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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(17): 1982-1994, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing recognition of the inherent limitations of the use of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to accurately phenotype patients with heart failure (HF). OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to identify unique proteomic signatures for patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), HF with a midrange LVEF (HFmrEF), and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), as well as to identify molecular differences between patients with ischemic and nonischemic HF. METHODS: We used high-content aptamer-based proteomics technology (SOMAscan) to interrogate the blood proteome of age- and sex-matched patients with HF within different LVEF groups. RESULTS: Within the Washington University Heart Failure Registry, we identified age/sex-matched patients within 3 LVEF categories: HFrEF (LVEF <40%), HFmrEF (LVEF 40% to 50%), and HFpEF (LVEF >50%). We found that patients with HFrEF, HFmrEF, and HFpEF had unique variations in circulating proteins that reflected distinct biological pathophysiologies. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that there were biological themes that were unique to patients with HFrEF, HFpEF, or HFmrEF. Comparative analyses of patients with HFmrEF with improved LVEF and patients with HFmrEF with unchanged LVEF revealed marked differences between these 2 patient populations and indicated that patients with recovered LVEF are more similar to patients with HFpEF than to patients with HFrEF. Moreover, there were marked differences in the proteomic signatures of patients with ischemic and nonischemic HF. CONCLUSIONS: Viewed together, these findings suggest that it may be possible to use high-content multiplexed proteomics assays in combination with the clinical assessment of LVEF to more accurately identify clinical phenotypes of patients with HF.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(6): 719-734, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762907

RESUMO

Reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling and recovery of LV function are associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. A growing body of evidence suggests that even among patients who experience a complete normalization of LV ejection fraction, a significant proportion will develop recurrent LV dysfunction accompanied by recurrent heart failure events. This has led to intense interest in understanding how to manage patients with heart failure with recovered ejection fraction (HFrecEF). Because of the lack of a standard definition for HFrecEF, and the paucity of clinical data with respect to the natural history of HFrecEF patients, there are no current guidelines on how these patients should be followed up and managed. Accordingly, this JACC Scientific Expert Panel reviews the biology of reverse LV remodeling and the clinical course of patients with HFrecEF, as well as provides guidelines for defining, diagnosing, and managing patients with HFrecEF.

4.
Heart ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The frequency and predictors of improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in ischaemic cardiomyopathy and its association with mortality is poorly understood. We sought to assess the predictors of LVEF improvement ≥10% and its effect on mortality. METHODS: We compared characteristics of patients enrolled in The Surgical Treatment for Ischaemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial with and without improvement of LVEF ≥10% at 24 months. A logistic regression model was constructed to determine the independent predictors of LVEF improvement. A Cox proportional hazards model was created to assess the independent association of improvement in LVEF ≥10% with mortality. RESULTS: Of the 1212 patients enrolled in STICH, 618 underwent echocardiographic assessment of LVEF at baseline and 24 months. Of the patients randomised to medical therapy plus coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), 58 (19%) had an improvement in LVEF >10% compared with 51 (16%) patients assigned to medical therapy alone (p=0.30). Independent predictors of LVEF improvement >10% included prior myocardial infarction (OR 0.44, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.71, p=0.001) and lower baseline LVEF (OR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91 to 0.97, p<0.001). Improvement in LVEF >10% (HR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.84, p=0.004) and randomisation to CABG (HR 0.72, 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.90, p=0.004) were independently associated with a reduced hazard of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement of LVEF ≥10% at 24 months was uncommon in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy, did not differ between patients assigned to CABG and medical therapy or medical therapy alone and was independently associated with reduced mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00023595.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14129, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839504

RESUMO

Cardiac myocytes have multiple cell autonomous mechanisms that facilitate stabilization and repair of damaged sarcolemmal membranes following myocardial injury. Dysferlin is a protein which facilitates membrane repair by promoting membrane resealing. Although prior studies have shown that dysferlin-deficient (Dysf-/-) mouse hearts have an impaired recovery from acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury ex vivo, the role of dysferlin in mediating the recovery from myocardial injury in vivo is unknown. Here we show that Dysf-/- mice develop adverse LV remodeling following I/R injury secondary to the collateral damage from sustained myocardial inflammation within the infarct zone. Backcrossing Dysf-/- mice with mice lacking signaling through the Toll-Interleukin 1 Receptor Domain-Containing Adaptor Protein (Tirap-/-), attenuated inflammation and abrogated adverse LV remodeling following I/R injury. Subsequent studies using Poloxamer 188 (P188), a membrane resealing reagent, demonstrated that P188 did not attenuate inflammation nor prevent adverse LV remodeling in Dysf-/- mice following I/R injury. Viewed together these studies reveal a previously unappreciated role for the importance of membrane sealing and the resolution of inflammation following myocardial injury.

6.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(10): 789-799, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641226

RESUMO

The PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) trial reported that sacubitril/valsartan (S/V), an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, significantly reduced mortality and heart failure (HF) hospitalization in HF patients with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, fewer than 1% of patients in the PARADIGM-HF study had New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class IV symptoms. Accordingly, data that informed the use of S/V among patients with advanced HF were limited. The LIFE (LCZ696 in Hospitalized Advanced Heart Failure) study was a 24-week prospective, multicenter, double-blinded, double-dummy, active comparator trial that compared the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of S/V with those of valsartan in patients with advanced HFrEF. The trial planned to randomize 400 patients ≥18 years of age with advanced HF, defined as an EF ≤35%, New York Heart Association functional class IV symptoms, elevated natriuretic peptide concentration (B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP] ≥250 pg/ml or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] ≥800 pg/ml), and ≥1 objective finding of advanced HF. Following a 3- to 7-day open label run-in period with S/V (24 mg/26 mg twice daily), patients were randomized 1:1 to S/V titrated to 97 mg/103 mg twice daily versus 160 mg of V twice daily. The primary endpoint was the proportional change from baseline in the area under the curve for NT-proBNP levels measured through week 24. Secondary and tertiary endpoints included clinical outcomes and safety and tolerability. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, enrollment in the LIFE trial was stopped prematurely to ensure patient safety and data integrity. The primary analysis consists of the first 335 randomized patients whose clinical follow-up examination results were not severely impacted by COVID-19. (Entresto [LCZ696] in Advanced Heart Failure [LIFE STUDY] [HFN-LIFE]; NCT02816736).


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Término Precoce de Ensaios Clínicos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Pandemias , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral , Volume Sistólico
7.
JCI Insight ; 5(16)2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663200

RESUMO

The naive heart harbors a population of intravascular B cells that make close contact with the cardiac microvasculature. However, the timing of their appearance and their organ specificity remain unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a systematic analysis of B cells isolated from the myocardium and other organs, from embryonic life to adulthood. We found that the phenotype of myocardial B cells changed dynamically during development. While neonatal heart B cells were mostly CD11b+ and CD11b- CD21-CD23-, adult B cells were predominantly CD11b-CD21+CD23+. Histological analysis and intravital microscopy of lung and liver showed that organ-associated B cells in contact with the microvascular endothelium were not specific to the heart. Flow cytometric analysis of perfused hearts, livers, lungs, and spleen showed that the dynamic changes in B cell subpopulations observed in the heart during development mirrored changes observed in the other organs. Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) analysis of B cells showed that myocardial B cells were part of a larger population of organ-associated B cells that had a distinct transcriptional profile. These findings broaden our understanding of the biology of myocardial-associated B cells and suggest that current models of the dynamics of naive B cells during development are incomplete.

8.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(5): e006858, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure (HF) often have multiple chronic conditions that may impact health-related quality of life (HRQOL) despite HF therapy. We sought to determine the association between noncardiac comorbidities and HRQOL in ambulatory patients with advanced HF. METHODS: Baseline data from 373 subjects in REVIVAL (Registry Evaluation of Vital Information for Ventricular Assist Devices in Ambulatory Life) were analyzed using multivariable general linear models to evaluate the relationship between comorbidities and HRQOL (EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale, EQ-5D-3L Index Score, and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire). The primary independent variables were a comorbidity index (sum of 14 noncardiac conditions), a residual comorbidity index (without depression), and depression alone. The median (25th to 75th percentile) number of comorbidities was 3 (2-4). RESULTS: Increasing comorbidity burden was associated with a reduction in generic (EQ-5D Index, P=0.005) and HF-specific (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, P=0.001) HRQOL. The residual comorbidity index was not associated with HRQOL when depression included in the model independently, while depression was associated with HRQOL across all measures. Participants with depression (versus without) scored on average 13 points (95% CI, 8-17) lower on the EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale, 0.15 points (95% CI, 0.12-0.18) lower on the EQ-5D Index, and 24.9 points (95% CI, 21.2-28.5) lower on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score. CONCLUSIONS: While noncardiac comorbidities were prevalent in ambulatory advanced HF patients, only depression was associated with decreased generic and HF-specific HRQOL. Other than depression, the presence of noncardiac comorbidities should not impact expected gains in HRQOL following ventricular assist device implantation, provided the conditions are not a contraindication to implant. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01369407.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar , Implantação de Prótese/instrumentação , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Implantação de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133418
11.
JACC CardioOncol ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72216

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a proliferation of clinical trials that are designed to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The overwhelming majority of cardiovascular and cancer patients are at increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection; accordingly, the cardiovascular and cardio-oncology communities are playing a major role in caring for COVID-19 patients. Many of the therapeutic agents that are being used to treat patients with COVID-19 are repurposed treatments for influenza, drugs that were not effective in Ebola patients, or treatments for malaria that were developed decades ago, and are unlikely to be familiar to the cardiovascular and cardio-oncology communities. Here we have provided a foundation for cardiovascular and cardio-oncology physicians who are on the frontline providing care to COVID-19 patients, so that they can better understand the emerging cardiovascular epidemiology of COVID-19, as well as the biological rationale for the clinical trials that are ongoing for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.

12.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 38: 99-121, 2020 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340574

RESUMO

B cells are traditionally known for their ability to produce antibodies in the context of adaptive immune responses. However, over the last decade B cells have been increasingly recognized as modulators of both adaptive and innate immune responses, as well as players in an important role in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Here, after briefly summarizing our current understanding of B cell biology, we present a systematic review of the literature from both animal models and human studies that highlight the important role that B lymphocytes play in cardiac and vascular disease. While many aspects of B cell biology in the vasculature and, to an even greater extent, in the heart remain unclear, B cells are emerging as key regulators of cardiovascular adaptation to injury.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309679

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a proliferation of clinical trials that are designed to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The overwhelming majority of cardiovascular and cancer patients are at increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection; accordingly, the cardiovascular and cardio-oncology communities are playing a major role in caring for COVID-19 patients. Many of the therapeutic agents that are being used to treat patients with COVID-19 are repurposed treatments for influenza, drugs that were not effective in Ebola patients, or treatments for malaria that were developed decades ago, and are unlikely to be familiar to the cardiovascular and cardio-oncology communities. Here we have provided a foundation for cardiovascular and cardio-oncology physicians who are on the frontline providing care to COVID-19 patients, so that they can better understand the emerging cardiovascular epidemiology of COVID-19, as well as the biological rationale for the clinical trials that are ongoing for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346658
16.
JACC CardioOncol ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313885

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a proliferation of clinical trials that are designed to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The overwhelming majority of cardiovascular and cancer patients are at increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection; accordingly, the cardiovascular and cardio-oncology communities are playing a major role in caring for COVID-19 patients. Many of the therapeutic agents that are being used to treat patients with COVID-19 are repurposed treatments for influenza, drugs that were not effective in Ebola patients, or treatments for malaria that were developed decades ago, and are unlikely to be familiar to the cardiovascular and cardio-oncology communities. Here we have provided a foundation for cardiovascular and cardio-oncology physicians who are on the frontline providing care to COVID-19 patients, so that they can better understand the emerging cardiovascular epidemiology of COVID-19, as well as the biological rationale for the clinical trials that are ongoing for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(4): e014006, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067592

RESUMO

Myotonic dystrophy is an inherited systemic disorder affecting skeletal muscle and the heart. Genetic testing for myotonic dystrophy is diagnostic and identifies those at risk for cardiac complications. The 2 major genetic forms of myotonic dystrophy, type 1 and type 2, differ in genetic etiology yet share clinical features. The cardiac management of myotonic dystrophy should include surveillance for arrhythmias and left ventricular dysfunction, both of which occur in progressive manner and contribute to morbidity and mortality. To promote the development of care guidelines for myotonic dystrophy, the Myotonic Foundation solicited the input of care experts and organized the drafting of these recommendations. As a rare disorder, large scale clinical trial data to guide the management of myotonic dystrophy are largely lacking. The following recommendations represent expert consensus opinion from those with experience in the management of myotonic dystrophy, in part supported by literature-based evidence where available.

19.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(1): 75-83, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984682

RESUMO

AIMS: Clinical studies of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction have had mixed results to date. We sought to compare VNS delivery and associated changes in symptoms and function in autonomic regulation therapy via left or right cervical vagus nerve stimulation in patients with chronic heart failure (ANTHEM-HF), increase of vagal tone in heart failure (INOVATE-HF), and neural cardiac therapy for heart failure (NECTAR-HF) for hypothesis generation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data from the public domain for differences in proportions using Pearson's chi-square test, differences in mean values using Student's unpaired t-test, and differences in changes of mean values using two-sample t-tests. Guideline-directed medical therapy recommendations were similar across studies. Fewer patients were in New York Heart Association 3, and baseline heart rate (HR) was higher in ANTHEM-HF. In INOVATE-HF, VNS was aimed at peripheral neural targets, using closed-loop delivery that required synchronization of VNS to R-wave sensing by an intracardiac lead. Pulse frequency was low (1-2 Hz) because of a timing schedule allowing ≤3 pulses of VNS following at most 25% of detected R waves. NECTAR-HF and ANTHEM-HF used open-loop VNS delivery (i.e. independent of any external signal) aimed at both central and peripheral targets. In NECTAR-HF, VNS delivery at 20 Hz caused off-target effects that limited VNS up-titration in a majority of patients. In ANTHEM-HF, VNS delivery at 10 Hz allowed up-titration until changes in HR dynamics were confirmed. Six months after VNS titration, significant improvements in both HR and HR variability occurred only in ANTHEM-HF. When ANTHEM-HF and NECTAR-HF were compared, greater improvements from baseline were observed in ANTHEM-HF in standard deviation in normal-to-normal R-R intervals (94 ± 26 to 111 ± 50 vs. 146 ± 48 to 130 ± 52 ms; P < 0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (32 ± 7 to 37 ± 0.4 vs. 31 ± 6 to 33 ± 6; P < 0.05), and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure mean score (40 ± 14 to 21 ± 10 vs. 44 ± 22 to 36 ± 21; P < 0.002). When compared with INOVATE-HF, greater improvement in 6-min walk distance was observed in ANTHEM-HF (287 ± 66 to 346 ± 78 vs. 304 ± 111 to 334 ± 111 m; P < 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In this post-hoc analysis, differences in patient demographics were seen and may have caused the differential responses in symptoms and function observed in association with VNS. Major differences in technology platforms, neural targets, VNS delivery, and HR and HR variability responses could have also potentially played a very important role. Further study is underway in a randomized controlled trial with these considerations in mind.

20.
JCI Insight ; 5(3)2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945014

RESUMO

Current models of B lymphocyte biology posit that B cells continuously recirculate between lymphoid organs, without accumulating in peripheral healthy tissues. Nevertheless, B lymphocytes are one of the most prevalent leukocyte populations in the naive murine heart. To investigate this apparent inconsistency in the literature, we conducted a systematic analysis of myocardial B cell ontogeny, trafficking dynamics, histology, and gene expression patterns. We found that myocardial B cells represent a subpopulation of circulating B cells that make close contact with the microvascular endothelium of the heart and arrest their transit as they pass through the heart. The vast majority (>95%) of myocardial B cells remain intravascular, whereas few (<5%) myocardial B cells cross the endothelium into myocardial tissue. Analyses of mice with B cell deficiency or depletion indicated that B cells modulate the myocardial leukocyte pool composition. Analysis of B cell-deficient animals suggested that B cells modulate myocardial growth and contractility. These results transform our current understanding of B cell recirculation in the naive state and reveal a previously unknown relationship between B cells and myocardial physiology. Further work will be needed to assess the relevance of these findings to other organs.

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