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1.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-7, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526404

RESUMO

TwinsUK is the largest cohort of community-dwelling adult twins in the UK. The registry comprises over 14,000 volunteer twins (14,838 including mixed, single and triplets); it is predominantly female (82%) and middle-aged (mean age 59). In addition, over 1800 parents and siblings of twins are registered volunteers. During the last 27 years, TwinsUK has collected numerous questionnaire responses, physical/cognitive measures and biological measures on over 8500 subjects. Data were collected alongside four comprehensive phenotyping clinical visits to the Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London. Such collection methods have resulted in very detailed longitudinal clinical, biochemical, behavioral, dietary and socioeconomic cohort characterization; it provides a multidisciplinary platform for the study of complex disease during the adult life course, including the process of healthy aging. The major strength of TwinsUK is the availability of several 'omic' technologies for a range of sample types from participants, which includes genomewide scans of single-nucleotide variants, next-generation sequencing, metabolomic profiles, microbiomics, exome sequencing, epigenetic markers, gene expression arrays, RNA sequencing and telomere length measures. TwinsUK facilitates and actively encourages sharing the 'TwinsUK' resource with the scientific community - interested researchers may request data via the TwinsUK website (http://twinsuk.ac.uk/resources-for-researchers/access-our-data/) for their own use or future collaboration with the study team. In addition, further cohort data collection is planned via the Wellcome Open Research gateway (https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/gateways). The current article presents an up-to-date report on the application of technological advances, new study procedures in the cohort and future direction of TwinsUK.

2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(16): 5895-5923, 2019 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422385

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) is associated with several aging-related diseases. Here, we present a DNA methylation estimator of TL (DNAmTL) based on 140 CpGs. Leukocyte DNAmTL is applicable across the entire age spectrum and is more strongly associated with age than measured leukocyte TL (LTL) (r ~-0.75 for DNAmTL versus r ~ -0.35 for LTL). Leukocyte DNAmTL outperforms LTL in predicting: i) time-to-death (p=2.5E-20), ii) time-to-coronary heart disease (p=6.6E-5), iii) time-to-congestive heart failure (p=3.5E-6), and iv) association with smoking history (p=1.21E-17). These associations are further validated in large scale methylation data (n=10k samples) from the Framingham Heart Study, Women's Health Initiative, Jackson Heart Study, InChianti, Lothian Birth Cohorts, Twins UK, and Bogalusa Heart Study. Leukocyte DNAmTL is also associated with measures of physical fitness/functioning (p=0.029), age-at-menopause (p=0.039), dietary variables (omega 3, fish, vegetable intake), educational attainment (p=3.3E-8) and income (p=3.1E-5). Experiments in cultured somatic cells show that DNAmTL dynamics reflect in part cell replication rather than TL per se. DNAmTL is not only an epigenetic biomarker of replicative history of cells, but a useful marker of age-related pathologies that are associated with it.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11623, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406173

RESUMO

Telomere shortening has been associated with multiple age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. However, the biological mechanisms responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. In order to gain insight into the metabolic processes driving the association of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with age-related diseases, we investigated the association between LTL and serum metabolite levels in 7,853 individuals from seven independent cohorts. LTL was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the levels of 131 serum metabolites were measured with mass spectrometry in biological samples from the same blood draw. With partial correlation analysis, we identified six metabolites that were significantly associated with LTL after adjustment for multiple testing: lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C17:0 (lysoPC a C17:0, p-value = 7.1 × 10-6), methionine (p-value = 9.2 × 10-5), tyrosine (p-value = 2.1 × 10-4), phosphatidylcholine diacyl C32:1 (PC aa C32:1, p-value = 2.4 × 10-4), hydroxypropionylcarnitine (C3-OH, p-value = 2.6 × 10-4), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C38:4 (PC ae C38:4, p-value = 9.0 × 10-4). Pathway analysis showed that the three phosphatidylcholines and methionine are involved in homocysteine metabolism and we found supporting evidence for an association of lipid metabolism with LTL. In conclusion, we found longer LTL associated with higher levels of lysoPC a C17:0 and PC ae C38:4, and with lower levels of methionine, tyrosine, PC aa C32:1, and C3-OH. These metabolites have been implicated in inflammation, oxidative stress, homocysteine metabolism, and in cardiovascular disease and diabetes, two major drivers of morbidity and mortality.

4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(9): 950-961, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358974

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol consumption is a heritable complex trait. Here we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of alcohol consumption (g d-1) from the UK Biobank, the Alcohol Genome-Wide Consortium and the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Plus consortia, collecting data from 480,842 people of European descent to decipher the genetic architecture of alcohol intake. We identified 46 new common loci and investigated their potential functional importance using magnetic resonance imaging data and gene expression studies. We identify genetic pathways associated with alcohol consumption and suggest genetic mechanisms that are shared with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.

5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(24): 3118-3131, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical changes on the electrocardiogram are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Recognition and knowledge of electrolyte associations in cardiac electrophysiology are based on only in vitro models and observations in patients with severe medical conditions. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate associations between serum electrolyte concentrations and changes in cardiac electrophysiology in the general population. METHODS: Summary results collected from 153,014 individuals (54.4% women; mean age 55.1 ± 12.1 years) from 33 studies (of 5 ancestries) were meta-analyzed. Linear regression analyses examining associations between electrolyte concentrations (mmol/l of calcium, potassium, sodium, and magnesium), and electrocardiographic intervals (RR, QT, QRS, JT, and PR intervals) were performed. The study adjusted for potential confounders and also stratified by ancestry, sex, and use of antihypertensive drugs. RESULTS: Lower calcium was associated with longer QT intervals (-11.5 ms; 99.75% confidence interval [CI]: -13.7 to -9.3) and JT duration, with sex-specific effects. In contrast, higher magnesium was associated with longer QT intervals (7.2 ms; 99.75% CI: 1.3 to 13.1) and JT. Lower potassium was associated with longer QT intervals (-2.8 ms; 99.75% CI: -3.5 to -2.0), JT, QRS, and PR durations, but all potassium associations were driven by use of antihypertensive drugs. No physiologically relevant associations were observed for sodium or RR intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified physiologically relevant associations between electrolytes and electrocardiographic intervals in a large-scale analysis combining cohorts from different settings. The results provide insights for further cardiac electrophysiology research and could potentially influence clinical practice, especially the association between calcium and QT duration, by which calcium levels at the bottom 2% of the population distribution led to clinically relevant QT prolongation by >5 ms.

6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(12): 2062-2077, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163085

RESUMO

Glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of proteins. Glycosylation is associated with a number of human diseases. Defining genetic factors altering glycosylation may provide a basis for novel approaches to diagnostic and pharmaceutical applications. Here we report a genome-wide association study of the human blood plasma N-glycome composition in up to 3811 people measured by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) technology. Starting with the 36 original traits measured by UPLC, we computed an additional 77 derived traits leading to a total of 113 glycan traits. We studied associations between these traits and genetic polymorphisms located on human autosomes. We discovered and replicated 12 loci. This allowed us to demonstrate an overlap in genetic control between total plasma protein and IgG glycosylation. The majority of revealed loci contained genes that encode enzymes directly involved in glycosylation (FUT3/FUT6, FUT8, B3GAT1, ST6GAL1, B4GALT1, ST3GAL4, MGAT3 and MGAT5) and a known regulator of plasma protein fucosylation (HNF1A). However, we also found loci that could possibly reflect other more complex aspects of glycosylation process. Functional genomic annotation suggested the role of several genes including DERL3, CHCHD10, TMEM121, IGH and IKZF1. The hypotheses we generated may serve as a starting point for further functional studies in this research area.

7.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 991-1012, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155658

RESUMO

The Consortium of Metabolomics Studies (COMETS) was established in 2014 to facilitate large-scale collaborative research on the human metabolome and its relationship with disease etiology, diagnosis, and prognosis. COMETS comprises 47 cohorts from Asia, Europe, North America, and South America that together include more than 136,000 participants with blood metabolomics data on samples collected from 1985 to 2017. Metabolomics data were provided by 17 different platforms, with the most frequently used labs being Metabolon, Inc. (14 cohorts), the Broad Institute (15 cohorts), and Nightingale Health (11 cohorts). Participants have been followed for a median of 23 years for health outcomes including death, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and others; many of the studies are ongoing. Available exposure-related data include common clinical measurements and behavioral factors, as well as genome-wide genotype data. Two feasibility studies were conducted to evaluate the comparability of metabolomics platforms used by COMETS cohorts. The first study showed that the overlap between any 2 different laboratories ranged from 6 to 121 metabolites at 5 leading laboratories. The second study showed that the median Spearman correlation comparing 111 overlapping metabolites captured by Metabolon and the Broad Institute was 0.79 (interquartile range, 0.56-0.89).

8.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(11): 946-955, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking and alcohol use have been associated with common genetic variants in multiple loci. Rare variants within these loci hold promise in the identification of biological mechanisms in substance use. Exome arrays and genotype imputation can now efficiently genotype rare nonsynonymous and loss of function variants. Such variants are expected to have deleterious functional consequences and to contribute to disease risk. METHODS: We analyzed ∼250,000 rare variants from 16 independent studies genotyped with exome arrays and augmented this dataset with imputed data from the UK Biobank. Associations were tested for five phenotypes: cigarettes per day, pack-years, smoking initiation, age of smoking initiation, and alcoholic drinks per week. We conducted stratified heritability analyses, single-variant tests, and gene-based burden tests of nonsynonymous/loss-of-function coding variants. We performed a novel fine-mapping analysis to winnow the number of putative causal variants within associated loci. RESULTS: Meta-analytic sample sizes ranged from 152,348 to 433,216, depending on the phenotype. Rare coding variation explained 1.1% to 2.2% of phenotypic variance, reflecting 11% to 18% of the total single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of these phenotypes. We identified 171 genome-wide associated loci across all phenotypes. Fine mapping identified putative causal variants with double base-pair resolution at 24 of these loci, and between three and 10 variants for 65 loci. Twenty loci contained rare coding variants in the 95% credible intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Rare coding variation significantly contributes to the heritability of smoking and alcohol use. Fine-mapping genome-wide association study loci identifies specific variants contributing to the biological etiology of substance use behavior.

9.
Nat Genet ; 51(1): 51-62, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578418

RESUMO

In this trans-ethnic multi-omic study, we reinterpret the genetic architecture of blood pressure to identify genes, tissues, phenomes and medication contexts of blood pressure homeostasis. We discovered 208 novel common blood pressure SNPs and 53 rare variants in genome-wide association studies of systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure in up to 776,078 participants from the Million Veteran Program (MVP) and collaborating studies, with analysis of the blood pressure clinical phenome in MVP. Our transcriptome-wide association study detected 4,043 blood pressure associations with genetically predicted gene expression of 840 genes in 45 tissues, and mouse renal single-cell RNA sequencing identified upregulated blood pressure genes in kidney tubule cells.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(3): 453-475, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535086

RESUMO

Background: Even before the onset of age-related diseases, obesity might be a contributing factor to the cumulative burden of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation throughout the life course. Obesity may therefore contribute to accelerated shortening of telomeres. Consequently, obese persons are more likely to have shorter telomeres, but the association between body mass index (BMI) and leukocyte telomere length (TL) might differ across the life span and between ethnicities and sexes. Objective: A collaborative cross-sectional meta-analysis of observational studies was conducted to investigate the associations between BMI and TL across the life span. Design: Eighty-seven distinct study samples were included in the meta-analysis capturing data from 146,114 individuals. Study-specific age- and sex-adjusted regression coefficients were combined by using a random-effects model in which absolute [base pairs (bp)] and relative telomere to single-copy gene ratio (T/S ratio) TLs were regressed against BMI. Stratified analysis was performed by 3 age categories ("young": 18-60 y; "middle": 61-75 y; and "old": >75 y), sex, and ethnicity. Results: Each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a -3.99 bp (95% CI: -5.17, -2.81 bp) difference in TL in the total pooled sample; among young adults, each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a -7.67 bp (95% CI: -10.03, -5.31 bp) difference. Each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a -1.58 × 10(-3) unit T/S ratio (0.16% decrease; 95% CI: -2.14 × 10(-3), -1.01 × 10(-3)) difference in age- and sex-adjusted relative TL in the total pooled sample; among young adults, each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a -2.58 × 10(-3) unit T/S ratio (0.26% decrease; 95% CI: -3.92 × 10(-3), -1.25 × 10(-3)). The associations were predominantly for the white pooled population. No sex differences were observed. Conclusions: A higher BMI is associated with shorter telomeres, especially in younger individuals. The presently observed difference is not negligible. Meta-analyses of longitudinal studies evaluating change in body weight alongside change in TL are warranted.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Encurtamento do Telômero/fisiologia , Telômero/ultraestrutura , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Leucócitos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/patologia , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 691-706, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388399

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.

13.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10(1): 126, 2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for multiple diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many smoking-associated signals have been detected in the blood methylome, but the extent to which these changes are widespread to metabolically relevant tissues, and impact gene expression or metabolic health, remains unclear. METHODS: We investigated smoking-associated DNA methylation and gene expression variation in adipose tissue biopsies from 542 healthy female twins. Replication, tissue specificity, and longitudinal stability of the smoking-associated effects were explored in additional adipose, blood, skin, and lung samples. We characterized the impact of adipose tissue smoking methylation and expression signals on metabolic disease risk phenotypes, including visceral fat. RESULTS: We identified 42 smoking-methylation and 42 smoking-expression signals, where five genes (AHRR, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYTL1, F2RL3) were both hypo-methylated and upregulated in current smokers. CYP1A1 gene expression achieved 95% prediction performance of current smoking status. We validated and replicated a proportion of the signals in additional primary tissue samples, identifying tissue-shared effects. Smoking leaves systemic imprints on DNA methylation after smoking cessation, with stronger but shorter-lived effects on gene expression. Metabolic disease risk traits such as visceral fat and android-to-gynoid ratio showed association with methylation at smoking markers with functional impacts on expression, such as CYP1A1, and at tissue-shared smoking signals, such as NOTCH1. At smoking-signals, BHLHE40 and AHRR DNA methylation and gene expression levels in current smokers were predictive of future gain in visceral fat upon smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first comprehensive characterization of coordinated DNA methylation and gene expression markers of smoking in adipose tissue. The findings relate to human metabolic health and give insights into understanding the widespread health consequence of smoking outside of the lung.

14.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1412-1425, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224653

RESUMO

High blood pressure is a highly heritable and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We report the largest genetic association study of blood pressure traits (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) to date in over 1 million people of European ancestry. We identify 535 novel blood pressure loci that not only offer new biological insights into blood pressure regulation but also highlight shared genetic architecture between blood pressure and lifestyle exposures. Our findings identify new biological pathways for blood pressure regulation with potential for improved cardiovascular disease prevention in the future.

15.
J Lipid Res ; 59(9): 1763-1770, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986999

RESUMO

Omega-6 FAs are inflammatory mediators that are increased in joints with osteoarthritis (OA), but their association with OA progression is not yet well defined. To investigate the relationship between omega-6 FAs and knee OA, we measured with LC-MS the levels of 22 omega-6 lipids (arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and 20 oxylipins) in synovial fluid (SF) from 112 knees of 102 individuals (58 with knee OA; 44 controls). We hypothesized that oxylipin metabolites would increase in OA knee SF and with radiographically progressive disease. We validated results by comparing samples from affected and unaffected knees in 10 individuals with unilateral OA. In adjusted analysis, SF levels of three omega-6 oxylipins [prostaglandin D2, 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DHET), and 14,15-DHET] were associated with OA. Of these, 11,12-DHET and 14,15-DHET were higher in affected versus unaffected knees of people with unilateral disease (P < 0.014 and P < 0.003, respectively). Levels of these and 8,9-DHET were also associated with radiographic progression over 3.3 years in 87 individuals. Circulating levels of all three were associated with gene variants at the soluble epoxide hydrolase enzyme. Lipidomic profiling in SF identified an additional inflammatory pathway associated with knee OA and radiographic progression.

16.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1862(10): 2124-2133, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is the symptom of a group of syndromes with heterogeneous underlying mechanisms and molecular pathologies, making treatment selection and patient prognosis very challenging. Moreover, symptoms and prognosis of LBP are influenced by age, gender, occupation, habits, and psychological factors. LBP may be characterized by an underlying inflammatory process. Previous studies indicated a connection between inflammatory response and total plasma N-glycosylation. We wanted to identify potential changes in total plasma N-glycosylation pattern connected with chronic low back pain (CLBP), which could give an insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. METHODS: Plasma samples of 1128 CLBP patients and 760 healthy controls were collected in clinical centers in Italy, Belgium and Croatia and used for N-glycosylation profiling by hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UPLC) after N-glycans release, fluorescent labeling and clean-up. Observed N-glycosylation profiles have been compared with a cohort of 126 patients with acute inflammation that underwent abdominal surgery. RESULTS: We have found a statistically significant increase in the relative amount of high-branched (tri-antennary and tetra-antennary) N-glycan structures on CLBP patients' plasma glycoproteins compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, relative amounts of disialylated and trisialylated glycan structures were increased, while high-mannose and glycans containing bisecting N-acetylglucosamine decreased in CLBP. CONCLUSIONS: Observed changes in CLBP on the plasma N-glycome level are consistent with N-glycosylation changes usually seen in chronic inflammation. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is a first large clinical study on CLBP patients and plasma N-glycome providing a new glycomics perspective on potential disease pathology.

17.
Nat Genet ; 50(6): 790-795, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808030

RESUMO

The human gut microbiome plays a key role in human health 1 , but 16S characterization lacks quantitative functional annotation 2 . The fecal metabolome provides a functional readout of microbial activity and can be used as an intermediate phenotype mediating host-microbiome interactions 3 . In this comprehensive description of the fecal metabolome, examining 1,116 metabolites from 786 individuals from a population-based twin study (TwinsUK), the fecal metabolome was found to be only modestly influenced by host genetics (heritability (H2) = 17.9%). One replicated locus at the NAT2 gene was associated with fecal metabolic traits. The fecal metabolome largely reflects gut microbial composition, explaining on average 67.7% (±18.8%) of its variance. It is strongly associated with visceral-fat mass, thereby illustrating potential mechanisms underlying the well-established microbial influence on abdominal obesity. Fecal metabolic profiling thus is a novel tool to explore links among microbiome composition, host phenotypes, and heritable complex traits.

18.
Eur Heart J ; 39(25): 2390-2397, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750272

RESUMO

Aims: The gut microbiome influences metabolic syndrome (MetS) and inflammation and is therapeutically modifiable. Arterial stiffness is poorly correlated with most traditional risk factors. Our aim was to examine whether gut microbial composition is associated with arterial stiffness. Methods and results: We assessed the correlation between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, and gut microbiome composition in 617 middle-aged women from the TwinsUK cohort with concurrent serum metabolomics data. Pulse wave velocity was negatively correlated with gut microbiome alpha diversity (Shannon index, Beta(SE)= -0.25(0.07), P = 1 × 10-4) after adjustment for covariates. We identified seven operational taxonomic units associated with PWV after adjusting for covariates and multiple testing-two belonging to the Ruminococcaceae family. Associations between microbe abundances, microbe diversity, and PWV remained significant after adjustment for levels of gut-derived metabolites (indolepropionate, trimethylamine oxide, and phenylacetylglutamine). We linearly combined the PWV-associated gut microbiome-derived variables and found that microbiome factors explained 8.3% (95% confidence interval 4.3-12.4%) of the variance in PWV. A formal mediation analysis revealed that only a small proportion (5.51%) of the total effect of the gut microbiome on PWV was mediated by insulin resistance and visceral fat, c-reactive protein, and cardiovascular risk factors after adjusting for age, body mass index, and mean arterial pressure. Conclusions: Gut microbiome diversity is inversely associated with arterial stiffness in women. The effect of gut microbiome composition on PWV is only minimally mediated by MetS. This first human observation linking the gut microbiome to arterial stiffness suggests that targeting the microbiome may be a way to treat arterial ageing.

19.
Oncoimmunology ; 7(5): e1426423, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721391

RESUMO

Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive, chemotherapy-resistant CD4+CD25+ leukemia caused by HTLV-1 infection, which usually develops in a minority of patients several decades after infection. IFN + AZT combination therapy has shown clinical benefit in ATL, although its mechanism of action remains unclear. We have previously shown that an IFN-responsive FAS promoter polymorphism in a STAT1 binding site (rs1800682) is associated to ATL susceptibility and survival. Recently, CD4 T stem cell memory (TSCM) Fashi cells have been identified as the hierarchical cellular apex of ATL, but a possible link between FAS, apoptosis, proliferation and IFN response in ATL has not been studied. In this study, we found significant ex vivo antiproliferative, antiviral and immunomodulatory effects of IFN-α treatment in short-term culture of primary mononuclear cells from ATL patients (n = 25). Bayesian Network analysis allowed us to integrate ex vivo IFN-α response with clinical, genetic and immunological data from ATL patients, thereby revealing a central role for FAS -670 polymorphism and apoptosis in the coordinated mechanism of action of IFN-α. FAS genotype-dependence of IFN-induced apoptosis was experimentally validated in an independent cohort of healthy controls (n = 20). The same FAS -670 polymorphism also determined CD4 TSCM levels in a genome-wide twin study (p = 7 × 10-11, n = 460), confirming a genetic link between apoptosis and TSCM levels. Transcriptomic analysis and cell type deconvolution confirmed the FAS genotype/TSCM link and IFN-α-induced downregulation of CD4 TSCM-specific genes in ATL patient cells. In conclusion, ex vivo IFN-α treatment exerts a pleiotropic effect on primary ATL cells, with a genetic IFN/STAT1/Fas axis determining apoptosis vs. proliferation and underscoring the CD4 TSCM model of ATL leukemogenesis.

20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(11): 2025-2038, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659830

RESUMO

The ratio of the length of the index finger to that of the ring finger (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic and is commonly used as a non-invasive biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure. Most association studies of 2D:4D ratio with a diverse range of sex-specific traits have typically involved small sample sizes and have been difficult to replicate, raising questions around the utility and precise meaning of the measure. In the largest genome-wide association meta-analysis of 2D:4D ratio to date (N = 15 661, with replication N = 75 821), we identified 11 loci (9 novel) explaining 3.8% of the variance in mean 2D:4D ratio. We also found weak evidence for association (ß = 0.06; P = 0.02) between 2D:4D ratio and sensitivity to testosterone [length of the CAG microsatellite repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene] in females only. Furthermore, genetic variants associated with (adult) testosterone levels and/or sex hormone-binding globulin were not associated with 2D:4D ratio in our sample. Although we were unable to find strong evidence from our genetic study to support the hypothesis that 2D:4D ratio is a direct biomarker of prenatal exposure to androgens in healthy individuals, our findings do not explicitly exclude this possibility, and pathways involving testosterone may become apparent as the size of the discovery sample increases further. Our findings provide new insight into the underlying biology shaping 2D:4D variation in the general population.

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