Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 428
Filtrar
1.
Children (Basel) ; 8(11)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828758

RESUMO

Obesity in children and adolescents is a public health problem and diet can play a major role in this condition. We aimed to identify sex-specific dietary patterns (DP) and to evaluate the association with overweight/obesity in European adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with 2327 adolescents aged between 12.5 to 17.5 years from a multicenter study across Europe. The body mass index was categorized in "normal weight" and "overweight/obesity". Two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls were collected with a computerized self-reported software. Principal component factor analysis was used to identify DP. Mixed-effect logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the sex-specific DP and overweight/obesity outcome. As a result, we found three DP in boys (snacking and bread, Mediterranean diet, and breakfast) and four DP in girls (convenience, plant-based and eggs, Western, and breakfast). The association between DP and overweight/obesity highlights that those adolescents with higher adherence to the breakfast DP had lower odds for overweight/obesity, even after the inclusion of covariables in the adjustments. In European adolescents, the breakfast DP positively characterized by breakfast cereals, fruit, milk, and dairy and negatively characterized by sugar-sweetened beverages in boys and negatively characterized by cereals (pasta, rice, and others) in girls, was inversely associated with overweight/obesity.

2.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-27, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658332

RESUMO

Adoption of healthy dietary and snacking habits could support optimum physical and mental development in children as they define health in adulthood. This study assessed parameters associated with children's snacking such as food home availability, parenting practices, and parents' health beliefs. In this cross-sectional study 12, 039 children, 49.4% boys 5-12 years old, participating in the European Feel4Diabetes-Study were included. Children's weekly consumption of sweets and salty snacks, home availability of snacks, food parenting practices, and health beliefs were assessed via questionnaires. Logistic regression was applied to explore associations of a) home availability of snacks, b) food parenting practices (permissiveness and rewarding with snacks) and c) parent's opinions on deterministic health beliefs with children's consumption of sweets and salty snacks. Results showed that home availability (sweets: ORadj 4.76, 95%CI: 4.32, 5.23; salty snacks: ORadj: 6.56, 95%CI: 5.64, 7.61), allowing to consume (sweets: ORadj: 3.29, 95%CI: 2.95, 3.67; salty snacks: ORadj: 3.41, 95%CI: 2.98, 3.90) and rewarding with sweets/salty snacks (sweets: ORadj: 2.69, 95%CI: 2.23, 3.24; salty snacks: ORadj: 4.34, 95%CI: 3.57, 5.28) 'sometimes/or less frequently' compared to 'always/or often' were associated with lower weekly consumption of sweets and snacks. Parents' disagreement compared to agreement with deterministic health beliefs and inattentive eating were associated with lower consumption of salty snacks and sweets in children. Overall, the findings of this study indicate that attempts to promote healthy snacking habits in children should aim to improve parental dietary habits, food parenting practices, health beliefs, and reducing home availability of unhealthy foods and snacks.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between high fructose consumption and elevated blood pressure continues to be controversial, especially in adolescence. The aim of this study was to assess the association between fructose consumption and elevated blood pressure in an European adolescent population. METHODS: A total of 1733 adolescents (mean ± SD age: 14.7 ± 1.2; percentage of girls: 52.8%) were analysed from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries. Blood pressure was measured using validated devices and methods for measuring systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Dietary data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA-DIAT software) and converted into pure fructose (monosaccharide form) and total fructose exposure (pure fructose + fructose from sucrose) intake using a specific fructose composition database. Food categories were separated at posteriori in natural vs. were non-natural foods. Elevated BP was defined according to the 90th percentile cut-off values and was compared according to tertiles of fructose intake using univariable and multivariable mixed logistic regression models taking into account confounding factors: centre, sex, age and z-score-BMI, MVPA (Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity) duration, tobacco consumption, salt intake and energy intake. RESULTS: Pure fructose from non-natural foods was only associated with elevated DBP (DBP above the 10th percentile in the highest consuming girls (OR = 2.27 (1.17-4.40); p = 0.015) after adjustment for cofounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: Consuming high quantities of non-natural foods was associated with elevated DBP in adolescent girls, which was in part due to high fructose levels in these foods categories. The consumption of natural foods containing fructose, such as whole fruits, does not impact blood pressure and should continue to remain a healthy dietary habit.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Diástole/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Diástole/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos
4.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Past research has focused on the relationship between mothers' and children's eating habits, although little is known about fathers as potential agents. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between fathers' and children's fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in the context of fathers' education level and family income insecurity. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis using baseline data from the multicentre Feel4Diabetes Study were collected in 2016. Participants were parent-dyads (fathers, n = 10,038) and school children (n = 12,041) from six European countries. Socio-demographic and dietary data were collected using questionnaires. Associations were assessed applying the multinomial logistic regression model. RESULTS: Overall, European children have low FV intake, especially in Southern European countries (Greece, Spain and Hungary). Children with fathers consuming FV daily were more likely to consume fresh fruit (odds ratio [OR] = 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.95-3.88) and vegetables (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.80-3.60) 1-2 times per day. After adjusting for paternal educational level and family income insecurity significant associations remained for fresh fruit (ORadj = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.82-3.69) and vegetables (ORadj = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.38-2.86). Country differences showed that fathers' educational level and income insecurity might be important factors worth considering for FV intake in Greece. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that fathers' FV intake was positively associated with children's daily intake of these foods. Implementation of future population-based strategies promoting FV intake not only in mothers, but also in fathers could be an effective public health initiative to increase FV intake in children. Policy-makers should give special attention to families dwelling in Southern European regions.

5.
Toxicol Rep ; 8: 1645-1650, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540593

RESUMO

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) occurs in a proportion of overweight and obese children and increases their future risk of serious health complications, even in adolescence and young adulthood. We aimed to explore the role of certain adipokines and inflammatory markers in identifying children with MetS. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of data coming from the Healthy Growth Study, a cross-sectional study conducted with schoolchildren in Greece. The present study included data from a representative sample of 1376 schoolchildren (mean age: 11.19 ± 0.66 years), recruited from 77 primary schools in four large regions in Greece. Anthropometric, clinical and biochemical data were recorded. Children's body weight status and the presence of MetS were determined and their correlation with the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein (CRP) was explored. Results: The prevalence of the MetS was 21.7 % and 3.7 % in obese and overweight children, respectively. The balance of adipokines was disturbed in obesity, as the serum level of adiponectin decreased as body weight increased, while the serum level of leptin increased. The serum level of the inflammatory marker CRP increased significantly as body weight increased. Discriminant analysis showed that these factors could distinguish the children with MetS as compared to children with no MetS. Conclusions: In the under study Mediterranean childhood population, monitoring of the levels of adipokines and CRP could identify the overweight and obese children with MetS. Appropriate individualized dietary and lifestyle interventions can be applied in these children to prevent health complications associated with MetS.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578863

RESUMO

Considering the role of bone metabolism in understanding the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of vitamin D-enriched cheese on the serum concentrations of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) and certain bone remodeling biomarkers in postmenopausal women in Greece. In a randomised, controlled dietary intervention, 79 postmenopausal women (55-75 years old) were randomly allocated either to a control (CG: n = 39) or an intervention group (IG: n = 40), consuming 60 g of either non-enriched or vitamin D3-enriched Gouda-type cheese (5.7 µg of vitamin D3), respectively, daily and for eight weeks during the winter. The serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), PTH, bone formation (i.e., osteocalcin, P1NP) and bone resorption (i.e., TRAP-5b) biomarkers were measured. Consumption of the vitamin D-enriched cheese led to higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations of 23.4 ± 6.39 (p = 0.022) and 13.4 ± 1.35 (p < 0.001) nmol/L in vitamin D-insufficient women being at menopause for less and more than 5 years, respectively. In vitamin D-insufficient women that were less than 5 years at menopause, consumption of vitamin D-enriched cheese was also associated with lower serum PTH (Beta -0.63 ± 1.11; p < 0.001) and TRAP-5b (Beta -0.65 ± 0.23; p = 0.004) levels at follow-up, compared with the CG. The present study showed that daily intake of 5.7 µg of vitamin D through enriched cheese increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations, prevented PTH increase and reduced bone resorption in vitamin D-insufficient early postmenopausal women, thus reflecting a potential food-based solution for reducing the risk of bone loss occurring after menopause.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Reabsorção Óssea/prevenção & controle , Queijo , Alimentos Fortificados , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Reabsorção Óssea/sangue , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteocalcina/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Pós-Menopausa , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue , Vitaminas/farmacologia
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445041

RESUMO

The benefits of breastfeeding (BF) include risk reduction of later overweight and obesity. We aimed to analyse the association between breastfeeding practices and overweight/obesity among preschool children participating in the ToyBox study. Data from children in the six countries, participating in the ToyBox-study (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, and Spain) 7554 children/families and their age is 3.5-5.5 years, 51.9% were boys collected cross-sectionally in 2012. The questionnaires included parents' self-reported data on their weight, height, socio-demographic status, and infant feeding practices. Measurements of preschool children's weight and height were done by trained researchers using standard protocols and equipment. The ever breastfeeding rate in the total sample was 85.0% (n = 5777). Only 6.3% (n = 428) of the children from the general sample were exclusively breastfed (EBF) for the duration of the first six months. EBF for four to six months was significantly (p < 0.001) less likely among mothers with formal education < 12 years (adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.61; 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.85), smoking throughout pregnancy (adjusted OR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.24-0.62), overweight before pregnancy (adjusted OR = 0.67; 95%CI 0.47-0.95) and ≤25 years old. The median duration of any breastfeeding was five months. The prevalence of exclusive formula feeding during the first five months in the general sample was about 12% (n = 830). The prevalence of overweight and obesity at preschool age was 8.0% (n = 542) and 2.8% (n = 190), respectively. The study did not identify any significant association between breastfeeding practices and obesity in childhood when adjusted for relevant confounding factors (p > 0.05). It is likely that sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with breastfeeding practices may have an impact on childhood obesity. The identified lower than desirable rates and duration of breastfeeding practices should prompt enhanced efforts for effective promotion, protection, and support of breastfeeding across Europe, and in particular in regions with low BF rates.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444792

RESUMO

Experimental studies suggest that sodium induced inflammation might be another missing link leading to atherosclerosis. To test the hypothesis that high daily sodium intake induces systemic inflammatory response in humans, we performed a systematic review according to PRISMA guidelines of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effect of high versus low sodium dose (HSD vs. LSD), as defined per study, on plasma circulating inflammatory biomarkers. Eight RCTs that examined CRP, TNF-a and IL-6 were found. Meta-analysis testing the change of each biomarker in HSD versus LSD was possible for CRP (n = 5 studies), TNF-a (n = 4 studies) and IL-6 (n = 4 studies). The pooled difference (95% confidence intervals) per biomarker was for: CRP values of 0.1(-0.3, 0.4) mg/L; TNF-a -0.7(-5.0, 3.6) pg/mL; IL-6 -1.1(-3.3 to 1.1) pg/mL. Importantly, there was inconsistency between RCTs regarding major population characteristics and the applied methodology, including a very wide range of LSD (460 to 6740 mg/day) and HSD (2800 to 7452 mg/day). Although our results suggest that the different levels of daily sodium intake are not associated with significant changes in the level of systemic inflammation in humans, this outcome may result from methodological issues. Based on these identified methodological issues we propose that future RCTs should focus on young healthy participants to avoid confounding effects of comorbidities, should have three instead of two arms (very low, "normal" and high) of daily sodium intake with more than 100 participants per arm, whereas an intervention duration of 14 days is adequate.


Assuntos
Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-6 , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299954

RESUMO

In 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) published 24 h movement behavior guidelines for preschoolers with recommendations for physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and sleep. The present study investigated the proportion of preschoolers complying with these guidelines (on a total week, weekdays and weekend days), and the associations with adiposity. This cross-sectional study included 2468 preschoolers (mean age: 4.75 years; 41.9% boys) from six European countries. The associations were investigated in the total sample and in girls and boys separately. PA was objectively assessed by step counts/day. Parent-reported questionnaires provided ST and sleep duration data. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the association between guideline compliance and adiposity indicators, i.e., body mass index (BMI) z-score and waist to height ratio (WHR). Only 10.1% of the preschoolers complied with the 24 h movement behavior guidelines, 69.2% with the sleep duration guideline, 39.8% with the ST guideline and 32.7% with the PA guideline. No association was found between guideline compliance with all three movement behaviors and adiposity. However, associations were found for isolated weekday screen time (BMI z-scores and WHR: p = 0.04) and weekend day sleep duration (BMI z-scores and WHR: p = 0.03) guideline compliance with both lower adiposity indicators. The latter association for sleep duration was also found in girls separately (BMI z-scores: p = 0.02; WHR: p = 0.03), but not in boys. Longitudinal studies, including intervention studies, are needed to increase preschoolers' guideline compliance and to gain more insight into the manifestation of adiposity in children and its association with 24 h movement behaviors from a young age onwards.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Obesidade Pediátrica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono
10.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 86, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of the Feel4Diabetes-intervention, a 2-year multilevel intervention, on energy balance-related behaviors among European families at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Intervention effects on self-reported physical activity, sedentary behavior and eating behaviors were investigated across and within the participating countries: Belgium, Finland, Greece, Spain, Hungary and Bulgaria. METHODS: Families were recruited through schools, located in low socio-economic status areas. In total, 4484 families at risk for developing type 2 diabetes were selected using the FINDRISC-questionnaire. Parents' and children's energy balance-related behaviors data were collected by questionnaires at three time points (baseline, mid- and post intervention). Families assigned to the intervention group were invited to participate in a 2-year school-, community-, and family-based intervention to promote a healthier lifestyle, including counseling sessions (first intervention year) and text messages (second intervention year). Families assigned to the control group received standard care, including medical check-up results and recommendations and tips regarding a healthy lifestyle. To assess the intervention-effects, Mixed Models were conducted using the R-Package "lmer "with R v3.2. RESULTS: Significant intervention effects were found on a certain number of families' lifestyle behaviors. Significant favorable intervention effects were detected on parents' water consumption and consumption of fruit and vegetables, and on children's consumption of sweets and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Analyses by country revealed significant favorable intervention effects on water consumption and on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in Belgian parents and on fruit and vegetable consumption among Belgian children, on sweets consumption among Spanish parents and children, and on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among Finnish children. Unfavorable intervention effects were found on the consumption of soft drinks and sugar-containing juices among Hungarian children and parents, while when examining the intervention effects for the overall population and per country, 10 from the 112 investigated outcome variables were improved in the intervention group compared to the control group (9%). CONCLUSIONS: The Feel4Diabetes-intervention managed to improve a certain number of targeted lifestyle behaviors while the intervention was not effective on a large number of targeted lifestyle behaviors. The findings of the current study are encouraging, but further research is needed on how we can further improve effectiveness of lifestyle interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes in families at risk. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Feel4Diabetes-study is registered with the clinical trials registry http://clinicaltrials.gov , ID: 643708.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Estilo de Vida , Comportamento Sedentário , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
11.
Neuroimage ; 240: 118374, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245869

RESUMO

Food cue exposure can trigger eating. Food cue reactivity (FCR) is a conditioned response to food cues and includes physiological responses and activation of reward-related brain areas. FCR can be affected by hunger and weight status. The appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin and leptin play a pivotal role in homeostatic as well as hedonic eating. We examined the association between ghrelin and leptin levels and neural FCR in the fasted and sated state and the association between meal-induced changes in ghrelin and neural FCR, and in how far these associations are related to BMI and HOMA-IR. Data from 109 participants from three European centers (age 50±18 y, BMI 27±5 kg/m2) who performed a food viewing task during fMRI after an overnight fast and after a standardized meal were analyzed. Blood samples were drawn prior to the viewing task in which high-caloric, low-caloric and non-food images were shown. Fasting ghrelin was positively associated with neural FCR in the inferior and superior occipital gyrus in the fasted state. This was partly attributable to BMI and HOMA-IR. These brain regions are involved in visual attention, suggesting that individuals with higher fasting ghrelin have heightened attention to food cues. Leptin was positively associated with high calorie FCR in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the fasted state and to neural FCR in the left supramarginal gyrus in the fasted versus sated state, when correcting for BMI and HOMA-IR, respectively. This PFC region is involved in assessing anticipated reward value, suggesting that for individuals with higher leptin levels high-caloric foods are more salient than low-caloric foods, but foods in general are not more salient than non-foods. There were no associations between ghrelin and leptin and neural FCR in the sated state, nor between meal-induced changes in ghrelin and neural FCR. In conclusion, we show modest associations between ghrelin and leptin and neural FCR in a relatively large sample of European adults with a broad age and BMI range. Our findings indicate that people with higher leptin levels for their weight status and people with higher ghrelin levels may be more attracted to high caloric foods when hungry. The results of the present study form a foundation for future studies to test whether food intake and (changes in) weight status can be predicted by the association between (mainly fasting) ghrelin and leptin levels and neural FCR.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Jejum/sangue , Alimentos , Grelina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Resposta de Saciedade/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Apetite/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Jejum/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico por imagem , Sobrepeso/psicologia
12.
Prev Med ; 153: 106722, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271077

RESUMO

The Feel4Diabetes-study implemented a school- and community-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyle and prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in six European countries. The intervention included a special focus on families at increased T2DM risk. The current study evaluates the intervention's cost-effectiveness. A Markov-type health economic model was developed to predict the incidence of T2DM and its complications. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (lifetime horizon, societal perspective) were calculated based on the overall intervention effect on health behaviour, and stratified for low- and high-risk families. Sensitivity analyses captured input parameters uncertainty. A budget impact analysis was performed. The increase in children's water consumption and physical activity led to a modest gain in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) at a low intervention cost and budget impact. Medical cost savings due to avoided illness could only be achieved on the very long-term (>30 years). The intervention in its entirety was cost-effective (more QALYs at a reasonable investment) in Belgium, Finland, Bulgaria, and Hungary, while being dominant (net savings and more QALYs) in Greece and Spain. Results were cost-effective for the low-risk families, who only received the school- and community-based intervention component. Results for the high-risk families were only cost-effective (with considerable uncertainty) in Greece and Spain, but not when the intervention would need to be repeated. The Feel4Diabetes-intervention is potentially cost-effective, especially in countries with a high overweight and obesity prevalence, at a limited budget impact. The incremental financial investments to reach and support high-risk families did not result in the hoped-for health benefits.

13.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 70, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of personalised nutrition advice on discretionary foods intake is unknown. To date, two national classifications for discretionary foods have been derived. This study examined changes in intake of discretionary foods and beverages following a personalised nutrition intervention using these two classifications. METHODS: Participants were recruited into a 6-month RCT across seven European countries (Food4Me) and were randomised to receive generalised dietary advice (control) or one of three levels of personalised nutrition advice (based on diet [L1], phenotype [L2] and genotype [L3]). Dietary intake was derived from an FFQ. An analysis of covariance was used to determine intervention effects at month 6 between personalised nutrition (overall and by levels) and control on i) percentage energy from discretionary items and ii) percentage contribution of total fat, SFA, total sugars and salt to discretionary intake, defined by Food Standards Scotland (FSS) and Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) classifications. RESULTS: Of the 1607 adults at baseline, n = 1270 (57% female) completed the intervention. Percentage sugars from FSS discretionary items was lower in personalised nutrition vs control (19.0 ± 0.37 vs 21.1 ± 0.65; P = 0.005). Percentage energy (31.2 ± 0.59 vs 32.7 ± 0.59; P = 0.031), percentage total fat (31.5 ± 0.37 vs 33.3 ± 0.65; P = 0.021), SFA (36.0 ± 0.43 vs 37.8 ± 0.75; P = 0.034) and sugars (31.7 ± 0.44 vs 34.7 ± 0.78; P < 0.001) from ADG discretionary items were lower in personalised nutrition vs control. There were greater reductions in ADG percentage energy and percentage total fat, SFA and salt for those randomised to L3 vs L2. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with generalised dietary advice, personalised nutrition advice achieved greater reductions in discretionary foods intake when the classification included all foods high in fat, added sugars and salt. Future personalised nutrition approaches may be used to target intake of discretionary foods. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01530139 . Registered 9 February 2012.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Política Nutricional , Austrália , Bebidas , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Lifestyle Genom ; 14(3): 63-72, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186541

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Carbohydrate intake and physical activity are related to glucose homeostasis, both being influenced by individual genetic makeup. However, the interactions between these 2 factors, as affected by genetics, on glycaemia have been scarcely reported. OBJECTIVE: We focused on analysing the interplay between carbohydrate intake and physical activity levels on blood glucose, taking into account a genetic risk score (GRS), based on SNPs related to glucose/energy metabolism. METHODS: A total of 1,271 individuals from the Food4Me cohort, who completed the nutritional intervention, were evaluated at baseline. We collected dietary information by using an online-validated food frequency questionnaire, a questionnaire on physical activity, blood biochemistry by analysis of dried blood spots, and by analysis of selected SNPs. Fifteen out of 31 SNPs, with recognized participation in carbohydrate/energy metabolism, were included in the component analyses. The GRS included risk alleles involved in the control of glycaemia or energy-yielding processes. RESULTS: Data concerning anthropometric, clinical, metabolic, dietary intake, physical activity, and genetics related to blood glucose levels showed expected trends in European individuals of comparable sex and age, being categorized by lifestyle, BMI, and energy/carbohydrate intakes, in this Food4Me population. Blood glucose was inversely associated with physical activity level (ß = -0.041, p = 0.013) and positively correlated with the GRS values (ß = 0.015, p = 0.047). Interestingly, an interaction affecting glycaemia, concerning physical activity level with carbohydrate intake, was found (ß = -0.060, p = 0.033), which also significantly depended on the genetic background (GRS). CONCLUSIONS: The relationships of carbohydrate intake and physical activity are important in understanding glucose homeostasis, where a role for the genetic background should be ascribed.

15.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(8): 2549-2561, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987685

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop and examine the predictive accuracy of an index that estimates obesity risk in childhood based on perinatal factors and maternal sociodemographic characteristics. Analysis was conducted by using cross-sectional and retrospective data collected from a European cohort of 2775 schoolchildren and their families participating in the Feel4Diabetes-study. The cohort was randomly divided by using two-thirds of the sample for the development of the index and the remaining one third for assessing its predictive accuracy. Logistic regression analyses determined a prediction model for childhood obesity. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were calculated. Cut-off analysis was applied to identify the optimal value of the index score that predicts obesity with the highest possible sensitivity and specificity. Eight factors were found to be significantly associated with obesity and were included as components in the European "Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation" (CORE) index: region of residence, maternal education, maternal pre-pregnancy weight status, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, birth weight for gestational age, infant growth velocity, and exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months. Risk score ranged from 0 to 22 corresponding to a risk from 0.9 to 54.6%. The AUC-ROC was 0.725 with optimal cut-off ≥9 (sensitivity = 74.1%, specificity = 61.0%, PPV = 11.3%, NPV = 97.2%).Conclusion: The European CORE index can be used as a screening tool for the identification of infants at high-risk for becoming obese at 6-9 years. This tool could assist healthcare professionals in initiating preventive measures from the early life.Trial registration: The Feel4Diabetes-intervention is registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ ; number, CT02393872; date, March 20, 2015. What is Known: • As prevention of obesity should start early in life, there is a compelling rationale for the early identification of high-risk children to facilitate targeted intervention. What is New: • This study developed and assessed the predictive accuracy of an index for the Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation (CORE), combining certain perinatal factors and maternal sociodemographic characteristics in a large European cohort. • The European CORE index can be used as a screening tool for identifying infants at high-risk for becoming obese at 6-9 years and assist health professionals in initiating early prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Obesidade Pediátrica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924457

RESUMO

Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence represent major public health problems of our century, and account for increased morbidity and mortality in adult life. Irisin and Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF-21) have been proposed as prognostic and/or diagnostic biomarkers in subjects with obesity and metabolic syndrome, because they increase earlier than other traditional biomarkers. We determined the concentrations of Irisin and FGF-21 in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity before and after one year of a life-style intervention program of diet and physical exercise and explored the impact of body mass index (BMI) reduction on the concentrations of Irisin, FGF-21 and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Three hundred and ten (n = 310) children and adolescents (mean age ± SD: 10.5 ± 2.9 years) were studied prospectively. Following one year of the life-style intervention program, there was a significant decrease in BMI (p = 0.001), waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.024), waist-to-height ratio (p = 0.024), and Irisin concentrations (p = 0.001), and an improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors. There was no alteration in FGF-21 concentrations. These findings indicate that Irisin concentrations decreased significantly as a result of BMI reduction in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity. Further studies are required to investigate the potential role of Irisin as a biomarker for monitoring the response to lifestyle interventions and for predicting the development of cardiometabolic risk factors.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Fibronectinas/sangue , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Terapia por Exercício , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
17.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-11, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858286

RESUMO

We evaluated the association between intake of total polyphenols, polyphenol classes and the 10 most consumed individual polyphenols with serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in 749 European adolescents (53% girls; 15% overweight; 12.5-17.5 years-old) from the cross-sectional HELENA study of 2006-2007. Dietary polyphenol intake was calculated from two non-consecutive 24-h recalls matched with the Phenol-Explorer database. Multilevel linear models examined the associations between dietary polyphenols and TAC. Polyphenol intake was rather low (median = 321mg/day; p25 = 158; p75 = 536) and TAC was comparable to other literature findings (median = 1.57 mmol/L; p25 = 1.45; p75 = 1.74). Total polyphenol intake, polyphenol classes and the top 10 compounds were not associated with TAC in a linear, quadratic or cubic way in partially or fully confounder-adjusted models. A direct anti-oxidative effect of dietary polyphenol intake was not observed in European adolescents. Polyphenol biomarkers and additional antioxidant measures are needed in future prospective studies to confirm these results.

18.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) polymorphisms with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents and their interaction with physical activity. METHODS: Six polymorphisms of LIPG were genotyped in 1057 European adolescents (12-18 years old) enrolled in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study. CVD risk factors related to lipid profile, blood pressure, adiposity and glucose regulation were recorded. Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry. RESULTS: The major C allele of rs2000813, the minor T allele of rs2276269 and the minor G allele of rs9951026 were associated with lower levels of several CVD risk factors related to lipid profile. We also found a significant association of the TTACA LIPG haplotype (rs2000812, rs2000813, rs8093249, rs2276269 and rs9951026) with higher concentrations of low-density cholesterol and apolipoprotein B. Finally, the interaction between physical activity and the polymorphisms rs2000813, rs2276269 and rs9951026 had a significant influence on several CVD risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: LIPG polymorphisms were significantly associated with CVD risk factors in European adolescents. Interestingly, alleles of these polymorphisms were associated with a better cardiovascular profile in physically active adolescents only. High physical activity may reduce the development of CVD, modulating its genetic risk. IMPACT: Using gene-phenotype and gene × environment analyses, we detected associations between the endothelial lipase gene and cardiovascular risk factors, along with interactions with physical activity. This study shows that physical activity may modulate the influence of LIPG gene on cardiovascular risk in adolescents. These results bring insights into the mechanisms by which physical activity positively influences CVD in adolescents.

19.
Children (Basel) ; 8(4)2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916861

RESUMO

Background: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of socioeconomic status, nutrition and physical activity lifestyle habits and perceptions on Body Mass Index (BMI) in children aged 12-15 years in Greece. Furthermore, to compare the difference between the two sexes. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on a representative secondary school cohort that included 5144 subjects, aged 12 to 15 years. Students and their parents filled in validated questionnaires evaluating socioeconomic status, nutrition and physical activity. International Obesity Task Force cut offs were used to classify the children. Factor analysis of mixed data and partial proportional ordered logistic models were used to analyze ΒMΙ distributions. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results: Boys were 2.9 (95%CI: 2.592-3.328) times more likely to be overweight/obese than girls. Partial proportional ordinal models indicate significant associations between nutritional and physical habits and perceptions variables but also significant gender differences in socio-demographic, nutritional risk factors as well as physical activity habits and perceptions. Conclusions: A clear understanding of the factors that contribute to the sex differences in nutrition and physical activity habits and perceptions may guide intervention efforts.

20.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809476

RESUMO

Obesity prevalence has been simultaneously increasing with high consumption of large food portion sizes (PS). However, there is scarce information on PS of energy-dense (ED) foods as a potential risk factor of obesity in adolescents. In the present study, we investigate the association between the PS of the most ED foods and body composition. A sample of 1889 adolescents (54.4% females) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence cross-sectional multicenter study (HELENA-CSS) study were included. Most ED foods (e.g., cheese) were selected according to higher fat and/or sugar content and low fiber and water. Linear and ordinal logistic regression models were adjusted for age, physical activity, total energy intake (TEI), and socioeconomic status (SES). Analysis was performed both in those adolescents reporting plausible energy intake according to the approach of Goldberg et al. and in the whole sample. In male plausible reporters, PS from "breakfast cereals" showed a significant and positive association with BMI (ß = 0.012; 0.048). PS from "carbonated soft drinks" in males (OR = 1.001; 95% CI 1.000; 1.002) and "bread and rolls" in females (OR = 1.002; 95% CI 1.000; 1.004) were associated with higher probability of having obesity, while "sweet bakery products" were associated with lower probability of having obesity (OR = 0.996; 95% CI 0.991; 0.999) in females. The present study suggests association between PS of ED foods and obesity in European adolescents. Prospective studies are needed to examine the effect of prolonged exposure to large PS and obesity development.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Tamanho da Porção/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...