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1.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(10): 3388-3397, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387115

RESUMO

Purpose: To report the clinical and molecular findings in patients with retinal dystrophy associated with the c.783G>A variant in CDHR1. Methods: The retinal phenotype of 10 patients with CDHR1-related retinopathy was characterized by multimodal imaging including color fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and blue- and near-infrared fundus autofluorescence imaging. Functional testing included electroretinography, visual acuity, and visual field testing. Results: Six patients homozygous for the c.783G>A variant in CDHR1 showed a retinal phenotype resembling central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD) on multimodal imaging. Retinal function outside an area of slowly progressive macular atrophy remained relatively preserved. In contrast, biallelic severe/truncating CDHR1 mutations result in retina-wide retinal degeneration in addition to macular atrophy, with overall severely reduced retinal function. Patients compound heterozygous for the c.783G>A mutation and a truncating mutation in CDHR1 showed an intermediate phenotype. All patients except one with biallelic severe CDHR1 mutations were asymptomatic in the first four decades of life, irrespective of their individual CDHR1 mutations. Analysis of blood RNA from patients with the c.783G>A variant revealed in-frame skipping of exon 8 in vivo, predicting a partial deletion of CDHR1 ectodomains 2 and 3. Conclusions: Patients with biallelic c.783G>A CDHR1 mutations demonstrate a retinal phenotype consistent with autosomal recessive CACD. The apparently silent dbSNP-annotated c.783G>A CDHR1 variant (rs147346345) has a relatively high minor allele frequency (0.31%), with homozygous individuals annotated in the general population, and it may therefore have been disregarded in many next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based studies. The differential diagnosis includes PRPH2-associated CACD and age-related macular degeneration.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373173

RESUMO

A male patient with mosaic paternal uniparental diploidy (PUD) is presented. After birth, the patient presented with hypoglycemia, hemihypertrophy, umbilical hernia, and hepatomegaly. Afterward pancreatic hypertrophy, liver hemangiomas, and cysts were detected sonographically. At the age of 3.5 months, hepatoblastoma was diagnosed. To investigate suspected Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), extensive genetic analyses were performed using DNA from chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, and peripheral blood lymphocytes (chromosome analysis, methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assays, microsatellite analyses, and single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis). These analyses led to the detection of mosaic PUD. In peripheral blood lymphocytes, a male cell line (46,XY[27]/46,XX[5]) predominated, suggesting a mixture of uniparental isodisomy and heterodisomy. The genetic analyses suggest that the mosaic PUD status was attributable to fertilization of an oocyte by two sperms, with subsequent triploidy rescue giving rise to haploidy, which in turn was rescued. Notably, in the majority of the 28 mosaic PUD patients reported to date, BWS was initially suspected. Mosaic PUD status is associated with a higher risk for a broad range of malignant and benign tumors than in BWS. As tumors can also occur after childhood surveillance into adolescence is indicated. Mosaic PUD must therefore be considered in patients with suspected BWS.

3.
Neuropediatrics ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319422

RESUMO

Mutations in GABAA-receptor subunit genes are associated with a heterogeneous spectrum of epilepsies. Patients with epilepsy caused by mutations in a specific GABAA-receptor (GABRA3) occasionally present with orofacial dysmorphism (e.g., cleft palates). While cleft palates have been described in Gabrb3 knockout mice and in humans with GABRB3 variants without epilepsy, the specific combination of epilepsy and cleft palate in humans with GABRB3 mutations has not yet been reported.We describe a patient with epileptic encephalopathy (EE) who presented with therapy-refractory neonatal-onset myoclonic seizures and severe developmental delay. Electroencephalogram showed burst suppression pattern at neonatal age and hypsarrhythmia at infantile age. Initial magnetic resonance imaging was unremarkable. As he additionally presented with a cleft palate, we were curious whether cleft palate and EE had the same genetic origin. Whole exome sequencing of the index patient revealed a novel pathogenic heterozygous de novo mutation in GABRB3 (c.899T > C; p.I300T). In consistency with Gabrb3 knockout mice data, this is the first report of cleft palate in a patient with GABRB3 associated EE.We suggest to add cleft palate to the phenotypic GABRB3 spectrum and to screen for mutations in GABAA-receptors in patients with EE and orofacial dysmorphism.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164752

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Phenotype information is crucial for the interpretation of genomic variants. So far it has only been accessible for bioinformatics workflows after encoding into clinical terms by expert dysmorphologists. METHODS: Here, we introduce an approach driven by artificial intelligence that uses portrait photographs for the interpretation of clinical exome data. We measured the value added by computer-assisted image analysis to the diagnostic yield on a cohort consisting of 679 individuals with 105 different monogenic disorders. For each case in the cohort we compiled frontal photos, clinical features, and the disease-causing variants, and simulated multiple exomes of different ethnic backgrounds. RESULTS: The additional use of similarity scores from computer-assisted analysis of frontal photos improved the top 1 accuracy rate by more than 20-89% and the top 10 accuracy rate by more than 5-99% for the disease-causing gene. CONCLUSION: Image analysis by deep-learning algorithms can be used to quantify the phenotypic similarity (PP4 criterion of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines) and to advance the performance of bioinformatics pipelines for exome analysis.

6.
Sci Adv ; 5(5): eaaw0946, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049400

RESUMO

The transcription factor p63 is a key mediator of epidermal development. Point mutations in p63 in patients lead to developmental defects, including orofacial clefting. To date, knowledge on how pivotal the role of p63 is in human craniofacial development is limited. Using an inducible transdifferentiation model, combined with epigenomic sequencing and multicohort meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies data, we show that p63 establishes enhancers at craniofacial development genes to modulate their transcription. Disease-specific substitution mutation in the DNA binding domain or sterile alpha motif protein interaction domain of p63, respectively, eliminates or reduces establishment of these enhancers. We show that enhancers established by p63 are highly enriched for single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with nonsyndromic cleft lip ± cleft palate (CL/P). These orthogonal approaches indicate a strong molecular link between p63 enhancer function and CL/P, illuminating molecular mechanisms underlying this developmental defect and revealing vital regulatory elements and new candidate causative genes.

7.
Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 47(6): 779-786, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977268

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Uncommon characteristics in genetically unsolved retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients may indicate an incorrect clinical diagnosis or as yet unknown genetic causes resulting in specific retinal phenotypes. The diagnostic yield of targeted next-generation sequencing may be increased by a reasonable preselection of RP-patients. BACKGROUND: To systematically evaluate and compare features of genetically solved and unsolved RP-patients. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. PARTICIPANTS: One-hundred and twelve consecutive RP-patients who underwent extensive molecular genetic analysis. METHODS: Characterization of patients based on multimodal imaging and medical history. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences between genetically solved and unsolved RP-patients. RESULTS: Compared to genetically solved patients (n = 77), genetically unsolved patients (n = 35) more frequently had an age of disease-onset above 30 years (60% vs 8%; P < 0.0001), showed atypical fundus features (49% vs 8%; P < 0. 0001) and indicators for phenocopies (eg, autoimmune diseases) (17% vs 0%; P < 0. 001). Evidence for a particular inheritance pattern was less common (20% vs 49%; P < 0. 01). The diagnostic yield was 84% (71/85) in patients with first symptoms below 30 years-of-age, compared to 69% (77/112) in the overall cohort. The other selection criteria alone or in combination resulted in limited further increase of the diagnostic yield (up to 89%) while excluding considerably more patients (up to 56%) from genetic testing. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The medical history and retinal phenotype differ between genetically solved and a subgroup of unsolved RP-patients, which may reflect undetected genotypes or retinal conditions mimicking RP. Patient stratification may inform on the individual likelihood of identifying disease-causing mutations and may impact patient counselling.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 767-773, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929741

RESUMO

The diagnostic gap for rare neurodegenerative diseases is still considerable, despite continuous advances in gene identification. Many novel Mendelian genes have only been identified in a few families worldwide. Here we report the identification of an autosomal-dominant gene for hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) in 10 families that are of diverse geographic origin and whose affected members all carry unique truncating changes in a circumscript region of UBAP1 (ubiquitin-associated protein 1). HSP is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive lower-limb spasticity and weakness, as well as frequent bladder dysfunction. At least 40% of affected persons are currently undiagnosed after exome sequencing. We identified pathological truncating variants in UBAP1 in affected persons from Iran, USA, Germany, Canada, Spain, and Bulgarian Roma. The genetic support ranges from linkage in the largest family (LOD = 8.3) to three confirmed de novo mutations. We show that mRNA in the fibroblasts of affected individuals escapes nonsense-mediated decay and thus leads to the expression of truncated proteins; in addition, concentrations of the full-length protein are reduced in comparison to those in controls. This suggests either a dominant-negative effect or haploinsufficiency. UBAP1 links endosomal trafficking to the ubiquitination machinery pathways that have been previously implicated in HSPs, and UBAP1 provides a bridge toward a more unified pathophysiology.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1101-1112, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850703

RESUMO

We aimed to identify novel deletions and variants of TP63 associated with orofacial clefting (OFC). Copy number variants were assessed in three OFC families using microarray analysis. Subsequently, we analyzed TP63 in a cohort of 1072 individuals affected with OFC and 706 population-based controls using molecular inversion probes (MIPs). We identified partial deletions of TP63 in individuals from three families affected with OFC. In the OFC cohort, we identified several TP63 variants predicting to cause loss-of-function alleles, including a frameshift variant c.569_576del (p.(Ala190Aspfs*5)) and a nonsense variant c.997C>T (p.(Gln333*)) that introduces a premature stop codon in the DNA-binding domain. In addition, we identified the first missense variants in the oligomerization domain c.1213G>A (p.(Val405Met)), which occurred in individuals with OFC. This variant was shown to abrogate oligomerization of mutant p63 protein into oligomeric complexes, and therefore likely represents a loss-of-function allele rather than a dominant-negative. All of these variants were inherited from an unaffected parent, suggesting reduced penetrance of such loss-of-function alleles. Our data indicate that loss-of-function alleles in TP63 can also give rise to OFC as the main phenotype. We have uncovered the dosage-dependent functions of p63, which were previously rejected.

10.
Epigenomics ; 11(2): 133-145, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638414

RESUMO

AIM: To determine if nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) genetic risk variants influence liability to nsCL/P through gene regulation pathways, such as those involving DNA methylation. MATERIALS & METHODS: nsCL/P genetic summary data and methylation data from four studies were used in conjunction with Mendelian randomization and joint likelihood mapping to investigate potential mediation of nsCL/P genetic variants. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: Evidence was found at VAX1 (10q25.3), LOC146880 (17q23.3) and NTN1 (17p13.1), that liability to nsCL/P and variation in DNA methylation might be driven by the same genetic variant, suggesting that genetic variation at these loci may increase liability to nsCL/P by influencing DNA methylation. Follow-up analyses using different tissues and gene expression data provided further insight into possible biological mechanisms.

11.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0207958, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543658

RESUMO

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited degenerative disease causing severe retinal dystrophy and visual impairment mainly with onset in infancy or adolescence. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become an efficient tool to encounter the enormous genetic heterogeneity of diverse retinal dystrophies, including RP. To identify disease-causing mutations in unselected, consecutive RP patients, we conducted Sanger sequencing of genes commonly involved in the suspected genetic RP subtype, followed by targeted large-panel NGS if no mutation was identified, or NGS as primary analysis. A high (70%) detection rate of disease-causing mutations was achieved in a large cohort of 116 unrelated patients. About half (48%) of the solved RP cases were explained by mutations in four genes: RPGR, EYS, PRPF31 and USH2A. Overall, 110 different mutations distributed across 30 different genes were detected, and 46 of these mutations were novel. A molecular diagnosis was achieved in the majority (82-100%) of patients if the family history was suggestive for a particular mode of inheritance, but only in 60% in cases of sporadic RP. The diagnostic potential of extensive molecular analysis in a routine setting is also illustrated by the identification of unexpected genotype-phenotype correlations for RP patients with mutations in CRX, CEP290, RPGRIP1, MFSD8. Furthermore, we identified numerous mutations in autosomal dominant (PRPF31, PRPH2, CRX) and X-linked (RPGR) RP genes in patients with sporadic RP. Variants in RP2 and RPGR were also found in female RP patients with apparently sporadic or dominant disease. In summary, this study demonstrates that massively parallel sequencing of all known retinal dystrophy genes is a valuable diagnostic approach for RP patients.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Alemanha , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Retinite Pigmentosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Cancer Med ; 7(10): 5057-5065, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191681

RESUMO

Genetic associations between variants on chromosome 5p13 and 8q24 and gastric cancer (GC) have been previously reported in the Asian population. We aimed to replicate these findings and to characterize the associations at the genome and transcriptome level. We performed a fine-mapping association study in 1926 GC patients and 2012 controls of European descent using high dense SNP marker sets on both chromosomal regions. Next, we performed expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses using gastric transcriptome data from 143 individuals focusing on the GC associated variants. On chromosome 5p13 the strongest association was observed at rs6872282 (P = 2.53 × 10-04 ) and on chromosome 8q24 at rs2585176 (P = 1.09 × 10-09 ). On chromosome 5p13 we found cis-eQTL effects with an upregulation of PTGER4 expression in GC risk allele carrier (P = 9.27 × 10-11 ). On chromosome 8q24 we observed cis-eQTL effects with an upregulation of PSCA expression in GC risk allele carrier (P = 2.17 × 10-47 ). In addition, we found trans-eQTL effects for the same variants on 8q24 with a downregulation of MBOAT7 expression in GC risk allele carrier (P = 3.11 × 10-09 ). In summary, we confirmed and refined the previously reported GC associations at both chromosomal regions. Our data point to shared etiological factors between Asians and Europeans. Furthermore, our data imply an upregulated expression of PTGER4 and PSCA as well as a downregulated expression of MBOAT7 in gastric tissue as risk-conferring GC pathomechanisms.

14.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(9): 1786-1790, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214764

RESUMO

Our findings extend the phenotypic spectrum of Cat eye syndrome, a disorder with wide clinical variability. The potentially life-threatening complications of congenital diaphragmatic hernia should be considered in genetic counseling and prenatal diagnostic.

15.
PLoS Genet ; 14(8): e1007501, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067744

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that genetic risk variants for non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (nsCL/P) are also associated with normal-range variation in facial morphology. However, previous analyses are mostly limited to candidate SNPs and findings have not been consistently replicated. Here, we used polygenic risk scores (PRS) to test for genetic overlap between nsCL/P and seven biologically relevant facial phenotypes. Where evidence was found of genetic overlap, we used bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) to test the hypothesis that genetic liability to nsCL/P is causally related to implicated facial phenotypes. Across 5,804 individuals of European ancestry from two studies, we found strong evidence, using PRS, of genetic overlap between nsCL/P and philtrum width; a 1 S.D. increase in nsCL/P PRS was associated with a 0.10 mm decrease in philtrum width (95% C.I. 0.054, 0.146; P = 2x10-5). Follow-up MR analyses supported a causal relationship; genetic variants for nsCL/P homogeneously cause decreased philtrum width. In addition to the primary analysis, we also identified two novel risk loci for philtrum width at 5q22.2 and 7p15.2 in our Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) of 6,136 individuals. Our results support a liability threshold model of inheritance for nsCL/P, related to abnormalities in development of the philtrum.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4824, 2018 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555955

RESUMO

Macular and cone/cone-rod dystrophies (MD/CCRD) demonstrate a broad genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, with retinal alterations solely or predominantly involving the central retina. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an efficient diagnostic tool for identifying mutations in patient with retinitis pigmentosa, which shows similar genetic heterogeneity. To detect the genetic causes of disease in patients with MD/CCRD, we implemented a two-tier procedure consisting of Sanger sequencing and targeted NGS including genes associated with clinically overlapping conditions. Disease-causing mutations were identified in 74% of 251 consecutive MD/CCRD patients (33% of the variants were novel). Mutations in ABCA4, PRPH2 and BEST1 accounted for 57% of disease cases. Further mutations were identified in CDHR1, GUCY2D, PROM1, CRX, GUCA1A, CERKL, MT-TL1, KIF11, RP1L1, MERTK, RDH5, CDH3, C1QTNF5, CRB1, JAG1, DRAM2, POC1B, NPHP1 and RPGR. We provide detailed illustrations of rare phenotypes, including autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography imaging. Targeted NGS also identified six potential novel genotype-phenotype correlations for FAM161A, INPP5E, MERTK, FBLN5, SEMA4A and IMPDH1. Clinical reassessment of genetically unsolved patients revealed subgroups with similar retinal phenotype, indicating a common molecular disease cause in each subgroup.

17.
Birth Defects Res ; 110(10): 871-882, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic cleft palate only (nsCPO) is a common and multifactorial form of orofacial clefting. In contrast to successes achieved for the other common form of orofacial clefting, that is, nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (nsCL/P), genome wide association studies (GWAS) of nsCPO have identified only one genome wide significant locus. Aim of the present study was to investigate whether common variants contribute to nsCPO and, if so, to identify novel risk loci. METHODS: We genotyped 33 SNPs at 27 candidate loci from 2 previously published nsCPO GWAS in an independent multiethnic sample. It included: (i) a family-based sample of European ancestry (n = 212); and (ii) two case/control samples of Central European (n = 94/339) and Arabian ancestry (n = 38/231), respectively. A separate association analysis was performed for each genotyped dataset, and meta-analyses were performed. RESULTS: After association analysis and meta-analyses, none of the 33 SNPs showed genome-wide significance. Two variants showed nominally significant association in the imputed GWAS dataset and exhibited a further decrease in p-value in a European and an overall meta-analysis including imputed GWAS data, respectively (rs395572: PMetaEU = 3.16 × 10-4 ; rs6809420: PMetaAll = 2.80 × 10-4 ). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is a limited contribution of common variants to nsCPO. However, the individual effect sizes might be too small for detection of further associations in the present sample sizes. Rare variants may play a more substantial role in nsCPO than in nsCL/P, for which GWAS of smaller sample sizes have identified genome-wide significant loci. Whole-exome/genome sequencing studies of nsCPO are now warranted.

18.
Birth Defects Res ; 110(4): 336-341, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29134786

RESUMO

Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) is one of the most common congenital malformation worldwide, and its etiology involves both genetic and environmental factors. Recent genome-wide and targeted genetic studies of nsCL/P have identified numerous genetic risk loci, under the hypothesis of a multiplicative mode of inheritance. The present study investigated whether novel nsCL/P risk loci could be identified by analyzing dominant/recessive genetic effects in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from genome-wide association studies. For this purpose, a genome-wide investigation of dominant/recessive common SNP effects was performed in our previously published meta-analysis data set. Twenty-four loci were identified as candidate regions. In a subsequent association analysis in an independent study cohort of 224 nsCL/P patients and 986 controls of European descent, none of the loci could be replicated. Therefore, our strategy of identifying novel loci by applying different genetic models did not yield any novel findings, suggesting that recessive/dominant common variation only make a limited contribution to nsCL/P in Europeans. However, we cannot rule out that such effects are present at some of the loci that have previously been identified, or are present in different populations.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Genes Dominantes , Genes Recessivos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Modelos Genéticos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 5(5): 570-579, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic oral clefts are craniofacial malformations, which include cleft lip with or without cleft palate. The etiology for oral clefts is complex with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to risk. Previous genome-wide association (GWAS) studies have identified multiple loci with small effects; however, many causal variants remain elusive. METHODS: In this study, we address this by specifically looking for rare, potentially damaging variants in family-based data. We analyzed both whole exome sequence (WES) data and whole genome sequence (WGS) data in multiplex cleft families to identify variants shared by affected individuals. RESULTS: Here we present the results from these analyses. Our most interesting finding was from a single Syrian family, which showed enrichment of nonsynonymous and potentially damaging rare variants in two genes: CASP9 and FAT4. CONCLUSION: Neither of these candidate genes has previously been associated with oral clefts and, if confirmed as contributing to disease risk, may indicate novel biological pathways in the genetic etiology for oral clefts.

20.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 58(10): 3950-3959, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28785766

RESUMO

Purpose: This study sought to characterize the ophthalmic and extraocular phenotype in patients with known and novel KIF11 mutations. Methods: Four patients (3, 5, 36, and 38 years of age, on father-daughter constellation) from three unrelated families were characterized by retinal examination including multimodal retinal imaging, investigation for syndromic disease manifestations, and targeted next-generation sequencing. The subcellular localization of Kif11 in the retina was analyzed by light and electron microcopy. Results: There was considerable interindividual and intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity of KIF11-related retinopathy. Two patients presented with a progressive retinal dystrophy, one with chorioretinal dysplasia and one with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) in one eye and thinning of the photoreceptor layer in the fellow eye. Obvious syndromic disease manifestations were present only in the youngest patient, but minor signs (e.g. reduced head circumference) were present in the three other individuals. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated Kif11 localization in the inner segment and ciliary compartments of photoreceptor cells and in the retinal pigment epithelium. Conclusions: Progressive retinal degeneration in KIF11-related retinopathy indicates a role for KIF11 not only in ocular development but also in maintaining retinal morphology and function. The remarkable variability of the ocular phenotype suggests four different types of retinopathy which may overlap. KIF11 should be considered in the screening of patients with retinal dystrophies because other syndromic manifestations may be subtle. Evaluation of head circumference may be considered as a potential shortcut to the genetic diagnosis. The localization of Kif11 in photoreceptor cells indicates a retinal ciliopathy.


Assuntos
Cinesina/genética , Mutação , Distrofias Retinianas/genética , Adulto , Animais , Western Blotting , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Eletrorretinografia , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Aconselhamento Genético , Humanos , Cinesina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Imagem Multimodal , Imagem Óptica , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados/metabolismo , Distrofias Retinianas/diagnóstico , Distrofias Retinianas/metabolismo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
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