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1.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13209, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reactivation of Chagas disease after heart transplantation is characterized by proliferation and dissemination of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites to several organs. Reactivation affecting the allograft can simulate acute cellular rejection, from which it should be distinguished through the analysis of endomyocardial biopsies (EMB). METHODS: We evaluated retrospectively 100 EMB collected in the first year of follow-up from 13 heart-transplanted, chagasic patients who presented reactivation and were successfully treated. Additionally, 37 EMB from 8 patients who did not present reactivation constituted the control group. We reviewed histopathology and performed a real-time PCR-based assay in order to evaluate the T cruzi parasitic load of each EMB. RESULTS: The parasitic load of the EMB at the time of reactivation ranged from 22.80 to 190 000/106 cells (median: 1555). In 6 patients, none of the EMB obtained prior to reactivation amplified T cruzi DNA. On the other hand, 10 EMB from 7 patients, obtained 9-105 days before reactivation (median: 26 days), showed parasitic load ranging from 8.25 to 625/106 cells (median: 167.55). In all patients, the parasitic load increased at the time of reactivation, usually sharply. After initiation of treatment, all patients showed negative PCR or a dramatic reduction of the parasitic load in the following EMB. None of the EMB from the control group amplified T cruzi DNA. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential measurement of T cruzi parasitic load in EMB is useful for monitoring Chagas disease reactivation after heart transplantation. Its increase suggests imminent reactivation and its decrease after treatment indicates favorable evolution for cure of the episode of reactivation.

2.
Transplantation ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the prevention of fractures after heart transplant (HTx) are controversial in the literature. Understanding the effects of HTx on bone may guide appropriate treatments in this high-risk population. METHODS: Seventy adult HTx patients were followed for 12 months. Clinical and laboratory parameters, bone mineral density (BMD), microarchitecture and vertebral fractures were assessed at baseline (after intensive care unit discharge) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients received recommendations regarding calcium intake and vitamin D supplementation after HTx. RESULTS: At baseline, 27% of patients had osteoporosis, associated with the length of hospitalization before HTx (p=0.001). BMD decreased in the first 6 months, with partial recovery later. Bone microarchitecture deteriorated, mainly in the trabecular bone in the first 6 months and cortical bone in the subsequent 6 months. At baseline, 92.9% of patients had vitamin D levels <30 ng/mL and 20.0% <10 ng/mL. Patients also had calcium at the lower limit of normal, high alkaline phosphatase, and high bone resorption biomarker. These abnormalities were suggestive of impaired bone mineralization and normalized at 6 months with correction of vitamin D deficiency. The majority of vertebral fractures were identified at baseline (23% of patients). After multivariate analyses, only a lower fat mass persisted as a risk factor for vertebral fractures (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47, p=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: High frequencies of densitometric osteoporosis, vitamin D deficiency, bone markers abnormalities and vertebral fractures were observed shortly after HTx. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation should be the first step in correcting bone mineralization impairment before specific osteoporosis treatment.

3.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(3 Supl): 287-290, jul.-set. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023063

RESUMO

Existem poucos sistemas de avaliação de mortalidade após transplante cardíaco (TC) que se baseiem em fatores relacionados com o doador e que sejam capazes de predizer o prognóstico. Identificar características dos doadores que têm impacto na sobrevida depois do TC pode contribuir para melhorar os resultados e a alocação de órgãos. Aplicamos um sistema de avaliação americano para predizer a mortalidade pós-TC em uma coorte brasileira. Objetivo: Avaliar um escore americano como preditor de mortalidade depois de TC em uma coorte brasileira. Métodos: Análise de uma base de dados de um centro de TC brasileiro de 2013 a 2015. Foram avaliadas quatro características dos doadores: tempo de isquemia, idade do doador, discordância racial doador/receptor e a função renal do doador. A sobrevida foi estimada pelo teste de log-rank em faixas de pontuação pré-determinadas. Resultados: Foram 110 doadores, 89% homens e 62% brancos. A principal causa de morte foi trauma (66,6%). Os doadores tinham em média 29,8 anos, 18,6 de relação Nitrogênio da ureia sanguínea / Creatinina, 175 minutos de tempo de isquemia e 42% de discordância racial com o receptor. Não houve diferença de sobrevida entre as faixas de pontuação. Conclusão: Apesar de preditor de mortalidade após transplante cardíaco em uma população americana, esse escore não foi útil para uma coorte de transplante brasileira. As diferenças, inclusive a alta taxa de miscigenação pode ser uma explicação para esses achados


here are few systems to assess mortality after heart transplantation (CT) that are based on donor-related factors and can predict prognosis. Identifying donor characteristics that impact post-CT survival can contribute to improved outcomes and organ allocation. We applied a US evaluation system to predict mortality after CT in a Brazilian cohort. Objective: To evaluate an American score as a predictor of mortality following CT in a Brazilian cohort. Method: Database analysis of a Brazilian CT center from 2013 to 2015. Four donor characteristics were evaluated: ischemia time, donor age, donor-recipient race mismatch, and donor renal function. Survival was estimated by the log-rank test in predetermined score ranges. Results: There were 110 donors, 89% male and 62% white. The main cause of death was trauma (66.6%). Donors had a mean age of 29.8 years, a mean blood urea nitrogen / creatinine ratio of 18.6, a mean ischemia time of 175 minutes, and race mismatch with the recipient of 42%. There was no difference in survival between the score ranges. Conclusion: Although it was a predictor of mortality after cardiac transplantation in an American population, this score was not useful for a Brazilian transplant cohort. Differences, including the high rate of miscegenation, may explain these findings


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doadores de Tecidos , Transplante/mortalidade , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Análise de Sobrevida , Prevalência , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos de Coortes , Resultado do Tratamento , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia
4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 111(3): 436-539, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379264
7.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da condutas da emergência do InCor: cardiopneumologia / IInCor Emergency Conduct Manual: Cardiopneumology. São Paulo, Manole, 2ª revisada e atualizada; 2017. p.491-498.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-848485
8.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0168790, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28030609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of new biomarkers of heart failure (HF) could help in its treatment. Previously, our group studied 89 patients with HF and showed that exhaled breath acetone (EBA) is a new noninvasive biomarker of HF diagnosis. However, there is no data about the relevance of EBA as a biomarker of prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether EBA could give prognostic information in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS: After breath collection and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by spectrophotometry, the 89 patients referred before were followed by one year. Study physicians, blind to the results of cardiac biomarker testing, ascertained vital status of each study participant at 12 months. RESULTS: The composite endpoint death and heart transplantation (HT) were observed in 35 patients (39.3%): 29 patients (32.6%) died and 6 (6.7%) were submitted to HT within 12 months after study enrollment. High levels of EBA (≥3.7µg/L, 50th percentile) were associated with a progressively worse prognosis in 12-month follow-up (log-rank = 11.06, p = 0.001). Concentrations of EBA above 3.7µg/L increased the risk of death or HT in 3.26 times (HR = 3.26, 95%CI = 1.56-6.80, p = 0.002) within 12 months. In a multivariable cox regression model, the independent predictors of all-cause mortality were systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and EBA levels. CONCLUSIONS: High EBA levels could be associated to poor prognosis in HFrEF patients.


Assuntos
Acetona/metabolismo , Expiração , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Adulto , Testes Respiratórios , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
9.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 13(2): 310-8, 2015 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26154552

RESUMO

Heart transplantation is currently the definitive gold standard surgical approach in the treatment of refractory heart failure. However, the shortage of donors limits the achievement of a greater number of heart transplants, in which the use of mechanical circulatory support devices is increasing. With well-established indications and contraindications, as well as diagnosis and treatment of rejection through defined protocols of immunosuppression, the outcomes of heart transplantation are very favorable. Among early complications that can impact survival are primary graft failure, right ventricular dysfunction, rejection, and infections, whereas late complications include cardiac allograft vasculopathy and neoplasms. Despite the difficulties for heart transplantation, in particular, the shortage of donors and high mortality while on the waiting list, in Brazil, there is a great potential for both increasing effective donors and using circulatory assist devices, which can positively impact the number and outcomes of heart transplants.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Infecções Oportunistas/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Disfunção Primária do Enxerto/complicações , Brasil , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/cirurgia , Rejeição de Enxerto/classificação , Rejeição de Enxerto/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Transplante de Coração/tendências , Coração Auxiliar , Humanos , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressão/métodos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/complicações , Doadores de Tecidos/provisão & distribução
10.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(2): 310-318, Apr-Jun/2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-751427

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Heart transplantation is currently the definitive gold standard surgical approach in the treatment of refractory heart failure. However, the shortage of donors limits the achievement of a greater number of heart transplants, in which the use of mechanical circulatory support devices is increasing. With well-established indications and contraindications, as well as diagnosis and treatment of rejection through defined protocols of immunosuppression, the outcomes of heart transplantation are very favorable. Among early complications that can impact survival are primary graft failure, right ventricular dysfunction, rejection, and infections, whereas late complications include cardiac allograft vasculopathy and neoplasms. Despite the difficulties for heart transplantation, in particular, the shortage of donors and high mortality while on the waiting list, in Brazil, there is a great potential for both increasing effective donors and using circulatory assist devices, which can positively impact the number and outcomes of heart transplants.


RESUMO O transplante cardíaco é atualmente a abordagem cirúrgica definitiva padrão-ouro no tratamento da insuficiência cardíaca refratária. No entanto, a escassez de doadores limita a realização de um número maior de transplantes cardíacos, situação em que vem aumentando a utilização de dispositivos de assistência circulatória mecânica. Com indicações e contraindicações bem estabelecidas, além de diagnóstico e tratamento de rejeição, por meio de protocolos definidos de imunossupressão, os resultados do transplante cardíaco são muito favoráveis. Dentre as complicações precoces que podem impactar a sobrevida, destacamos a disfunção primária do enxerto, a disfunção do ventrículo direito, rejeição e infecções; já as complicações tardias incluem a doença vascular do enxerto e as neoplasias. Apesar das dificuldades para realização do transplante cardíaco, em especial pela escassez de doadores e pela elevada mortalidade em fila de espera, no Brasil, existe um grande potencial, tanto no aumento de doadores efetivos, quanto na utilização de dispositivos de assistência circulatória, o que pode vir a impactar positivamente no número e nos resultados do transplante cardíaco.

11.
Int J Cardiol ; 178: 55-62, 2015 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25442238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical and experimental conflicting data have questioned the relationship between infectious agents, inflammation and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious agents and inflammation in endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) specimens from patients with idiopathic DCM, explanted hearts from different etiologies, including Chagas' disease, compared to donated hearts. METHODS: From 2008 to 2011, myocardial samples from 29 heart donors and 55 patients with DCMs from different etiologies were studied (32 idiopathic, 9 chagasic, 6 ischemic and 8 other specific etiologies). Inflammation was investigated by immunohistochemistry and infectious agents by immunohistochemistry, molecular biology, in situ hybridization and electron microscopy. RESULTS: There were no differences regarding the presence of macrophages, expression of HLA class II and ICAM-I in donors and DCM. Inflammation in Chagas' disease was predominant. By immunohistochemistry, in donors, there was a higher expression of antigens of enterovirus and Borrelia, hepatitis B and C in DCMs. By molecular biology, in all groups, the positivity was elevated to microorganisms, including co-infections, with a higher positivity to adenovirus and HHV6 in donors towards DCMs. This study was the first to demonstrate the presence of virus in the heart tissue of chagasic DCM. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of inflammation and infectious agents is frequent in donated hearts, in the myocardium of patients with idiopathic DCM, myocardial dysfunction related to cardiovascular diseases, and primary and secondary cardiomyopathies, including Chagas' disease. The role of co-infection in Chagas' heart disease physiopathology deserves to be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/microbiologia , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/microbiologia , Coração/microbiologia , Doadores de Tecidos , Adulto , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias/microbiologia , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/normas , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 24(3): 54-61, jul.-set.2014.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-763798

RESUMO

O transplante cardíaco é reconhecido como o melhor tratamentopara a insuficiência cardíaca refratária. O Brasil tem um grandepotencial de aumento do número de transplantes, já que atualmenteo aproveitamento dos potenciais doadores é muito baixo. Os pioresresultados do transplante aqui, quando comparados aos dadosinternacionais, decorrem, em parte, da associação de doadorespior cuidados e receptores mais graves, com limitação de acessoaos dispositivos de assistência circulatória. O desenvolvimento decentros transplantadores capazes de melhorar a condição clínicados receptores e de criar condições para aumentar a efetivaçãodos doadores pode ter um impacto positivo no número e nosresultados dos transplantes. A organização do Heart Team, umaequipe multidisciplinar envolvendo profissionais com funçõescomplementares, é essencial para o aprimoramento não só do cuidadoao receptor, mas também de todo o processo envolvido no transplantecardíaco, incluindo a captação de órgãos. A equipe deve ser compostapor cardiologistas clínicos e cirurgiões cardiovasculares dedicadosao transplante cardíaco, outros especialistas (como intensivistas,infectologistas e patologistas) fundamentais no cuidado do receptor,enfermeiros e biomédicos envolvidos na avaliação e cuidado dosdoadores e na captação do órgão, enfermeiros dedicados à assistênciados receptores e uma equipe multidisciplinar envolvida em todo oprocesso, desde a avaliação do paciente com insuficiência cardíacarefratária, potencial candidato ao transplante, até o seguimento esuporte do transplantado cardíaco e seus familiares. Esta abordagemcompleta e harmoniosa que o Heart Team possibilita é certamente ocaminho para o crescimento do transplante cardíaco no Brasil.


Heart transplant is recognized as the treatment of choice forrefractory heart failure. Brazil has a great potential to increase thenumber of heart transplants, as the use of potential donors is nowtoo low. The worst results of heart transplants in Brazil, comparedwith international data, may be, in part, due to the association ofpoor care of donors and poor conditions of recipients, with limitedaccess to circulatory assistance devices. The development of hearttransplant centers capable of improving the clinical conditions ofthe recipients and creating ways to increase the use of donors mayhave a positive impact in the number and results of transplants. Theorganization of a “Heart Team”, a multidisciplinary team evolvingprofessionals with complementary functions, is essential not only toimprove the care of recipients, but also to improve the whole processof heart transplant, including organ harvesting. The team must becomposed of cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons dedicated toheart transplant, other specialists (such as intensivists, infectologistsand pathologists) who have a crucial role in the care of recipients;nurses and biomedicals evolved in the evaluation and care of donorsand in organ harvesting; nurses dedicated in recipients assistanceand a multidisciplinary team evolved in the whole process, sincethe evaluation of the patient with refractory heart failure, a potentialcandidate for heart transplant, up to the follow-up and support ofheart transplanted patients and their families. This complete andharmonious approach that “Heart Team” enables is certainly theway to improve heart transplant in Brazil.


Assuntos
Humanos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Transplante de Coração/reabilitação , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/ética , Seleção do Doador/métodos
13.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 11(3): 273-7, 2013 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24136751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To correlate the serum levels of B type natriuretic peptide and the N-terminal fraction of the pro-B type natriuretic peptide, as well as to analyze the influence of age, obesity, renal failure, left ventricle ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction, and anemia on serum levels of both markers. METHODS: An observational study in which the agreement was compared between these markers in consecutive samples of 138 patients. For the correlation, Pearson's test was used, and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A linear association was observed between the B type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal fraction of the pro-B type natriuretic peptide (r=0.907; p<0.001). When evaluating the categorized measurements as normal and altered, there was good agreement, with 90.6% of agreement classifications (p<0.001) in which altered values of the N-terminal fraction of the pro-B type natriuretic peptide and normal values of the B type natriuretic peptide represented 8.7% of the total; the opposite situation represented 1% of the total. Assessment of the influence of the clinical and laboratorial factors on the levels of natriuretic peptides showed that they rise according to age, but that they fall as the ejection fraction increases. Patients with anemia (p<0.001) or with renal failure (p=0.007) had higher values of both markers. There was no association between obesity and the B type natriuretic peptide. CONCLUSION: There was satisfactory agreement between the B type natriuretic peptide and the N-terminal fraction of the pro-B type natriuretic peptide. Age, creatinine levels, and hemoglobin, as well as ventricular function, influence the serum levels of both natriuretic peptides.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 11(3): 383-91, 2013 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24136770

RESUMO

Heart failure is a disease with high incidence and prevalence in the population. The costs with hospitalization for decompensated heart failure reach approximately 60% of the total cost with heart failure treatment, and mortality during hospitalization varies according to the studied population, and could achieve values of 10%. In patients with decompensated heart failure, history and physical examination are of great value for the diagnosis of the syndrome, and also can help the physician to identify the beginning of symptoms, and give information about etiology, causes and prognosis of the disease. The initial objective of decompensated heart failure treatment is the hemodynamic and symptomatic improvement preservation and/or improvement of renal function, prevention of myocardial damage, modulation of the neurohormonal and/or inflammatory activation and control of comorbidities that can cause or contribute to progression of the syndrome. According to the clinical-hemodynamic profile, it is possible to establish a rational for the treatment of decompensated heart failure, individualizing the proceedings to be held, leading to reduction in the period of hospitalization and consequently reducing overall mortality.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Progressão da Doença , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 11(3): 273-277, jul.-set. 2013. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-688628

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Correlacionar os níveis séricos do peptídeo natriurético tipo B e da fração N-terminal do pró-peptídeo natriurético tipo B, além de analisar a influência de idade, obesidade, insuficiência renal, fração da ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo, disfunção diastólica e anemia nos níveis séricos de ambos os marcadores. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, no qual se comparou a concordância entre esses marcadores em amostras consecutivas de 138 pacientes. Para a correlação, utilizou-se o teste de Pearson e foi considerado estatisticamente significante p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Observou-se associação linear entre peptídeo natriurético tipo B e fração N-terminal do pró-peptídeo natriurético tipo B (r=0,907; p<0,001). Ao se avaliarem as medidas categorizadas como normais e alteradas, encontrou-se boa concordância, com 90,6% de classificações concordantes (p<0,001), sendo que valores alterados da fração N-terminal do pró-peptídeo natriurético tipo B e normais de peptídeo natriurético tipo B representaram 8,7% do total, e o contrário representou 1% do total. A avaliação da influência dos fatores clínicos e laboratoriais nos níveis dos peptídeos natriuréticos mostrou que eles se elevam de acordo com a idade, mas que diminuem conforme aumenta a fração de ejeção. Pacientes com anemia (p<0,001) ou com insuficiência renal (p=0,007) apresentaram valores maiores de ambos os marcadores. Não houve associação entre obesidade e peptídeo natriurético tipo B. CONCLUSÃO: Houve concordância satisfatória entre peptídeo natriurético tipo B e a fração N-terminal do pró-peptídeo natriurético tipo B. Idade, níveis de creatinina e hemoglobina, assim como função ventricular, influenciam os níveis séricos de ambos os peptídeos natriuréticos.


OBJECTIVE: To correlate the serum levels of B type natriuretic peptide and the N-terminal fraction of the pro-B type natriuretic peptide, as well as to analyze the influence of age, obesity, renal failure, left ventricle ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction, and anemia on serum levels of both markers. METHODS: An observational study in which the agreement was compared between these markers in consecutive samples of 138 patients. For the correlation, Pearson's test was used, and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A linear association was observed between the B type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal fraction of the pro-B type natriuretic peptide (r=0.907; p<0.001). When evaluating the categorized measurements as normal and altered, there was good agreement, with 90.6% of agreement classifications (p<0.001) in which altered values of the N-terminal fraction of the pro-B type natriuretic peptide and normal values of the B type natriuretic peptide represented 8.7% of the total; the opposite situation represented 1% of the total. Assessment of the influence of the clinical and laboratorial factors on the levels of natriuretic peptides showed that they rise according to age, but that they fall as the ejection fraction increases. Patients with anemia (p<0.001) or with renal failure (p=0.007) had higher values of both markers. There was no association between obesity and the B type natriuretic peptide. CONCLUSION: There was satisfactory agreement between the B type natriuretic peptide and the N-terminal fraction of the pro-B type natriuretic peptide. Age, creatinine levels, and hemoglobin, as well as ventricular function, influence the serum levels of both natriuretic peptides.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Peptídeos Natriuréticos
16.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 11(3): 383-391, jul.-set. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-688647

RESUMO

A insuficiência cardíaca apresenta elevada incidência e prevalência em todo mundo. Os custos com internação por insuficiência cardíaca descompensada chegam a aproximadamente 60% do custo total do tratamento da insuficiência cardíaca, e a mortalidade durante a internação varia conforme a população estudada, podendo chegar a 10%. Em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca descompensada, os achados de história e exame físico são de grande valor por fornecerem, além do diagnóstico da síndrome, o tempo de início dos sintomas, as informações sobre etiologia, as causas de descompensação e o prognóstico. O objetivo inicial do tratamento da insuficiência cardíaca descompensada é a melhora hemodinâmica e sintomática. Além disso, outros alvos devem ser buscados, incluindo preservação e/ou melhora da função renal, prevenção de lesão miocárdica, modulação da ativação neuro-hormonal e/ou inflamatória, e manejo de comorbidades que podem causar ou contribuir para progressão da síndrome. Com base nos perfis clínico-hemodinâmicos, é possível estabelecer um racional para o tratamento da insuficiência cardíaca descompensada, individualizando o procedimento a ser instituído e objetivando redução de tempo de internação e de mortalidade.


Heart failure is a disease with high incidence and prevalence in the population. The costs with hospitalization for decompensated heart failure reach approximately 60% of the total cost with heart failure treatment, and mortality during hospitalization varies according to the studied population, and could achieve values of 10%. In patients with decompensated heart failure, history and physical examination are of great value for the diagnosis of the syndrome, and also can help the physician to identify the beginning of symptoms, and give information about etiology, causes and prognosis of the disease. The initial objective of decompensated heart failure treatment is the hemodynamic and symptomatic improvement preservation and/or improvement of renal function, prevention of myocardial damage, modulation of the neurohormonal and/or inflammatory activation and control of comorbidities that can cause or contribute to progression of the syndrome. According to the clinical-hemodynamic profile, it is possible to establish a rational for the treatment of decompensated heart failure, individualizing the proceedings to be held, leading to reduction in the period of hospitalization and consequently reducing overall mortality.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Prognóstico
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 7(4): e2176, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23638197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden death has been considered the main cause of death in patients with Chagas heart disease. Nevertheless, this information comes from a period before the introduction of drugs that changed the natural history of heart failure. We sought to study the mode of death of patients with heart failure caused by Chagas heart disease, comparing with non-Chagas cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the REMADHE trial and grouped patients according to etiology (Chagas vs non-Chagas) and mode of death. The primary end-point was all-cause, heart failure and sudden death mortality; 342 patients were analyzed and 185 (54.1%) died. Death occurred in 56.4% Chagas patients and 53.7% non-Chagas patients. The cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality and heart failure mortality was significantly higher in Chagas patients compared to non-Chagas. There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of sudden death mortality between the two groups. In the Cox regression model, Chagas etiology (HR 2.76; CI 1.34-5.69; p = 0.006), LVEDD (left ventricular end diastolic diameter) (HR 1.07; CI 1.04-1.10; p<0.001), creatinine clearance (HR 0.98; CI 0.97-0.99; p = 0.006) and use of amiodarone (HR 3.05; CI 1.47-6.34; p = 0.003) were independently associated with heart failure mortality. LVEDD (HR 1.04; CI 1.01-1.07; p = 0.005) and use of beta-blocker (HR 0.52; CI 0.34-0.94; p = 0.014) were independently associated with sudden death mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In severe Chagas heart disease, progressive heart failure is the most important mode of death. These data challenge the current understanding of Chagas heart disease and may have implications in the selection of treatment choices, considering the mode of death. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00505050 (REMADHE).


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/mortalidade , Adulto , Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 99(3): 848-856, set. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-649264

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão pulmonar é associada ao pior prognóstico no pós-transplante cardíaco. O teste de reatividade pulmonar com Nitroprussiato de Sódio (NPS) está associado a elevados índices de hipotensão arterial sistêmica, disfunção ventricular do enxerto transplantado e elevadas taxas de desqualificação para o transplante. OBJETIVO: Neste estudo, objetivou-se comparar os efeitos do Sildenafil (SIL) e NPS sobre variáveis hemodinâmicas, neuro-hormonais e ecocardiográficas durante teste de reatividade pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Os pacientes foram submetidos, simultaneamente, ao cateterismo cardíaco direito, ao ecocardiograma e à dosagem de BNP e gasometria venosa, antes e após administração de NPS (1 - 2 µg/Kg/min) ou SIL (100 mg, dose única). RESULTADOS: Ambos reduziram a hipertensão pulmonar, porém o nitrato promoveu hipotensão sistêmica significativa (Pressão Arterial Média - PAM: 85,2 vs. 69,8 mmHg, p < 0,001). Ambos reduziram as dimensões cardíacas e melhoraram a função cardíaca esquerda (NPS: 23,5 vs. 24,8 %, p = 0,02; SIL: 23,8 vs. 26 %, p < 0,001) e direita (SIL: 6,57 ± 2,08 vs. 8,11 ± 1,81 cm/s, p = 0,002; NPS: 6,64 ± 1,51 vs. 7,72 ± 1,44 cm/s, p = 0,003), medidas pela fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda e Doppler tecidual, respectivamente. O SIL, ao contrário do NPS, apresentou melhora no índice de saturação venosa de oxigênio, medido pela gasometria venosa. CONCLUSÃO: Sildenafil e NPS são vasodilatadores que reduzem, de forma significativa, a hipertensão pulmonar e a geometria cardíaca, além de melhorar a função biventricular. O NPS, ao contrário do SIL, esteve associado a hipotensão arterial sistêmica e piora da saturação venosa de oxigênio.


BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with a worse prognosis after cardiac transplantation. The pulmonary hypertension reversibility test with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is associated with a high rate of systemic arterial hypotension, ventricular dysfunction of the transplanted graft and high rates of disqualification from transplantation. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at comparing the effects of sildenafil (SIL) and SNP on hemodynamic, neurohormonal and echocardiographic variables during the pulmonary reversibility test. METHODS: The patients underwent simultaneously right cardiac catheterization, echocardiography, BNP measurement, and venous blood gas analysis before and after receiving either SNP (1 - 2 µg/kg/min) or SIL (100 mg, single dose). RESULTS: Both drugs reduced pulmonary hypertension, but SNP caused a significant systemic hypotension (mean blood pressure - MBP: 85.2 vs. 69.8 mm Hg; p < 0.001). Both drugs reduced cardiac dimensions and improved left cardiac function (SNP: 23.5 vs. 24.8%, p = 0.02; SIL: 23.8 vs. 26%, p < 0.001) and right cardiac function (SIL: 6.57 ± 2.08 vs. 8.11 ± 1.81 cm/s, p = 0.002; SNP: 6.64 ± 1.51 vs. 7.72 ± 1.44 cm/s, p = 0.003), measured through left ventricular ejection fraction and tissue Doppler, respectively. Sildenafil, contrary to SNP, improved venous oxygen saturation, measured on venous blood gas analysis. CONCLUSION: Sildenafil and SNP are vasodilators that significantly reduce pulmonary hypertension and cardiac geometry, in addition to improving biventricular function. Sodium nitroprusside, contrary to SIL, was associated with systemic arterial hypotension and worsening of venous oxygen saturation.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Nitroprussiato/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonas/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos da radiação , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Nitroprussiato/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Função Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 98(5): 375-83, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22858653

RESUMO

In the past two years we observed several changes in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of patients with acute heart failure (acute HF), which led us to the need of performing a summary update of the II Brazilian Guidelines on Acute Heart Failure 2009. In the diagnostic evaluation, the diagnostic flowchart was simplified and the role of clinical assessment and echocardiography was enhanced. In the clinical-hemodynamic evaluation on admission, the hemodynamic echocardiography gained prominence as an aid to define this condition in patients with acute HF in the emergency room. In the prognostic evaluation, the role of biomarkers was better established and the criteria and prognostic value of the cardiorenal syndrome was better defined. The therapeutic approach flowcharts were revised, and are now simpler and more objective. Among the advances in drug therapy, the safety and importance of the maintenance or introduction of beta-blockers in the admission treatment are highlighted. Anticoagulation, according to new evidence, gained a wider range of indications. The presentation hemodynamic models of acute pulmonary edema were well established, with their different therapeutic approaches, as well as new levels of indication and evidence. In the surgical treatment of acute HF, CABG, the approach to mechanical lesions and heart transplantation were reviewed and updated. This update strengthens the II Brazilian Guidelines on Acute Heart Failure to keep it updated and refreshed. All clinical cardiologists who deal with patients with acute HF will find, in the guidelines and its summary, important tools to help them with the clinical practice for better diagnosis and treatment of their patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Doença Aguda , Brasil , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos
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