commercially available assays and the consequent evaluation of post-vaccinated individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Testes de Neutralização , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452038

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinical significance and durability of serological response after mRNA COVID-19 vaccines is under investigation. Data on early virological response are limited. To iden-tify potential predictors of antibody durability, circulating antibody levels were longitudinally ex-plored in healthcare workers included in a follow-up program for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Meth-ods: Subjects meeting the inclusion criteria signed an informed consent. Serum samples were col-lected at baseline, before the first BNT162b2 vaccine, at days 7, 21, 31, 90, and 180 days after the first dose. Serological evaluation was performed by QuantiVac Euroimmune anti-S1 antibody as-say. Only subjects followed-up until day 90 are here considered. RESULTS: Of 340 taken into consid-eration, 265 subjects were naive, and 75 COVID-19 experienced. The former showed a progres-sive increase in their antibody levels before day 90 decline, while the latter showed antibody levels reaching a plateau at day 7 and slightly declining at day 90. All showed antibody levels higher than the assay cut-off at day 31 and 90. Among naive, 108 had an early response whose predic-tors were younger age and female gender (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.96, p < 0.0001; and OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.48-4.51, p = 0.0009). Naive subjects experienced a day 30/90 decline in antibody levels, whereas experienced did not. Early response was an independent predictor of higher day 30/90 antibody levels decline (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.04-4.02; p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that in healthcare workers early response might be inversely associated with antibody levels 90 days after BNT162b2 vaccine.

5.
Pathogens ; 10(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The WHO has solicited all countries to eliminate HCV by 2030. The Italian government started routine screening for HCV infection in January 2021, initially targeting subjects born between 1969 and 1989. With the aim of achieving micro-elimination, we designed a hospital-wide project focusing on inpatients born from 1935 to 1985 and conducted it in our institution. METHOD: All inpatients aged 35 to 85, admitted from 10 February 2020 to 9 February 2021 for many different diseases and conditions underwent HCV antibody (HCVAb) testing by third-generation ELISA. When positive, reflex HCV RNA testing and genotyping were performed. Clinical history, fibrosis diagnosis, laboratory data and concomitant medications were available for all. RESULTS: The HCV screening rate of inpatients was 100%. In total, 11,748 participants were enrolled, of whom 53.50% were male. The HCVAb positivity rate was 3.03%. The HCVAb rate increased with age and was higher for patients born between 1935 and 1944 (4.81%). The rate of HCV RNA positivity was 0.97%. The vast majority (80.70%) of HCV RNA-positive participants were 55 or older; in about 40% of cases, HCV RNA-positive patients were unaware of their infection. Although 16 patients died after HCV chronic infection diagnosis (two due COVID-19) or HCV treatment prescription (one due to COVID-19), 74.56% of patient HCV diagnoses were linked to HCV treatment, despite their co-morbidities. All patients older than 65 who died had an active HCV infection. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed a rate of active HCV infections among inpatients lower than what has been reported in the past in the general population; this appears to be a result of the widespread use of pangenotypic direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). The overall rate of active infection was lower than the rate observed in the 1935-1954 cohort. The high rate of inpatients unaware of HCV infections and the high number of deaths among subjects with an active HCV infection born from 1935 to 1954, suggest that, at least in southern Italy, targeted screening of this birth cohort may be required to reduce the number of undiagnosed cases and hidden infections.

6.
Pathologica ; 113(3): 170-184, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294935

RESUMO

Autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases are rare hepato-biliary disorders characterized by a progressive, inflammatory destruction of bile ducts. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are the main autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases. Both may evolve into secondary biliary cirrhosis and its complications. Therapeutic options are limited and liver transplantation remains the only definitive treatment for PBC and PSC.Most PBC and PSC patients have a typical presentation, which does not require liver biopsy. However, in routine clinical practice, important variants or specific subgroups that benefit from liver biopsy for proper management may be observed. Herein, we provide a general overview of clinical and pathological characteristic of PBC and PSC, highlighting the most important features for routine diagnostic practice.

7.
Pathologica ; 113(3): 194-202, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294937

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of different conditions which are characterized by hepatic steatosis in the absence of secondary causes. It is currently the most common chronic liver disease worldwide, and its estimated prevalence is about 1.5-6.5%. The only histological finding of steatosis ("simple" steatosis) represents the uncomplicated form of NAFLD, while non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is its inflammatory subtype associated with disease progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and represents the major indication for liver transplantation. NASH is still a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians and liver biopsy is currently the only accepted method to reliably distinguish NASH from "simple" steatosis. From the histological perspectives, NAFLD and NASH continue to be an area of active interest for pathologists, with a specific focus on better methods of evaluation, morphologic clues to pathogenesis, and predictors of fibrosis progression. This review focuses on histopathology of NAFLD in adults, with the aim to provide a practical diagnostic approach useful in the clinical routine.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281080

RESUMO

This Italian observational real-world study aims to assess in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients treated with pangenotypic direct acting agents (pDAAs) glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (GLE/PIB) or sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) the potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with concomitant medications prescribed, with a focus on cardiovascular and system nervous (CNS) co-medications. Data were collected from administrative databases covering 6.9 million health-assisted individuals. All patients prescribed SOF/VEL or GLE/PIB between 11/2017 and 12/2018 were included. Patients were analyzed while on DAA. DDIs were identified according to the Liverpool University tool. Overall, 3181 HCV patients were included: 1619 in the GLE/PIB cohort and 1562 in the SOF/VEL cohort. SOF/VEL patients were generally older than GLE/PIB ones (mean age 58.4 vs. 53.1, p < 0.001) and had more cardiovascular and CNS comorbidities (58% vs. 42%, p < 0.001 and 33% vs. 28%, p = 0.002, respectively). Contraindications due to DDIs in the GLE/PIB cohort affected 9.3% and 3.2% of patients before and on DAA, respectively, while the percentages in the SOF/VEL cohort were 3.2% before and 0.4% after pDAAs initiation. Among GLE/PIB patients, 2.7% had cardiovascular drugs (all statins) contraindicated while on DAA. The potential DDIs between cardiovascular drugs and SOF/VEL were mainly with statins (5%). SOF/VEL was prescribed in patients with older age and with more cardiovascular and CNS comorbidities. Despite this, a proportion of contraindicated drugs lower than that of GLE/PIB was registered.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Interações Medicamentosas , Genótipo , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(16): 1728-1737, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967553

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination by 2030, using direct-acting antiviral treatments, has been promoted by the World Health Organization. This achievement is not attainable, however, particularly after the 2020 pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019. Consequently, the more realistic objective of eliminating HCV from population segments for which targeted strategies of prevention and treatment are easily attained has been promoted in Europe, as a valid alternative. The underlying idea is that micro-elimination will ultimately lead to macro-elimination. The micro-elimination strategy may target different specific populations and at-risk groups. Different settings, including prisons and hospitals, have also been identified as micro-elimination scenarios. In addition, dedicated micro-elimination strategies have been designed that are tailored at the geographical level according to HCV epidemiology and individual country's income. The main elements of a valid and successful micro-elimination project are reliable epidemiological data and active involvement of all the stakeholders. Community involvement represents another essential component for a successful program.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente) , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Pathol ; 254(1): 80-91, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586163

RESUMO

Protein accumulation is the hallmark of various neuronal, muscular, and other human disorders. It is also often seen in the liver as a major protein-secretory organ. For example, aggregation of mutated alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT), referred to as PiZ, is a characteristic feature of AAT deficiency, whereas retention of hepatitis B surface protein (HBs) is found in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. We investigated the interaction of both proteotoxic stresses in humans and mice. Animals overexpressing both PiZ and HBs (HBs-PiZ mice) had greater liver injury, steatosis, and fibrosis. Later they exhibited higher hepatocellular carcinoma load and a more aggressive tumor subtype. Although PiZ and HBs displayed differing solubility properties and distinct distribution patterns, HBs-PiZ animals manifested retention of AAT/HBs in the degradatory pathway and a marked accumulation of the autophagy adaptor p62. Isolation of p62-containing particles revealed retained HBs/AAT and the lipophagy adapter perilipin-2. p62 build-up led to activation of the p62-Nrf2 axis and emergence of reactive oxygen species. Our results demonstrate that the simultaneous presence of two prevalent proteotoxic stresses promotes the development of liver injury due to protein retention and activation of the p62-Nrf2 axis. In humans, the PiZ variant was over-represented in CHB patients with advanced liver fibrosis (unadjusted odds ratio = 9.92 [1.15-85.39]). Current siRNA approaches targeting HBs/AAT should be considered for these individuals. © 2021 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

11.
Adv Ther ; 38(3): 1397-1403, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590446

RESUMO

The availability of pangenotypic direct-acting antivirals for treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) has provided an opportunity to simplify patient pathways. Recent clinical practice guidelines have recognised the need for simplification to ensure that elimination of HCV as a public health concern remains a priority. Despite the move towards simplified treatment algorithms, there remains some complexity in the recommendations for the management of genotype 3 patients with compensated cirrhosis. In an era where additional clinical trial data are not anticipated, clinical guidance should consider experience gained in real-world settings. Although more experience is required for some pangenotypic therapeutic options, on the basis of published real-world data, there is already sufficient evidence to consider a simplified approach for genotype 3 patients with compensated cirrhosis. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the need to minimise the need for complex patient pathways and clinical practice guidelines need to continue to evolve in order to ensure that patient outcomes remain optimised.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Procedimentos Clínicos , Erradicação de Doenças , Hepatite C , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Procedimentos Clínicos/normas , Procedimentos Clínicos/tendências , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Saúde Global/tendências , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/terapia , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Achieving sustained virologic response (SVR) among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to patient reported outcome (PRO) improvement. We aimed to assess the long-term post-SVR PRO trends in HCV patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Patients with HCV and cirrhosis treated in clinical trials with direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) who achieved SVR-12 were prospectively enrolled in a long-term registry (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT02292706). PROs were collected every 24 weeks using the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36), CLDQ-HCV, and WPAI-HCV. RESULTS: Pre-treatment baseline data were available for 854 cirrhotic patients who achieved SVR after DAAs. Of these, 730 had compensated (CC) and 124 had decompensated cirrhosis (DCC) before treatment- patients with DCC reported severe impairment in their PROs in comparison to CC patients (by mean -5% to -16% of a PRO range size; p < .05 for 16 out of 20 studied PROs]. After achieving SVR and registry enrollment, significant PRO improvements were noted from pre-treatment levels in 11/20 domains for those with DCC (+4% to +21%) and 19/20 PRO domains in patients with CC (+3% to +17%). Patients with baseline DCC had higher rates of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality (P < .05). In patients with CC, the PRO gains persisted up to 168 weeks (3.5 years) of registry follow-up. In patients with DCC, the improvements lasted for at least 96 weeks but a declining trend after year 2. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HCV cirrhosis experience severe PRO impairment at baseline with sustainable improvement after SVR. Though those with DCC experience improvement, there is a decline after 2 years.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 223(12): 2090-2098, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is more common in women than in men, independent of known risk factors. METHODS: To identify sex-specific genetic loci, we studied 4423 HCV-infected individuals (2903 male, 1520 female) of European, African, and Hispanic ancestry. We performed autosomal, and X chromosome sex-stratified and combined association analyses in each ancestry group. RESULTS: A male-specific region near the adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation factor-like 5B (ARL5B) gene was identified. Individuals with the C allele of rs76398191 were about 30% more likely to have chronic HCV infection than individuals with the T allele (OR, 0.69; P = 1.98 × 10-07), and this was not seen in females. The ARL5B gene encodes an interferon-stimulated gene that inhibits immune response to double-stranded RNA viruses. We also identified suggestive associations near septin 6 and ribosomal protein L39 genes on the X chromosome. In box sexes, allele G of rs12852885 was associated with a 40% increase in HCV clearance compared with the A allele (OR, 1.4; P = 2.46 × 10-06). Septin 6 facilitates HCV replication via interaction with the HCV NS5b protein, and ribosomal protein L39 acts as an HCV core interactor. CONCLUSIONS: These novel gene associations support differential mechanisms of HCV clearance between the sexes and provide biological targets for treatment or vaccine development.

14.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(22): 5831-5834, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33344581

RESUMO

Liver injury has been reported in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases but the impact of pre-existing liver damage and related etiology have not been completely elucidated. Our research interests include the potential reciprocal influence of COVID-19 and pre-existing liver damage related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, in particular. To this end, we have evaluated three cohorts of patients admitted at three Italian hospitals during the coronavirus pandemic; these included 332 patients with COVID-19 and 1527 patients with HCV who were from established real-world antiviral treatment study cohorts (sofosbuvir/velpatasvir), with either liver disease (various severities; n = 1319) or cirrhosis (n = 208). Among the COVID-19 patients, 10 had cirrhosis (3%), including 7 of metabolic origin and 3 of viral origin. Mortality among the COVID-19 patients was 27.1%, with 70% of those with cirrhosis of metabolic etiology having died. Cirrhosis, older age, low white blood cell count and lymphocyte count being identified as risk predictors of death [odds ratio (OR) = 13.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.59-83.01, P = 0.006; OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 1.03-1.08, P = 0.0001; OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.36-1.16, P = 0.001; OR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.39-0.93, P = 0.023, respectively]. In the two cohorts of HCV patients, COVID-19 diagnosis was made in 0.07% of those with liver disease and 1% of those with cirrhosis. Thus, the prevalence of HCV antibodies among COVID-19-infected patients was comparable to that currently reported for the general population in Italy. Amongst the COVID-19 patients, pre-existing metabolic cirrhosis appears to be associated with higher mortality, while HCV antibodies may be suggestive of "protection" against COVID-19.

16.
Genes Immun ; 21(5): 348-359, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116245

RESUMO

Clearance of acute infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with the chr19q13.13 region containing the rs368234815 (TT/ΔG) polymorphism. We fine-mapped this region to detect possible causal variants that may contribute to HCV clearance. First, we performed sequencing of IFNL1-IFNL4 region in 64 individuals sampled according to rs368234815 genotype: TT/clearance (N = 16) and ΔG/persistent (N = 15) (genotype-outcome concordant) or TT/persistent (N = 19) and ΔG/clearance (N = 14) (discordant). 25 SNPs had a difference in counts of alternative allele >5 between clearance and persistence individuals. Then, we evaluated those markers in an association analysis of HCV clearance conditioning on rs368234815 in two groups of European (692 clearance/1 025 persistence) and African ancestry (320 clearance/1 515 persistence) individuals. 10/25 variants were associated (P < 0.05) in the conditioned analysis leaded by rs4803221 (P value = 4.9 × 10-04) and rs8099917 (P value = 5.5 × 10-04). In the European ancestry group, individuals with the haplotype rs368234815ΔG/rs4803221C were 1.7× more likely to clear than those with the rs368234815ΔG/rs4803221G haplotype (P value = 3.6 × 10-05). For another nearby SNP, the haplotype of rs368234815ΔG/rs8099917T was associated with HCV clearance compared to rs368234815ΔG/rs8099917G (OR: 1.6, P value = 1.8 × 10-04). We identified four possible causal variants: rs368234815, rs12982533, rs10612351 and rs4803221. Our results suggest a main signal of association represented by rs368234815, with contributions from rs4803221, and/or nearby SNPs including rs8099917.

18.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 251, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746786

RESUMO

Beta-thalassemia represents a heterogeneous group of haemoglobin inherited disorders, among the most common genetic diseases in the world, frequent in the Mediterranean basin. As beta-thalassemia patients' survival has increased over time, previously unknown complications are observed with increasing frequency. Among them, an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been registered. Our aim is to reduce inequalities in diagnosis and treatment and to offer patients univocal recommendations in any institution.The members of the panel - gastroenterologists, radiologists, surgeons and oncologists -were selected on the basis of their publication records and expertise. Thirteen clinical questions, derived from clinical needs, and an integration of all the committee members' suggestions, were formulated. Modified Delphi approach involving a detailed literature review and the collective judgement of experts, was applied to this work.Thirteen statements were derived from expert opinions' based on the current literature, on recently developed reviews and on technological advancements. Each statement is discussed in a short paragraph reporting the current key evidence. As this is an emerging issue, the number of papers on HCC in beta-thalassemia patients is limited and based on anecdotal cases rather than on randomized controlled studies. Therefore, the panel has discussed, step by step, the possible differences between beta-thalassemia and non beta-thalassemia patients. Despite the paucity of the literature, practical and concise statements were generated.This paper offers a practical guide organized by statements describing how to manage HCC in patients with beta-thalassemia.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Talassemia , Adulto , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
Liver Int ; 40(8): 1841-1852, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Achieving sustained virological response (SVR; cure) in hepatitis C patients using a simple regimen is key to making elimination by 2030 possible. In the largest real-world analysis to date, the effectiveness of pangenotypic, panfibrotic, single-tablet, sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) once-daily for 12 weeks was assessed in 12 clinical real-world cohorts from various geographical areas, settings and treatment practices. Factors affecting risk of not achieving SVR were assessed. METHODS: Adults treated with SOF/VEL 400/100 mg, without ribavirin, were included. All HCV patients reaching Week 12 or 24 post-treatment were assessed for SVR12/24. Factors associated with not achieving SVR12/24 for virological reasons were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 5552 patients were included: 13.3% treatment-experienced; 20.7% compensated cirrhotic; 30.2% genotype 1; 29.5% genotype 2; 32.9% genotype 3; 4.7% genotype 4; 3.7% HIV coinfection; 13.4% current/former intravenous drug use. Of the 5196 patients evaluated for effectiveness, 98.9% achieved SVR12/24. High SVR12/24 rates occurred in all genotypes including genotype 3 (98.3%; 1649/1677) and in those with compensated cirrhosis (97.9; 1055/1078). Only 55 patients did not achieve SVR12/24 due to a virological reason; the only factor statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of not achieving SVR12/24 was compensated cirrhosis (P = .002). Overall, 6% (332/5552) of patients did not achieve SVR12/24 for non-virological reasons (67% lost to follow-up; 26.5% early treatment discontinuation). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort, representative of clinical practice, a simple 12-week regimen of SOF/VEL without ribavirin resulted in high SVR12/24 rates in diverse patient populations, even among those with compensated cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis , Humanos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cells ; 9(4)2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316690

RESUMO

The aim of this review is to outline emerging biomarkers that can serve as early diagnostic tools to identify patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and, among them, the subgroup of best candidates for clinical trials on emerging compounds. Regarding possible predictors of NAFLD, a number of studies evaluated a combination of serum biomarkers either available in routine practice (or investigational) or proprietary and expensive. So far, magnetic resonance imaging-derived proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) appears to be the most accurate for fatty liver diagnosis. In clinical practice, the main question is how to diagnose NASH early. There are new promising biomarkers that can help in diagnosing early stages of NASH, yet they include variables not routinely tested. In the setting of NASH, most studies confirm that, in spite of several well-known limitations, transient elastography or point shear wave elastography can help in enriching the pool of patients that should be screened for investigational treatments. Newer multiomics biomarkers including those focusing on microbiota can be useful but require methods to be standardized and implemented. To date, one biomarker alone is not able to non- or minimally invasively identify patients with NASH and mild to moderate fibrosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Humanos
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