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1.
BMC Neurosci ; 22(1): 34, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) is widely adopted to evaluate manual dexterity, it presents normative data but the test is influenced by different factors. The influence of time spent on smartphones has not been considered before, for this reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate if smartphone use influences the time to complete the GPT. A total of 38 (21 women; 17 men) young adults 20.7 (1.5) years participated in the study. The time spent on the smartphones during the last seven days was recorded through the device itself and the GPT performance was measured. A correlation analysis between the time spent on the smartphone and GPT was performed while the t-test was adopted to evaluate gender differences. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were detected between men and women in the time to complete the GPT (p = 0.20) and in the time spent on the smartphone (p = 0.87). The GPT and the time spent using the smartphone were not correlated (r = 0.044, p = 0.78). CONCLUSION: The time spent on the smartphone by young adults does not influence the time to complete the GPT, indicating that smartphone use does not influence measures of manual dexterity.

2.
J Aging Phys Act ; 29(1): 162-177, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788414

RESUMO

Dual-task (DT) consists of the performance of two tasks simultaneously. An index of DT difficulty has been linked to decreased postural control. Because a wide range of DT is employed, this study aimed to evaluate its effects in static balance in older adults. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were screened, and the secondary tasks were grouped as manual, reaction time, discrimination and decision making, mental tracking, verbal fluency, working memory, or "other" tasks. A total of 66 studies have been included. The meta-analysis was conducted on 28 effects and showed a significant mean effect size of d = 0.24 (p = .02, SE = 0.10; confidence interval [0.04, 0.44]), indicating a worsening in stability during DT. In conclusion, postural control was worsened by the Stroop test and the arithmetic tasks improved it. The results do not underpin any conclusive statement on the impact of DT, and a standard operating procedure was created.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Cognição/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Caminhada/psicologia
3.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357500

RESUMO

Rapid weight loss (RWL) is commonly practiced among judo athletes. Although it helps them to gain the advantage over their lighter opponents, previous studies have shown that RWL can have a negative impact on the athlete's performance and overall well-being. This systematic review aimed to synthesize the evidence that examines the influence of rapid weight loss on physiological parameters, biomarkers, and psychological well-being in judo athletes. We followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. We searched for studies on Web of Science and PubMed that elaborate on the influence of ≥5% RWL achieved over ≤7-day period in judokas. Out of 52 studies initially found, 14 studies met our eligibility criteria and were included in the review. In total, we examined data from 1103 judo athletes. Retrieved studies showed conflicting data concerning physiological parameters and biomarkers, while psychological well-being parameters were more consistent than physiological and biomarkers. The feeling of tension, anger, and fatigue significantly increased while a decrease in vigor was demonstrated among athletes who lost weight rapidly. The evidence on the impact of RWL on performance remains ambiguous. More studies under standardized conditions are needed in order to provide firm evidence. Considering the harmful effects of RWL outlined in the existing literature, it is important to determine and monitor athlete's minimal competitive weight to prioritize the health and safety of the athlete, emphasize fairness, and ultimately benefit the sport.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Artes Marciais/psicologia , Perda de Peso , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Ira , Fadiga , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 142, 2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of rapid weight loss (RWL) methods over 3 days on muscle damage in judokas. METHODS: Eighteen judokas participated in this crossover study, meaning that judo athletes were subjected to exercise-only phase (4 days) and RWL phase (3 days). Subjects were tested for myoglobin, creatine kinase, aldolase, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values on seven consecutive days. These biomarkers served as indicators of acute muscle damage. RESULTS: During the exercise-only phase, no significant changes were observed. Myoglobin (Mb) (p < 0.001), creatine kinase (CK) (p < 0.001) and aldolase (ALD) (p < 0.001) significantly increased only during the RWL phase, as well as hemoglobin (Hb) (p < 0.001) and hematocrit (Hct) (p < 0.005) values. It was detected that peak values for muscle damage biomarkers were reached on the sixth day, while Hct and Hb values were the highest on the seventh day of the study. CONCLUSION: Our study showed significant muscle damage induced by RWL. The prevalence of RWL use by judokas is high but firm scientific evidence is lacking in the evaluation of the current practice of it. Therefore, further knowledge must be gained to evaluate the effectiveness of RWL on performance and its impact on judokas' wellbeing.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais , Perda de Peso , Atletas , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético
5.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 27: 35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462989

RESUMO

Background: Muscle energy techniques are applied to reduce pain and increase range of motion. These are applied to a variety of pathological conditions and on asymptomatic subjects. There is however limited knowledge on their effectiveness and which protocol may be the most beneficial. Objective: The aim of this review is to determine the efficacy of muscle energy techniques (MET) in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Design: Systematic Review. Methods: A literature search was performed using the following database: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, NLM Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Studies regarding MET in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were considered for investigation. The main outcomes took into account range of motion, chronic and acute pain and trigger points. Two trained investigators independently screened eligible studies according to the eligibility criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Randomized control trials (RCT's) were analyzed for quality using the PEDro scale. Results: A total of 26 studies were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis: 14 regarding symptomatic patients and 12 regarding asymptomatic subjects. Quality assessment of the studies through the PEDro scale observed a "moderate to high" quality of the included records. Conclusions: MET are an effective treatment for reducing chronic and acute pain of the lower back. MET are also effective in treating chronic neck pain and chronic lateral epicondylitis. MET can be applied to increase range of motion of a joint when a functional limitation is present. Other techniques seem to be more appropriate compared to MET for trigger points.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/terapia , Doenças Assintomáticas/terapia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Manipulação Osteopática , Músculos/metabolismo , Dor Aguda/metabolismo , Dor Aguda/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/metabolismo , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Músculos/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(1): 301-310, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377779

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We compared the modulation of force steadiness by different types of electrical nerve stimulation in young (n = 13, 25 ± 4 years) and older (n = 12, 78 ± 5 years) adults. METHODS: The protocol involved four types of isometric contractions with the wrist-extensor muscles at 10% of the maximal force. Three of the contractions involved electrical nerve stimulation that comprised two forms of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) to evoke muscle contractions and a voluntary contraction with superimposed transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) at an intensity less than motor threshold. RESULTS: The coefficient of variation (CV) for force during voluntary wrist extension was less (P = 0.03) for young (1.82 ± 0.43%) than older adults (2.80 ± 1.08%). The CV for force did not differ between age groups during the three types of electrical nerve stimulation but was reduced relative to the value observed during voluntary wrist extension for older adults. In contrast, the CV for force increased during the voluntary contraction with superimposed TENS for young adults but not for older adults. Moreover, there were significant negative correlations in older adults between the CV for force during the voluntary contraction and its decrease with electrical nerve stimulation. CONCLUSION: Differences in the CV for force between the evoked and voluntary contractions for the two age groups suggest that the variance in common synaptic input to motor neurons during steady voluntary contractions with the wrist extensors is greater for older adults than young adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Contração Muscular , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Punho/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Potencial Evocado Motor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/normas , Punho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Punho/inervação
7.
J Neurophysiol ; 120(5): 2603-2613, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156959

RESUMO

The purpose of our study was to compare the influence of five types of electrical nerve stimulation delivered through electrodes placed over the right biceps brachii on motor unit activity in the left biceps brachii during an ongoing steady isometric contraction. The electrical stimulation protocols comprised different combinations of pulse duration (0.2 and 1.0 ms), stimulus frequency (50 and 90 Hz), and stimulus current (greater or less than motor threshold). The electrical nerve stimulation protocols were applied over the muscle of the right elbow flexors of 13 participants (26 ± 3 yr) while they performed voluntary contractions with the left elbow flexors to match a target force set at 10% of maximum. All five types of electrical nerve stimulation increased the absolute amplitude of the electromyographic (EMG) signal recorded from the left biceps brachii with high-density electrodes. Moreover, one stimulation condition (1 ms, 90 Hz) had a consistent influence on the centroid location of the EMG amplitude distribution and the average force exerted by the left elbow flexors. Another stimulation condition (0.2 ms, 90 Hz) reduced the coefficient of variation for force during the voluntary contraction, and both low-frequency conditions (50 Hz) increased the duration of the mean interspike interval of motor unit action potentials after the stimulation had ended. The findings indicate that the contralateral effects of electrical nerve stimulation on the motor neuron pool innervating the homologous muscle can be influenced by both stimulus pulse duration and stimulus frequency. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Different types of electrical nerve stimulation delivered through electrodes placed over the right biceps brachii modulated the ongoing motor unit activity in the left biceps brachii. Although the effects varied with stimulus pulse duration, frequency, and current, all five types of electrical nerve stimulation increased the amplitude of the electromyographic activity in the left biceps brachii. Moreover, most of the effects in the left arm occurred after the electrical nerve stimulation of the right arm had been terminated.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Adulto , Potencial Evocado Motor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico
8.
J Neurophysiol ; 120(4): 1988-1997, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044670

RESUMO

The purpose of our study was to examine the associations between the performance of older adults on four tests of mobility and the physical capabilities of the lower leg muscles. The assessments included measures of muscle strength, muscle activation, and perceived fatigability. Muscle activation was quantified as the force fluctuations-a measure of force steadiness-and motor unit discharge characteristics of lower leg muscles during submaximal isometric contractions. Perceived fatigability was measured as the rating of perceived exertion achieved during a test of walking endurance. Twenty participants (73 ± 4 yr) completed one to four evaluation sessions that were separated by at least 3 wk. The protocol included a 400-m walk, a 10-m walk at maximal and preferred speeds, a chair-rise test, and the strength, force steadiness, and discharge characteristics of motor units detected by high-density electromyography of lower leg muscles. Multiple-regression analyses yielded statistically significant models that explained modest amounts of the variance in the four mobility tests. The variance explained by the regression models was 39% for 400-m walk time, 33% for maximal walk time, 42% for preferred walk time, and 27% for chair-rise time. The findings indicate that differences in mobility among healthy older adults were partially associated with the level of perceived fatigability (willingness of individuals to exert themselves) achieved during the test of walking endurance and the discharge characteristics of soleus, medial gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior motor units during steady submaximal contractions with the plantar flexor and dorsiflexor muscles. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Differences among healthy older adults in walking endurance, walking speed, and ability to rise from a chair can be partially explained by the performance capabilities of lower leg muscles. Assessments comprised the willingness to exert effort (perceived fatigability) and the discharge times of action potentials by motor units in calf muscles during submaximal isometric contractions. These findings indicate that the nervous system contributes significantly to differences in mobility among healthy older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Atividade Motora , Fadiga Muscular , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Locomoção , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Percepção
9.
J Physiol ; 596(16): 3793-3806, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882259

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: The fluctuations in force during a steady isometric contraction (force steadiness) are associated with oscillations in common synaptic input to the involved motor neurons. Decreases in force steadiness are associated with increases in pegboard times in older adults, although a mechanism for this link has not been established. We used a state-space model to estimate the variability in common synaptic input to motor neurons during steady, isometric contractions. The estimate of common synaptic input was derived from the discharge times of motor units as recorded with high-density surface electrodes. We found that the variability in common synaptic input to motor neurons modulates force steadiness for young and older adults, as well as pegboard time for older adults. ABSTRACT: We investigated the associations between grooved pegboard times, force steadiness (coefficient of variation for force) and variability in an estimate of the common synaptic input to motor neurons innervating the wrist extensor muscles during steady contractions performed by young and older adults. The discharge times of motor units were derived from recordings obtained with high-density surface electrodes when participants performed steady isometric contractions at 10% and 20% of maximal voluntary contraction force. The steady contractions were performed with a pinch grip and wrist extension, both independently (single action) and concurrently (double action). The variance in common synaptic input to motor neurons was estimated with a state-space model of the latent common input dynamics. There was a statistically significant association between the coefficient of variation for force during the steady contractions and the estimated variance in common synaptic input in young (r2  = 0.31) and older (r2  = 0.39) adults, although not between either the mean or the coefficient of variation for interspike interval of single motor units with the coefficient of variation for force. Moreover, the estimated variance in common synaptic input during the double-action task with the wrist extensors at the 20% target was significantly associated with grooved pegboard time (r2  = 0.47) for older adults but not young adults. These findings indicate that longer pegboard times of older adults were associated with worse force steadiness and greater fluctuations in the estimated common synaptic input to motor neurons during steady contractions.


Assuntos
Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Contração Muscular , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Punho/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Punho/inervação
10.
Exp Gerontol ; 108: 269-275, 2018 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738790

RESUMO

Declines in mobility with advancing age are often associated with a reduction in the use of lower leg muscles. We examined the influence of two interventions that involved neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) applied to the triceps surae muscles on the mobility and muscle function of older adults. Thirty healthy older adults (73.5 ±â€¯4.8 yrs) participated in a 6-week intervention comprising 3 weekly sessions of either narrow- or wide-pulse NMES. Motor function was assessed at Weeks 0, 4, 7, and 10. There were no statistically significant differences in the changes in mobility for the two groups of participants, so the data for the two groups were combined to examine changes across time. Time to walk 400 m decreased and maximal walking speed increased after 3 wks of NMES (Week 4) but did not change further at Weeks 7 and 10. In contrast, time to complete the chair-rise and rapid-step tests decreased progressively up to Week 7 but did not change further at Week 10. Moreover, the increase in plantar flexor strength was only observed at Week 7. NMES can elicit improvements in the motor function of older adults, but the time course of the adaptations differs across the mobility tests.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Equilíbrio Postural , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Caminhada
11.
Exp Brain Res ; 236(8): 2165-2172, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785485

RESUMO

Declines in manual dexterity are frequently quantified as the time it takes to complete the grooved pegboard test. The test requires individuals to manipulate 25 pegs, one at a time, by removing them from a well and inserting them into a prescribed hole. The manipulation of each peg involves four phases: selection, transport, insertion, and return. The purpose of our study was to compare the times to complete the four phases of peg manipulation and the forces applied to the pegboard during peg insertion as young, middle-aged, and old adults performed the grooved pegboard test. The relative significance of the peg-manipulation attributes for 30 young (24.0 ± 4.4 years), 15 middle-aged (46.5 ± 6.5 years), and 15 old (70.4 ± 4.0 years) adults was assessed with a multiple-regression analysis. The grooved pegboard test was performed on a force plate. Pegboard times for the old adults (81 ± 17 s) were longer than those for young (56 ± 7 s) and middle-aged (58 ± 11 s) adults. Regression analysis indicated that the explanatory variables for the pegboard times of young (R2 = 0.33) and middle-aged (R2 = 0.78) adults were the times for the peg insertion and return phases, whereas the predictors for old adults (R2 = 0.49) were the times for the peg selection and transport phases. The relative influence of peg-manipulation capabilities on a pegboard test of manual dexterity was greater for middle-aged adults than for young and old adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Exp Brain Res ; 235(11): 3487-3493, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28849332

RESUMO

Manual dexterity declines with advancing age and the development of neurological disorders. Changes in manual dexterity are frequently quantified as the time it takes to complete the grooved pegboard test, which requires individuals to manipulate 25 pegs. The manipulation of each peg involves four phases: selection, transport, insertion, and return. The purpose of the study was to compare the times to complete the four phases of manipulating each peg and the forces applied to the pegboard during peg selection and insertion in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and age- and sex-matched healthy adults. Multiple-regression models that could explain the variance in pegboard times for each group of participants were compared to assess the relative significance of the peg-manipulation attributes. The performance of 17 persons with MS (52.2 ± 8.3 years) was compared with 17 control subjects (52.2 ± 11.5 years). The grooved pegboard test was performed on a force plate. Pegboard times for the MS group (104 ± 40 s) were longer than those for the Control group (61 ± 15 s). Regression analysis indicated that the pegboard times for the MS group could be predicted by the time for the peg-selection phase (R 2 = 0.78), whereas the predictors for Control group (R 2 = 0.77) were the times for the peg-transport (partial r = 0.80) and selection (partial r = 0.58) phases. The variance in the time it took the MS participants to complete the grooved pegboard test was strongly related to the time required to select each peg, whereas the pegboard times for the Control subjects depended mostly on the duration of the transport phase but also on the time to select each peg.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
J Neurophysiol ; 116(3): 1358-65, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27334949

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to compare the discharge characteristics of single motor units during sustained isometric contractions that required either force or position control in left-handed individuals. The target force for the two sustained contractions (24.9 ± 10.5% maximal force) was identical for each biceps brachii motor unit (n = 32) and set at 4.7 ± 2.0% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force above its recruitment threshold (range: 0.5-41.2% MVC force). The contractions were not sustained to task failure, but the duration (range: 60-330 s) was identical for each motor unit and the decline in MVC force immediately after the sustained contractions was similar for the two tasks (force: 11.1% ± 13.7%; position: 11.6% ± 9.9%). Despite a greater increase in the rating of perceived exertion during the position task (task × time interaction, P < 0.006), the amplitude of the surface-recorded electromyogram for the agonist and antagonist muscles increased similarly during the two tasks. Nonetheless, mean discharge rate of the biceps brachii motor units declined more during the position task (task × time interaction, P < 0.01) and the variability in discharge times (coefficient of variation for interspike interval) increased only during the position task (task × time interaction, P < 0.008). When combined with the results of an identical study on right-handers (Mottram CJ, Jakobi JM, Semmler JG, Enoka RM. J Neurophysiol 93: 1381-1392, 2005), the findings indicate that handedness does not influence the adjustments in biceps brachii motor unit activity during sustained submaximal contractions requiring either force or position control.


Assuntos
Braço/fisiologia , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 118(12): 1544-52, 2015 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25930023

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) current intensity and pulse width applied to the right elbow flexors on the discharge characteristics of motor units in the left biceps brachii. Three NMES current intensities were applied for 5 s with either narrow (0.2 ms) or wide (1 ms) stimulus pulses: one at 80% of motor threshold and two that evoked contractions at either ∼10% or ∼20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. The discharge times of 28 low-threshold (0.4-21.6% MVC force) and 16 high-threshold (31.7-56.3% MVC force) motor units in the short head of biceps brachii were determined before, during, and after NMES. NMES elicited two main effects: one involved transient deflections in the left-arm force at the onset and offset of NMES and the other consisted of nonuniform modulation of motor unit activity. The force deflections, which were influenced by NMES current intensity and pulse width, were observed only when low-threshold motor units were tracked. NMES did not significantly influence the discharge characteristics of tracked single-threshold motor units. However, a qualitative analysis indicated that there was an increase in the number of unique waveforms detected during and after NMES. The findings indicate that activity of motor units in the left elbow flexors can be modulated by NMES current and pulse width applied to right elbow flexors, but the effects are not distributed uniformly to the involved motor units.


Assuntos
Braço/inervação , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Braço/fisiologia , Cotovelo/inervação , Cotovelo/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletromiografia , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Adulto Jovem
15.
Exp Gerontol ; 55: 92-101, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24703888

RESUMO

Declines in neuromuscular function, including measures of mobility, muscle strength, steadiness, and patterns of muscle activation, accompany advancing age and are often associated with reduced quality of life and mortality. Paradoxically, older adults are less fatigable than young adults in some tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of age on fatigability of the dorsiflexors and to evaluate the ecological validity of this test by comparing it to motor function subdomains known to decline with advancing age. The community-dwelling older adults (n=52, 75.2±6.0years) were more fatigable than young adults (n=26, 22.2±3.7years), as assessed by endurance time for supporting a submaximal load (20% of one-repetition maximum; 1-RM) with an isometric contraction of the dorsiflexor muscles (8.9±0.6min and 15.5±0.9min, p<0.001), including participants matched for 1-RM load and sex (Y: 13.3±4.0min, O: 8.5±6.1min, n=11 pairs, 6 women, p<0.05). When the older adults were separated into two groups (65-75 and 76-90years), however, only endurance time for the oldest group was less than that for the other two groups (p<0.01). All measures of motor function were significantly correlated (all p<0.05) with dorsiflexor endurance time for the older adults, and multiple regression analysis revealed that the variance in endurance time was most closely associated with age, steadiness, and knee flexor strength (R(2)=0.50, p<0.001). These findings indicate that dorsiflexor fatigability provides a valid biomarker of motor function in older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 26(3): 249-54, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24155214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advancing age is accompanied by changes in metabolic characteristics, such as reduced insulin sensitivity and low levels of vitamin D, which may exacerbate age-related declines in physical function. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to determine the associations between insulin-glucose dynamics, vitamin D metabolites, and performance on a battery of motor tasks in healthy, non-diabetic older adults. METHODS: Sixty-nine community-dwelling men and women (65-90 years) were recruited. Insulin-glucose dynamics were determined by an intravenous glucose tolerance test, and vitamin D metabolites were measured. Motor function was characterized by the time to walk 500 m, chair-rise time, lower body strength, dorsiflexor steadiness and endurance time, and muscle coactivation. RESULTS: Significant unadjusted correlations were found between insulin-glucose dynamics and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] with walk time, strength, steadiness, endurance time, and muscle activation (p < 0.05). A significant amount of the variance in walking endurance was explained by the sex of the individual, 1,25(OH)2D, and fasting blood insulin (R (2) = 0.36, p < 0.001). Strength could be partially explained by age, body fatness, and fasting glucose (R (2) = 0.55, p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Poor motor function in non-diabetic older men and women was associated with indices of insulin-glucose dynamics and the bio-active vitamin D metabolite 1,25(OH)2D. Walking endurance and strength were explained by 1,25(OH)2D and fasting blood glucose and insulin, even after adjusting for age, sex, and body fat. CONCLUSION: Motor function in a relatively small sample of non-diabetic older men and women was associated with metabolic factors that increase in prevalence with aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Força Muscular , Resistência Física , Vitamina D/sangue
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