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Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(1): 34-47, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167039


While prompt diagnosis of vasculitis is important, recognition of vasculitis mimics is equally essential. As in the case of vasculitis, an approach to mimics based on the anatomic size of vessels can be useful. Infections can mimic vasculitis of any vessel size, including the formation of aneurysms and induction of ANCAs. Genetic disorders and vasculopathies are important considerations in large and medium vessel vasculitis. Cholesterol emboli, thrombotic conditions and calciphylaxis typically affect the medium and small vessels and, like vasculitis, can cause cutaneous, renal and CNS manifestations. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is important to distinguish from primary angiitis of the CNS. As an incorrect diagnosis of vasculitis can result in harmful consequences, it is imperative that the evaluation of suspected vasculitis includes consideration of mimics. We discuss the above mimics and outline a systematic and practical approach for differentiating vasculitis from its mimics.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 72(5): 622-629, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115180


OBJECTIVE: The California Lupus Surveillance Project (CLSP) is a population-based registry of individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) residing in San Francisco County, California from 2007 to 2009, with a special focus on Asian/Pacific Islander and Hispanic patients. We used retrospective CLSP data to analyze racial and ethnic differences in lupus manifestations and in the timing and risk of developing severe manifestations. METHODS: A total of 724 patients with SLE were retrospectively identified. Prevalence ratios (PRs) of SLE manifestations were calculated using Poisson regression models stratified by race/ethnicity and adjusted for sex, age at SLE diagnosis, and disease duration. We studied onset of severe SLE manifestations after SLE diagnosis using Kaplan-Meier methods to examine time-to-event and Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). White patients were the referent group in all analyses. RESULTS: African Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanic patients had increased prevalence of renal manifestations (PR 1.74 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.40-2.16], PR 1.68 [95% CI 1.38-2.05], and PR 1.35 [95% CI 1.05-1.74], respectively). Furthermore, African Americans had increased prevalence of neurologic manifestations (PR 1.49 [95% CI 1.12-1.98]), and both African Americans (PR 1.09 [95% CI 1.04-1.15]) and Asian/Pacific Islanders (PR 1.07 [95% CI 1.01-1.13]) had increased prevalence of hematologic manifestations. African Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanic patients, respectively, had higher risk of developing lupus nephritis (HR 2.4 [95% CI 1.6-3.8], HR 4.3 [95% CI 2.9-6.4], and HR 2.3 [95% CI 1.4-3.8]) and thrombocytopenia (HR 2.3 [95% CI 1.1-4.4], HR 2.3 [95% CI 1.3-4.2], and HR 2.2 [95% CI 1.1-4.7]). Asian/Pacific Islander and Hispanic patients had higher risk of developing antiphospholipid syndrome (HR 2.5 [95% CI 1.4-4.4] and HR 2.6 [95% CI 1.3-5.1], respectively). CONCLUSION: This is the first epidemiologic study comparing lupus manifestations among 4 major racial and ethnic groups. We found substantial differences in the prevalence of several clinical SLE manifestations among racial/ethnic groups and discovered that African Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanic patients are at increased risk of developing several severe manifestations following a diagnosis of SLE.

Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Nefrite Lúpica/diagnóstico , Nefrite Lúpica/etnologia , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores Raciais , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
Br J Ophthalmol ; 101(6): 691-694, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28450377


AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of fundus abnormalities among patients who are undergoing or have recently completed treatment for extrapulmonary tuberculosis (eTB). METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in a TB clinic of a tertiary hospital in northern Thailand. All patients who had eTB between January 2014 and August 2015 were invited by telephone to return to the clinic for fundus photography. Three uveitis specialists reviewed all photographs to identify posterior segment lesions that were consistent with ocular TB. RESULTS: A total of 265 patients were diagnosed with eTB during the specified period, of which 118 (44.5%) were reached by telephone and 60 (50.8%) participated in the study. A total of 7 eyes from six patients (10.0% of participants, 95% CI 2.2% to 17.8%) had lesions consistent with ocular TB. The group with possible ocular TB lesions was on average 16.8 years older than those without ocular lesions (p=0.01), but the two groups were otherwise not significantly different. CONCLUSION: Ocular lesions consistent with TB were not rare in a group of patients who were undergoing or had recently completed treatment for eTB. Fundus examination may provide diagnostic information that could influence a clinician's beliefs when diagnosing eTB. Given the low costs and immediate results of eye examination, this diagnostic test should be considered in patients suspected for eTB, especially when other tests are negative.

Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose Ocular/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Ocular/epidemiologia
Bull World Health Organ ; 92(12): 903-8, 2014 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25552774


PROBLEM: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis continues to be a neglected source of blindness in resource-poor settings. The main issue is lack of capacity to diagnose CMV retinitis in the clinical setting where patients receive care and all other opportunistic infections are diagnosed. APPROACH: We developed and implemented a four-day workshop to train clinicians working in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics how to perform binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and diagnose CMV retinitis. Workshops comprised both classroom didactic instruction and direct clinical eye examinations in patients with advanced AIDS. Between 2007 and 2013, 14 workshops were conducted in China, Myanmar and the Russian Federation. LOCAL SETTING: Workshops were held with local clinicians at HIV clinics supported by nongovernmental organizations, public-sector municipal hospitals and provincial infectious disease referral hospitals. Each setting had limited or no access to locally- trained ophthalmologists, and an HIV-infected population with advanced disease. RELEVANT CHANGES: Clinicians learnt how to do binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and to diagnose CMV retinitis. One year after the workshop, 32/38 trainees in Myanmar did systematic eye examination for early diagnosis of CMV retinitis as standard care for at-risk patients. In China and the Russian Federation, the success rates were lower, with 10/15 and 3/5 trainees, respectively, providing follow-up data. LESSONS LEARNT: Skills necessary for screening and diagnosis of CMV retinitis can be taught in a four-day task-oriented training workshop. Successful implementation depends on institutional support, ongoing training and technical support. The next challenge is to scale up this approach in other countries.

Retinite por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Oftalmologia/educação , Oftalmologia/métodos , Oftalmoscopia/métodos , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/complicações , China , Competência Clínica , Retinite por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Mianmar , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Federação Russa , Testes Visuais/métodos
J Autoimmun ; 34(4): 453-9, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20036106


The C-terminal domain of the fibrinogen gamma chain (gammaC) has been shown to bind to the integrins alphaIIbbeta3, alphaMbeta2 and alphaVbeta3. It has also been reported that a peptide derived from the alphaMbeta2-binding site of gammaC can suppress an animal model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here we have truncated gammaC at position 399 to remove the prothrombotic alphaIIbbeta3-binding site. We show that this truncated version of gammaC, termed gammaC399tr, can bind to activated T cells. In addition, T cells incubated with gammaC399tr secreted less IFN-gamma when stimulated with antigen and APC; however, cytokine secretion was unaltered when T cells were stimulated non-specifically with a mixture of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies. Thus, only antigen-dependent T cell activation is inhibited by gammaC399tr. When administered intraperitoneally, gammaC399tr potently inhibited actively induced EAE and reversed ongoing disease. We hypothesize that the ability of gammaC399tr to inhibit autoreactive immune responses is a result of its ability to bind integrins. This activity was not solely dependent on the alphaMbeta2 integrin-binding site. When polyalanine was substituted for the alphaMbeta2-binding site, the resulting gammaC390polyA was still able to inhibit EAE. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that T cells can bind to fibrin (ogen), an important extracellular matrix protein that is deposited at sites of inflammation. Our results also identify gammaC399tr as a novel therapeutic molecule.

Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/prevenção & controle , Fibrinogênio/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinogênio/uso terapêutico , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Ligação Proteica