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1.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036196

RESUMO

The association between dairy product consumption and biomarkers of inflammation, adipocytokines, and oxidative stress is poorly studied in children. Therefore, these associations were examined in a representative subsample of 1338 schoolchildren with a mean age of 11.5 (±0.7) years in the Healthy Growth Study. Information on dairy product consumption was collected by dietary recalls. Total dairy consumption was calculated by summing the intake of milk, yogurt, and cheese. Inflammatory markers, i.e., high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and adipocytokines, i.e., leptin, adiponectin, and the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were analysed. Due to the skewed distribution hs-CRP, IL-6, and leptin were log transformed. Multivariable regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, physical activity, parental education, Tanner stage, and fat mass were used to assess the associations between consumption of total dairy, milk, yogurt, cheese, and markers of inflammation, adipocytokines, oxidative stress, and adiponectin-leptin ratio. Our results showed that milk consumption was inversely associated with leptin (ß: -0.101; 95% CI: -0.177, -0.025, p = 0.009) and positively associated with the adiponectin-leptin ratio (ß: 0.116; 95% CI: 0.020, 0.211; p = 0.018), while total dairy, cheese, and yogurt consumption were not associated with inflammatory, adipocytokine, or antioxidant markers. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036201

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of a partially hydrolyzed whey infant formula (PHF) on growth in healthy term infants as compared to a standard infant formula with intact protein (IPF). In a double-blind, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial, a total of 163 healthy formula-fed infants, 55-80 days old, were recruited and randomly allocated to either the PHF (test) or the IPF (control) group. They were followed up for three months during which they were evaluated monthly on growth and development. In total, 21 infants discontinued the study, while 142 infants completed the study (test n = 72, control n = 70). The primary outcome was daily weight gain during the three months. Secondary outcomes included additional anthropometric indices at every timepoint over the intervention period. Daily weight gain during the three-month intervention period was similar in both groups with the lower bound of 95% confidence interval (CI) above the non-inferiority margin of -3 g/day [mean difference (95% CI) test vs. control: -0.474 (-2.460, 1.512) g/day]. Regarding secondary outcomes, i.e., infants' weight, length, head circumference, body mass index (BMI), and their Z-scores, no differences were observed between the two groups at any time point. The PHF resulted in similar infant growth outcomes as the standard IPF. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the partially hydrolyzed whey infant formula supports adequate growth in healthy term infants.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036371

RESUMO

This study aimed at (1) studying the effect of the standardized ToyBox intervention on European preschoolers' snacking behavior, and (2) studying whether a higher process evaluation score from teachers and parents/caregivers was associated with a more positive result for preschoolers' snack intake. A sample of 4970 preschoolers (51.4% boys, 4.74 ± 0.44 years) from six European countries provided information on snack intake with the use of a Food Frequency Questionnaire. To investigate the effect of the intervention, multilevel repeated measures analyses were executed for the total sample and the six country-specific samples. Furthermore, questionnaires to measure process evaluation were used to compute a total process evaluation score for teachers and parents/caregivers. No significant intervention effects on preschoolers' snack intake were found (all p > 0.003). In general, no different effects of the intervention on snack intake were found according to kindergarten teachers' and parents'/caregivers' process evaluation scores. The lack of effects could be due to limited intervention duration and dose. To induce larger effects on preschoolers' snack intake, a less standardized intervention which is more tailored to the local needs might be needed.

4.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065990

RESUMO

The Feel4Diabetes program was comprised of a community-based screening and a two-year intervention phase aiming to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in families at risk for diabetes across Europe. The current work aimed to identify the socio-demographic characteristics and body weight perceptions of participants who benefitted the most, achieving at least a 5% reduction in body weight, waist circumference and glycaemic indices (fasting plasma glucose, insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin levels), over two-year period. Following a two-stage screening procedure, 2294 high-risk parents were randomly allocated to standard care or more intensive intervention. The participants who benefitted most were living in Southern (OR 2.39-3.67, p < 0.001) and Eastern Europe (OR 1.55-2.47, p < 0.05), received more intensive intervention (OR 1.53-1.90, p = 0.002) and were younger (<40 years old) adults (OR 1.48-1.51, p < 0.05). Furthermore, individuals with tertiary education (OR 2.06, p < 0.001), who were unemployed (OR 1.62-1.68, p < 0.05) and perceived their body weight to be higher than normal (OR 1.58-3.00, p < 0.05) were more likely to benefit from the program. Lastly, males were more likely to show improvements in their glycaemic profiles compared to females (OR 1.40, p = 0.024). These findings point out the regions in Europe and the sociodemographic profile of individuals that benefitted the most in the current study, highlighting the need to prioritise regions in greater need for such interventions and also tailor future interventions to the characteristics and perceptions of the target populations.

5.
J Hypertens ; 38(10): 1971-1979, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are responsible of 31% of all deaths worldwide. Genetic predisposition to CVDs in adolescents remains largely unknown. Aims of present research are to examine the association of ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms with cardiovascular disease risk factors in European adolescents. METHODS: A total of 14 polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene were genotyped in 1057 European adolescents (12-18 years old) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study. We measured serum lipids and a CVD risk score, along with weight, height, triceps, and subscapular skinfold thickness, leptin, insulin and other markers of glucose regulation. RESULTS: The rs822393, rs822395 and rs7649121 polymorphisms of ADIPOQ gene were significantly associated with several CVD risk factors [i.e. high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, SBP and CVD risk score] in European adolescents. We also found an association of the TGAAGT ADIPOQ haplotype (rs822393, rs16861210, rs822395, rs822396, rs12495941 and rs7649121) with HDL-C and ApoA1 levels. CONCLUSION: Several individual polymorphisms (rs822393, rs822395 and rs7649121) and a haplotype of ADIPOQ gene were significantly associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in European adolescents.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987961

RESUMO

Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep guidelines for preschool children were already established and integrated into the 24 h movement behavior guidelines in 2017. The aim of the current study was to investigate correlates of meeting or not meeting the physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep guidelines in Belgian preschool children. In total, 595 preschool children (53.3% boys, 46.7% girls, mean age: 4.2 years) provided complete data for the three behaviors and potentially associated correlates. Physical activity was objectively measured with accelerometers. Screen time, sleep duration, and correlates were reported by parents with the use of a questionnaire. Backward logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with meeting all guidelines for weekdays and weekend days. In the final model, older preschoolers (OR = 1.89), having a normal weight compared to being underweight (OR = 0.30), having parents that do not watch a lot of television (OR = 0.99), and having a father that attained higher education (OR = 1.91) were associated with meeting all guidelines on weekdays. For weekend days, a significant association was found for attending a sports club (OR = 1.08). Overall, only a few factors were associated with meeting the guidelines. A more comprehensive measurement of preschool children's potential correlates of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep is warranted.

7.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961973

RESUMO

Obesity in childhood and adolescence represents one of the most challenging public health problems of the 21st century owing to its epidemic proportions worldwide and the associated significant morbidity, mortality and public health costs. In Greece, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence exceeds 30-35%. To address the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in our country, we developed the 'National e-Health Program for the Prevention and Management of Overweight and Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence', which provides specific and detailed guidance to all primary health care physicians about the personalized management of children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. In the present study we evaluated 2400 children and adolescents [mean age ± SEM: 10.10 ± 0.09 years.; Males: 1088, Females: 1312; Obesity (n = 1370, 57.1%), Overweight (n = 674, 28.1%), normal BMI (n = 356, 14.8%)], who followed the personalized multi-disciplinary management plan specified by the 'National e-Health Program for the Prevention and Management of Overweight and Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence', and were studied prospectively for 1 year. We demonstrated that at the end of the first year, the prevalence of obesity decreased by 32.1%, the prevalence of overweight decreased by 26.7%, and the cardiometabolic risk factors improved significantly. These findings indicate that our National e-Health Program is effective at reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence after one year of intervention in the largest sample size reported to date.

8.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-9, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811574

RESUMO

Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been associated with visceral fat partitioning in adults; however, the underlying mechanisms in childhood remain unclear and warrant exploration. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between SSB consumption and body fat in children aged 9-13 years and the potential modifying effect of children's sex and serum cortisol levels. A sample of 2665 Greek schoolchildren participated in the 'Healthy Growth Study', and anthropometric, body composition, dietary intake and serum cortisol data were assessed. SSB consumption was defined as low (<1 serving/d), medium (1-2 servings/d) or high (>2 servings/d). We used linear regression models to assess the association between SSB consumption and measures of adiposity and to assess effect modification; models were stratified by sex and tertiles of morning serum cortisol. A significant positive association was observed between high SSB consumption and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (ß = 1·4, 95 % CI 0·4, 2·3, P = 0·01) but not BMI or BMI z-score. When stratified by sex, the association was observed in boys (ß = 1·8, 95 % CI 0·3, 3·4, P = 0·02) but not in girls. When stratified by cortisol levels, SSB consumption was associated with VAT in children with cortisol levels in the lowest tertile (ß = 2·8, 95 % CI 1·0, 4·6, P < 0·01). These results indicate that increased SSB consumption is associated with visceral adiposity in schoolchildren and this association may be modified by sex and morning serum cortisol. To prevent VAT accumulation and concomitant disease risk, dietary interventions should target SSB consumption during childhood.

9.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003182, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal smoke exposure is a common and key avoidable risk factor for birth complications and seems to influence later risk of overweight. It is unclear whether this increased risk is also present if mothers smoke during the first trimester only or reduce the number of cigarettes during pregnancy, or when only fathers smoke. We aimed to assess the associations of parental smoking during pregnancy, specifically of quitting or reducing smoking and maternal and paternal smoking combined, with preterm birth, small size for gestational age, and childhood overweight. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis among 229,158 families from 28 pregnancy/birth cohorts from Europe and North America. All 28 cohorts had information on maternal smoking, and 16 also had information on paternal smoking. In total, 22 cohorts were population-based, with birth years ranging from 1991 to 2015. The mothers' median age was 30.0 years, and most mothers were medium or highly educated. We used multilevel binary logistic regression models adjusted for maternal and paternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. Compared with nonsmoking mothers, maternal first trimester smoking only was not associated with adverse birth outcomes but was associated with a higher risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio [OR] 1.17 [95% CI 1.02-1.35], P value = 0.030). Children from mothers who continued smoking during pregnancy had higher risks of preterm birth (OR 1.08 [95% CI 1.02-1.15], P value = 0.012), small size for gestational age (OR 2.15 [95% CI 2.07-2.23], P value < 0.001), and childhood overweight (OR 1.42 [95% CI 1.35-1.48], P value < 0.001). Mothers who reduced the number of cigarettes between the first and third trimester, without quitting, still had a higher risk of small size for gestational age. However, the corresponding risk estimates were smaller than for women who continued the same amount of cigarettes throughout pregnancy (OR 1.89 [95% CI 1.52-2.34] instead of OR 2.20 [95% CI 2.02-2.42] when reducing from 5-9 to ≤4 cigarettes/day; OR 2.79 [95% CI 2.39-3.25] and OR 1.93 [95% CI 1.46-2.57] instead of OR 2.95 [95% CI 2.75-3.15] when reducing from ≥10 to 5-9 and ≤4 cigarettes/day, respectively [P values < 0.001]). Reducing the number of cigarettes during pregnancy did not affect the risks of preterm birth and childhood overweight. Among nonsmoking mothers, paternal smoking was associated with childhood overweight (OR 1.21 [95% CI 1.16-1.27], P value < 0.001) but not with adverse birth outcomes. Limitations of this study include the self-report of parental smoking information and the possibility of residual confounding. As this study only included participants from Europe and North America, results need to be carefully interpreted regarding other populations. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that as compared to nonsmoking during pregnancy, quitting smoking in the first trimester is associated with the same risk of preterm birth and small size for gestational age, but with a higher risk of childhood overweight. Reducing the number of cigarettes, without quitting, has limited beneficial effects. Paternal smoking seems to be associated, independently of maternal smoking, with the risk of childhood overweight. Population strategies should focus on parental smoking prevention before or at the start, rather than during, pregnancy.


Assuntos
Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/tendências
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1231, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the European Feel4Diabetes intervention, promoting a healthy lifestyle, on physical activity and its correlates among families at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (based on the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score) in Belgium. METHODS: The Feel4Diabetes intervention involved three components: family, school and community component, with the family component consisting of 6 counseling sessions for families at risk. Main outcomes were objectively measured physical activity levels and its subjectively measured correlates. The final sample consisted of 454 parents (mean age 39.4 years; 72.0% women) and 444 children (mean age 8.0 years; 50.1% girls). Multilevel repeated measures analyses were performed to assess intervention effectiveness after 1 year. RESULTS: In parents, there was no significant intervention effect. In children, there were only significant negative effects for moderate to vigorous physical activity (p = 0.05; ηp2 = 0.008) and steps (p = 0.03; ηp2 = 0.006%) on weekdays, with physical activity decreasing (more) in the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: The F4D-intervention lacks effectiveness on high-risk families' physical activity and its correlates in Belgium. This could partially be explained by low attendance rates and a large drop-out. To reach vulnerable populations, future interventions should invest in more appropriate recruitment (e.g. more face-to-face contact) and more bottom-up development of the intervention (i.e. co-creation of the intervention with the target group). TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Feel4Diabetes-study was prospectively registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02393872 on 20 March 2015.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Medição de Risco , Serviços de Saúde Escolar
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to examine the independent association between cardiorespiratory fitness, sedentary time and insulin resistance in European adolescents. METHODS: A subset (n=1.097) of a large multicentre European study (HELENA-CSS study) was used in the present study. Serum concentrations of glucose (GF) and insulin (IF) were measured after overnight fast and Homeostasis model assessment ( HOMA-IR) was calculated. Sedentary time and time spent on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was objectively measured by accelerometers. Moreover, sedentary activities were self-reported via questionnaires. RESULTS: Multilevel linear regression analysis revealed that adolescents watching TV≥2 h/day had higher HOMA-IR (p=0.007). Further adjustment for MVPA, showed that watching TV≥2 h/day remained significantly associated with IR (p=0.002). In this model, MVPA was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (p=0.001). Further controlling for waist circumference showed that adolescents watching TV ≥2 h/day continued to have higher HOMA-IR levels (p=0.002). Stratified analysis by weight status, revealed that watching TV≥2 h/day was independently associated with HOMA-IR only in normal weight adolescents, while MVPA was inversely associated with HOMA-IR in both overweight/obese and normal weight adolescents. Only the volume of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) over Body fat mass ratio was inversely associated with HOMA- IR after controlling for several confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that watching TV≥2 h/day and MVPA were associated with HOMA-IR. However, after controlling for several confounders, only VO2max/Body fat mass ratio remained negatively associated with HOMA-IR. Future interventions should aim both to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary time in adolescents to improve their cardiorespiratory fitness and postpone the onset of diabetes in adulthood.

12.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629949

RESUMO

The Feel4Diabetes intervention was a school and community-based intervention aiming to promote healthy lifestyle and tackle obesity and obesity-related metabolic risk factors for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) among families at risk of developing this disease. The current study aims to present the results on lifestyle behaviors obtained from parents during the first year of the Feel4Diabetes intervention. This multicomponent intervention had a cluster randomized design and was implemented in Belgium, Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Hungary and Spain over two years (2016-2018). Standardized protocols and procedures were used by the participating centers in all countries to collect data on parents' lifestyle behaviors (diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior). The Feel4Diabetes intervention was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (registration number: NCT02393872). In total, 2110 high-risk parents participated in the baseline and 12-month follow-up examination measurements. Participants allocated to the intervention group reduced their daily consumption of sugary drinks (p = 0.037) and sweets (p = 0.031) and their daily screen time (p = 0.032), compared with the control group. In addition, participants in the intervention group in Greece and Spain increased their consumption of breakfast (p = 0.034) and fruits (p = 0.029), while in Belgium and Finland they increased their water intake (p = 0.024). These findings indicate that the first year of the Feel4Diabetes intervention resulted in the improvement of certain lifestyle behaviors in parents from high-risk families.

13.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 93(2): 94-107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity in childhood and adolescence represents a major health problem of our century. In Greece, 30-35% of children and adolescents are overweight or obese. Objective and Hypotheses: To investigate the effectiveness of a comprehensive multidisciplinary personalized management plan at reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One thousand (n = 1,000) children and adolescents aged 2-18 years (mean age ± SD: 10.09 ± 2.86 years; 520 females, 480 males) were studied prospectively. Subjects were classified as obese (n = 579, 57.9%), overweight (n = 295, 29.5%) or having a normal body mass index (BMI) (n = 126, 12.6%) according to the International Obesity Task Force cutoff points. All subjects were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team at frequent intervals, received personalized advice on diet and exercise and were studied prospectively for 1 year. Detailed clinical evaluation and laboratory investigations were performed at the beginning and at the end of the study. RESULTS: At initial evaluation, 57.9% of subjects were obese, 29.5% overweight and 12.6% of normal BMI. Indices of cardiometabolic disease were higher in obese than in overweight and normal-BMI subjects. Following 1 year of multidisciplinary management interventions, the prevalence of obesity decreased by 16.8%, the prevalence of normal BMI increased by 8.2%, and all cardiometabolic indices improved significantly. CONCLUSIONS: A personalized multidisciplinary management plan is effective at reducing the prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

14.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are responsible of 31% of all deaths worldwide. Genetic predisposition to CVDs in adolescents remains largely unknown. Aims of present research are to examine the association of ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms with cardiovascular disease risk factors in European adolescents. METHODS: A total of 14 polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene were genotyped in 1057 European adolescents (12-18 years old) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study. We measured serum lipids and a CVD risk score, along with weight, height, triceps, and subscapular skinfold thickness, leptin, insulin and other markers of glucose regulation. RESULTS: The rs822393, rs822395 and rs7649121 polymorphisms of ADIPOQ gene were significantly associated with several CVD risk factors [i.e. high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, SBP and CVD risk score] in European adolescents. We also found an association of the TGAAGT ADIPOQ haplotype (rs822393, rs16861210, rs822395, rs822396, rs12495941 and rs7649121) with HDL-C and ApoA1 levels. CONCLUSION: Several individual polymorphisms (rs822393, rs822395 and rs7649121) and a haplotype of ADIPOQ gene were significantly associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in European adolescents.

15.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408523

RESUMO

Obesity in childhood and adolescence represents a major health problem. Novel e-Health technologies have been developed in order to provide a comprehensive and personalized plan of action for the prevention and management of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence. We used information and communication technologies to develop a "National Registry for the Prevention and Management of Overweight and Obesity" in order to register online children and adolescents nationwide, and to guide pediatricians and general practitioners regarding the management of overweight or obese subjects. Furthermore, intelligent multi-level information systems and specialized artificial intelligence algorithms are being developed with a view to offering precision and personalized medical management to obese or overweight subjects. Moreover, the Big Data against Childhood Obesity platform records behavioral data objectively by using inertial sensors and Global Positioning System (GPS) and combines them with data of the environment, in order to assess the full contextual framework that is associated with increased body mass index (BMI). Finally, a computerized decision-support tool was developed to assist pediatric health care professionals in delivering personalized nutrition and lifestyle optimization advice to overweight or obese children and their families. These e-Health applications are expected to play an important role in the management of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence.

16.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(Suppl 2): 52, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there are many interventions targeting childhood obesity prevention, only few have demonstrated positive results. The current review aimed to gather and evaluate available school-based intervention studies with family involvement targeting dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors among primary schoolchildren and their families, in order to identify the most effective strategies. METHODS: Studies published between 2000 and January 2015 were retrieved from scientific electronic databases and grey literature. The databases used included MEDLINE/PubMed, Web-of-Science, CINAHL and Scopus. Included studies had to be experimental controlled studies and had duration over 1 school year, had family involvement, combined PA and dietary behaviors and were implemented in school setting. A complementary search was executed to update the review to cover the period from February 2015 to January 2019. RESULTS: From the studies examined (n = 425), 27 intervention programs (33 publications) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among these, 15 presented significant effect on weight status and/ or overweight/ obesity or clinical indices, 3 presented significant effect on most energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) while 9 presented significant effect on some/few EBRBs or determinants. Strategies implemented in effective interventions were: teachers acting as role-models and being actively involved in the delivery of the intervention, school policies supporting the availability of healthy food and beverage choices and limiting unhealthy snacks, changes in the schoolyard, in the recess rules and in the physical education classes to increase physical activity, and involving parents in the intervention via assignments, meetings, informative material and encouraging them to improve the home environment. Use of incentives for children, social marketing techniques, collaboration with local stakeholders were found to increase effectiveness. Programs that focused only on educational sessions and material for parents, without promoting relevant environmental and policy changes, were found to be less effective. Cultural adaptations have been suggested to increase the intervention's acceptance in specific or vulnerable population groups. CONCLUSIONS: Several effective strategies were identified in the reviewed programs. Outcomes of the current review were taken into account in developing the Feel4Diabetes-intervention and summed up as recommendations in the current work in order to facilitate other researchers designing similar childhood obesity prevention initiatives.

17.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(Suppl 2): 46, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to present the development of the Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score and to evaluate its clinical validity. METHODS: Study population consisted of 3268 adults (63% women) from high diabetes risk families living in 6 European countries. Participants filled in questionnaires at baseline and after 1 year, reflecting the dietary goals of the Feel4Diabetes intervention. Based on these questions the Healthy Diet Score was constructed, consisting of the following components: breakfast, vegetables, fruit and berries, sugary drinks, whole-grain cereals, nuts and seeds, low-fat dairy products, oils and fats, red meat, sweet snacks, salty snacks, and family meals. Maximum score for each component was set based on its estimated relative importance regarding T2DM risk, higher score indicating better quality of diet. Clinical measurements included height, weight, waist circumference, heart rate, blood pressure, and fasting blood sampling, with analyses of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analysis of (co) variance was used to compare the Healthy Diet Score and its components between countries and sexes using baseline data, and to test differences in clinical characteristics between score categories, adjusted for age, sex and country. Pearson's correlations were used to study the association between changes from baseline to year 1 in the Healthy Diet Score and clinical markers. To estimate reproducibility, Pearson's correlations were studied between baseline and 1 year score, within the control group only. RESULTS: The mean total score was 52.8 ± 12.8 among women and 46.6 ± 12.8 among men (p <  0.001). The total score and its components differed between countries. The change in the Healthy Diet Score was significantly correlated with changes in BMI, waist circumference, and total and LDL cholesterol. The Healthy Diet Score as well as its components at baseline were significantly correlated with the values at year 1, in the control group participants. CONCLUSION: The Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score is a reproducible method to capture the dietary information collected with the Feel4Diabetes questionnaire and measure the level of and changes in the adherence to the dietary goals of the intervention. It gives a simple parameter that associates with clinical risk factors in a meaningful manner. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02393872. Registered March 20, 2015.

18.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 21(5): 747-757, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) polymorphisms with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in European adolescents, along with the influence of physical activity on these associations. METHODS: A total of 13 LPL polymorphisms were genotyped in 1.057 European adolescents (12-18 years old) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study. Serum lipids, glucose, insulin, and leptin (LEP) levels were measured and a CVD risk score was computed. We also measured body weight and height, waist and hip circumferences, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness. Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry for 7 days. RESULTS: The rs1534649, rs258, rs320, and rs328 polymorphisms were associated with several CVD risk factors (ie, body mass index, triglycerides [TG], LEP, and cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL]/HDL, TG/HDL ratios). TG and TG/HDL were associated with haplotype blocks 3 (rs282, rs285 polymorphisms) and 4 (rs3126, rs320, rs328, rs10099160 polymorphisms), being the latter also associated with the CVD risk score. Physical activity modulated the association of adiposity with rs1534649 and rs258 polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms rs1534649, rs258, rs320 and rs328, and two haplotypes of LPL were significantly associated with CVD risk factors in European adolescents. Higher levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity may attenuate the effects of rs1534649 and rs258 polymorphisms on adiposity.

19.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235566

RESUMO

Early identification of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HTN) risk may improve prevention and promote public health. Implementation of self-reported scores for risk assessment provides an alternative cost-effective tool. The study aimed to develop and validate two easy-to-apply screening tools identifying high-risk individuals for insulin resistance (IR) and HTN in a European cohort. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, anthropometric and clinical data obtained from 1581 and 1350 adults (baseline data from the Feel4Diabetes-study) were used for the European IR and the European HTN risk assessment index respectively. Body mass index, waist circumference, sex, age, breakfast consumption, alcohol, legumes and sugary drinks intake, physical activity and sedentary behavior were significantly correlated with Homeostatic Model Assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) and/or HTN and incorporated in the two models. For the IR index, the Area Under the Curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity for identifying individuals above the 75th and 95th of HOMA-IR percentiles were 0.768 (95%CI: 0.721-0.815), 0.720 and 0.691 and 0.828 (95%CI: 0.766-0.890), 0.696 and 0.778 respectively. For the HTN index, the AUC, sensitivity and specificity were 0.778 (95%CI: 0.680-0.876), 0.667 and 0.797. The developed risk assessment tools are easy-to-apply, valid, and low-cost, identifying European adults at high risk for developing T2DM or having HTN.

20.
Br J Nutr ; 123(12): 1396-1405, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234083

RESUMO

Little is known about who would benefit from Internet-based personalised nutrition (PN) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of participants who achieved greatest improvements (i.e. benefit) in diet, adiposity and biomarkers following an Internet-based PN intervention. Adults (n 1607) from seven European countries were recruited into a 6-month, randomised controlled trial (Food4Me) and randomised to receive conventional dietary advice (control) or PN advice. Information on dietary intake, adiposity, physical activity (PA), blood biomarkers and participant characteristics was collected at baseline and month 6. Benefit from the intervention was defined as ≥5 % change in the primary outcome (Healthy Eating Index) and secondary outcomes (waist circumference and BMI, PA, sedentary time and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, carotenoids and omega-3 index) at month 6. For our primary outcome, benefit from the intervention was greater in older participants, women and participants with lower HEI scores at baseline. Benefit was greater for individuals reporting greater self-efficacy for 'sticking to healthful foods' and who 'felt weird if [they] didn't eat healthily'. Participants benefited more if they reported wanting to improve their health and well-being. The characteristics of individuals benefiting did not differ by other demographic, health-related, anthropometric or genotypic characteristics. Findings were similar for secondary outcomes. These findings have implications for the design of more effective future PN intervention studies and for tailored nutritional advice in public health and clinical settings.

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