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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 23-34, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4540

RESUMO

In a countermeasures experiment, we examined to what extent liars who learn about the Model Statement tool and about the proportion of complications (complications/complications + common knowledge details + self-handicapping strategies) can successfully adjust their responses so that they sound like truth tellers. Truth tellers discussed a trip they had made; liars fabricated a story. Participants were of Lebanese, Mexican, and South-Korean origin. Prior to the interview they did or did not receive information about (i) the working of the Model statement and (ii) three types of verbal detail: complications, common knowledge details and self-handicapping strategies. We found no evidence that liars sounded like truth tellers after being informed about the Model Statement and/or types of detail we examined. Actually, veracity differences were similar across experimental conditions, with truth tellers reporting more detail and more complications and obtaining a higher proportion of complications score than liars


En un experimento de contramedidas examinamos hasta qué punto los mentirosos que reciben información sobre la Declaración modelo y la proporción de complicaciones que presenta (complicaciones / complicaciones + detalles de conocimiento general + estrategias de autoobstaculización) pueden ajustar sus respuestas con éxito para que parezca que dicen la verdad. Los que dicen la verdad declararon sobre un viaje que habían hecho; los mentirosos inventaron una historia. Los participantes eran de origen libanés, mexicano y surcoreano. Antes de la entrevista habían recibido o no información sobre (i) el funcionamiento de la Declaración modelo y (ii) tres tipos de detalles verbales: complicaciones, detalles de conocimiento general y estrategias de autoobstaculización. No encontramos evidencia de que los mentirosos se parecieran a los que dicen la verdad después de ser informados sobre la Declaración modelo y los tipos de detalle que examinamos. En realidad, las diferencias de veracidad fueron semejantes en todas las condiciones experimentales: los que decían la verdad informaron con mayor detalle y de más complicaciones y obtuvieron una mayor puntuación en la proporción de complicaciones que los mentirosos

2.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 204: 103020, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014621

RESUMO

The application of alibi witness scenarios to deception detection has been overlooked. Experiment 1 was a study of the verifiability approach in which truth-telling pairs completed a mission together, whereas in lying pairs one individual completed this mission alone and the other individual committed a mock theft. All pairs were instructed to convince the interviewer that they completed the mission together by writing individual statements on their own followed by a collective statement together as a pair. In the individual statements, truth-telling pairs provided more checkable details that demonstrated they completed the mission together than lying pairs, whereas lying pairs provided more uncheckable details than truth-telling pairs. The collective statements made truth-telling pairs provide significantly more checkable details that demonstrated they were together in comparison to the individual statements, whereas no effect was obtained for lying pairs. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves revealed high accuracy rates for discriminating between truths and lies using the verifiability approach across all statement types. Experiment 2 was a lie detection study whereby observers' abilities to discriminate between truths and lies using the verifiability approach were examined. This revealed that applying the verifiability approach to collective statements improved observers' ability to accurately detect deceit. We suggest that the verifiability approach could be used as a lie detection technique and that law enforcement policies should consider implementing collective interviewing.

3.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 200: 102935, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715443

RESUMO

Truth tellers provide less detail in delayed than in immediate interviews (likely due to forgetting), whereas liars provide similar amounts of detail in immediate and delayed interviews (displaying a metacognitive stability bias effect). We examined whether liar's flawed metacognition after delays could be exploited by encouraging interviewees to provide more detail via a Model Statement. Truthful and deceptive participants were interviewed immediately (n = 78) or after a three-week delay (n = 78). Half the participants in each condition listened to a Model Statement before questioning. In the Immediate condition, truth tellers provided more details than liars. This pattern was unaffected by the Model Statement. In the Delayed condition, truth tellers and liars provided a similar amount of detail in the Model Statement-absent condition, whereas in the Model Statement-present condition, liars provided more details than truth tellers.

4.
Law Hum Behav ; 41(6): 519-529, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28726439

RESUMO

Research examining how truth tellers' and liars' verbal behavior is attenuated as a function of delay is largely absent from the literature, despite its important applied value. We examined this factor across 2 studies in which we examined the effects of a hypothetical delay (Experiment 1) or actual delay (Experiment 2) on liars' accounts. In Experiment 1-an insurance claim interview setting-claimants either genuinely experienced a (staged) loss of a tablet device (n = 40) or pretended to have experienced the same loss (n = 40). Truth tellers were interviewed either immediately after the loss (n = 20) or 3 weeks after the loss (n = 20), whereas liars had to either pretend the loss occurred either immediately before (n = 20) or 3 weeks before (n = 20) the interview (i.e., hypothetical delay for liars). In Experiment 2-a Human Intelligence gathering setting-sources had to either lie (n = 50) or tell the truth (n = 50) about a secret video they had seen concerning the placing of a spy device. Half of the truth tellers and liars where interviewed immediately after watching the video (n = 50), and half where interviewed 3-weeks later (n = 50; i.e., real delay for liars). Across both experiments, truth tellers interviewed after a delay reported fewer details than truth tellers interviewed immediately after the to-be-remembered event. In both studies, liars failed to simulate this pattern of forgetting and reported similar amounts of detail when interviewed without or after a delay, demonstrating a stability bias in reporting. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Decepção , Comportamento Verbal , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Maquiavelismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 177: 44-53, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28477454

RESUMO

We examined how the presence of an interpreter during an interview affects eliciting information and cues to deceit, while using a method that encourages interviewees to provide more detail (model statement, MS). A total of 199 Hispanic, Korean and Russian participants were interviewed either in their own native language without an interpreter, or through an interpreter. Interviewees either lied or told the truth about a trip they made during the last twelve months. Half of the participants listened to a MS at the beginning of the interview. The dependent variables were 'detail', 'complications', 'common knowledge details', 'self-handicapping strategies' and 'ratio of complications'. In the MS-absent condition, the interviews resulted in less detail when an interpreter was present than when an interpreter was absent. In the MS-present condition, the interviews resulted in a similar amount of detail in the interpreter present and absent conditions. Truthful statements included more complications and fewer common knowledge details and self-handicapping strategies than deceptive statements, and the ratio of complications was higher for truth tellers than liars. The MS strengthened these results, whereas an interpreter had no effect on these results.


Assuntos
Decepção , Comportamento de Busca de Informação/fisiologia , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Detecção de Mentiras , Adolescente , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Appl Cogn Psychol ; 30(5): 768-774, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122804

RESUMO

The present experiment examined whether people could be deterred from lying in an online insurance claim setting. A total of 96 participants were asked to submit a theft insurance claim. Reflecting real life, submitting a claim that went beyond the actual costs of the stolen items was associated with advantages and disadvantages. Two deterrence factors were introduced: asking claimants to provide evidence that they actually owned the stolen items (Evidence Instruction, often used by insurers) and asking participants to read out before starting to submit the claim that they will be truthful (Honesty Statement, not often used by insurers). We also examined at what stage of the interview claimants embedded their lies in their otherwise truthful stories. The honesty statement but not the evidence instruction made claimants more honest, and participants lied more as the interview progressed.

7.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 36(1): 58-60, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26295608

RESUMO

Cilioretinal artery territory infarction can occur in isolation or in association with other vascular compromise of the retinal circulation. Our patient, an 18-year-old woman with neurofibromatosis type 2, developed a cilioretinal artery territory infarction in the setting of papilledema. Our case, together with one previous report, suggests that cilioretinal artery territory infarction in the context of papilledema, although rare, is a real entity.


Assuntos
Artérias Ciliares/patologia , Olho/irrigação sanguínea , Infarto/etiologia , Neurofibromatose 2/complicações , Papiledema/etiologia , Artéria Retiniana/patologia , Acetazolamida/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infarto/diagnóstico , Infarto/tratamento farmacológico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Papiledema/diagnóstico , Papiledema/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
8.
Diabetologia ; 56(10): 2187-93, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23793717

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study evaluated whether repeated non-attendance for diabetic eye screening is associated with the risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR). METHODS: This was a cohort study of 6,556 residents with diabetes who were invited for screening between 2008 and 2011 in a population-based eye screening programme in inner London and who attended for their first-ever screen in 2008. The proportion of participants with STDR was evaluated in relation to the number of years in which screening was missed. RESULTS: The proportion of participants who did not attend screening decreased between 2009 and 2011 (annual reduction 1.6% [95% CI 0.9%, 2.3%]). The adjusted relative odds of STDR for 210 participants who did not attend two consecutive years of screening were 3.76 (95% CI 2.14, 6.61; p < 0.001), compared with participants who were screened annually. In 605 participants with mild non-proliferative retinopathy at the first screen, the adjusted relative odds of developing proliferative or moderate to severe non-proliferative retinopathy were 5.72 (95% CI 7.43, 22.83; p = 0.013) for 53 participants who missed two screens. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Patients who do not attend diabetic eye screening are at increased risk of developing STDR. Tracing of non-attenders with evidence of established retinopathy should be an important fail-safe procedure.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Diabetes Care ; 36(9): 2663-9, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23620476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Annual diabetic eye screening has been implemented in England since 2008. This study aimed to estimate changes in the detection of retinopathy in the first 4 years of the program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants included 32,340 patients with type 2 diabetes resident in three London boroughs with one or more screening records between 2008 and 2011. Data for 87,570 digital images from 2008 to 2011 were analyzed. Frequency of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) was estimated by year of screen for first screens and for subsequent screens according to retinopathy status at first screen. RESULTS: Among 16,621 first-ever screens, the frequency of STDR was 7.1% in 2008, declining to 6.4% in 2011 (P = 0.087). The proportion with a duration of diabetes of <1 year at first screen increased from 18.7% in 2008 to 48.6% in 2011. Second or later screens were received by 26,308 participants. In participants with mild nonproliferative retinopathy at first screen, the proportion with STDR at second or later screen declined from 21.6% in 2008 to 8.4% in 2011 (annual change -2.2% [95% CI -3.3 to -1.0], P < 0.001). In participants with no retinopathy at first screen, STDR declined from 9.2% in 2008 to 3.2% in 2011 (annual change -1.8% [-2.0 to -1.7], P < 0.001). Declining trends were similar in sociodemographic subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: After the inception of population-based diabetic eye screening, patients at lower risk of STDR contribute an increasing proportion to the eligible population, and the proportion detected with STDR at second or subsequent screening rounds declines rapidly.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 141(2): 178-83, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22964059

RESUMO

In recent years researchers have started to focus on lying about intentions (Granhag, 2010). In the present experiment participants were interviewed about their forthcoming trip. We tested the hypothesis that liars (N=43) compared to truth tellers (N=43) would give fewer details to unexpected questions about planning, transportation and the core event, but an equal amount or more detail to expected questions about the purpose of the trip. We also tested the hypothesis that participants who had previously experienced the intention (i.e., they had made such a trip before) would give more detail than those who had never experienced the intended action. The unexpected question hypothesis was supported, whereas the previous experience effect only emerged in interactions. The benefit of using different types of questions for lie detection purposes is discussed.


Assuntos
Decepção , Detecção de Mentiras , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino
12.
PLoS One ; 7(6): e39608, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22761840

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide estimates of visual impairment in people with diabetes attending screening in a multi-ethnic population in England (United Kingdom). METHODS: The Diabetic Retinopathy In Various Ethnic groups in UK (DRIVE UK) Study is a cross-sectional study on the ethnic variations of the prevalence of DR and visual impairment in two multi-racial cohorts in the UK. People on the diabetes register in West Yorkshire and South East London who were screened, treated or monitored between April 2008 to July 2009 (London) or August 2009 (West Yorkshire) were included in the study. Data on age, gender, ethnic group, visual acuity and diabetic retinopathy were collected. Ethnic group was defined according to the 2011 census classification. The two main ethnic minority groups represented here are Blacks ("Black/African/Caribbean/Black British") and South Asians ("Asians originating from the Indian subcontinent"). We examined the prevalence of visual impairment in the better eye using three cut-off points (a) loss of vision sufficient for driving (approximately <6/9) (b) visual impairment (<6/12) and (c) severe visual impairment (<6/60), standardising the prevalence of visual impairment in the minority ethnic groups to the age-structure of the white population. RESULTS: Data on visual acuity and were available on 50,331 individuals 3.4% of people diagnosed with diabetes and attending screening were visually impaired (95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.2% to 3.5%) and 0.39% severely visually impaired (0.33% to 0.44%). Blacks and South Asians had a higher prevalence of visual impairment (directly age standardised prevalence 4.6%, 95% CI 4.0% to 5.1% and 6.9%, 95% CI 5.8% to 8.0% respectively) compared to white people (3.3%, 95% CI 3.1% to 3.5%). Visual loss was also more prevalent with increasing age, type 1 diabetes and in people living in Yorkshire. CONCLUSIONS: Visual impairment remains an important public health problem in people with diabetes, and is more prevalent in the minority ethnic groups in the UK.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Baixa Visão/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Baixa Visão/diagnóstico , Baixa Visão/etnologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual
13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 21(18): 4138-50, 2012 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22694956

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual loss in Western populations. Susceptibility is influenced by age, environmental and genetic factors. Known genetic risk loci do not account for all the heritability. We therefore carried out a genome-wide association study of AMD in the UK population with 893 cases of advanced AMD and 2199 controls. This showed an association with the well-established AMD risk loci ARMS2 (age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2)-HTRA1 (HtrA serine peptidase 1) (P =2.7 × 10(-72)), CFH (complement factor H) (P =2.3 × 10(-47)), C2 (complement component 2)-CFB (complement factor B) (P =5.2 × 10(-9)), C3 (complement component 3) (P =2.2 × 10(-3)) and CFI (P =3.6 × 10(-3)) and with more recently reported risk loci at VEGFA (P =1.2 × 10(-3)) and LIPC (hepatic lipase) (P =0.04). Using a replication sample of 1411 advanced AMD cases and 1431 examined controls, we confirmed a novel association between AMD and single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 6p21.3 at TNXB (tenascin XB)-FKBPL (FK506 binding protein like) [rs12153855/rs9391734; discovery P =4.3 × 10(-7), replication P =3.0 × 10(-4), combined P =1.3 × 10(-9), odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-1.6] and the neighbouring gene NOTCH4 (Notch 4) (rs2071277; discovery P =3.2 × 10(-8), replication P =3.8 × 10(-5), combined P =2.0 × 10(-11), OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2-1.4). These associations remained significant in conditional analyses which included the adjacent C2-CFB locus. TNXB, FKBPL and NOTCH4 are all plausible AMD susceptibility genes, but further research will be needed to identify the causal variants and determine whether any of these genes are involved in the pathogenesis of AMD.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 6 , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Imunofilinas/genética , Degeneração Macular/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Receptores Notch/genética , Tenascina/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Componente Principal , Receptor Notch4 , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Int J Epidemiol ; 41(1): 250-62, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22253316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in the complement factor H gene (CFH) is associated with risk of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous studies have been case-control studies in populations of European ancestry with little differentiation in AMD subtype, and insufficient power to confirm or refute effect modification by smoking. METHODS: To precisely quantify the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1061170, 'Y402H') with risk of AMD among studies with differing study designs, participant ancestry and AMD grade and to investigate effect modification by smoking, we report two unpublished genetic association studies (n = 2759) combined with data from 24 published studies (26 studies, 26,494 individuals, including 14,174 cases of AMD) of European ancestry, 10 of which provided individual-level data used to test gene-smoking interaction; and 16 published studies from non-European ancestry. RESULTS: In individuals of European ancestry, there was a significant association between Y402H and late-AMD with a per-allele odds ratio (OR) of 2.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10-2.45; P = 1.1 x 10(-161)]. There was no evidence of effect modification by smoking (P = 0.75). The frequency of Y402H varied by ancestral origin and the association with AMD in non-Europeans was less clear, limited by paucity of studies. CONCLUSION: The Y402H variant confers a 2-fold higher risk of late-AMD per copy in individuals of European descent. This was stable to stratification by study design and AMD classification and not modified by smoking. The lack of association in non-Europeans requires further verification. These findings are of direct relevance for disease prediction. New research is needed to ascertain if differences in circulating levels, expression or activity of factor H protein explain the genetic association.


Assuntos
Fator H do Complemento/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Degeneração Macular/etnologia , Degeneração Macular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/classificação , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética
15.
Law Hum Behav ; 35(1): 40-8, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21061052

RESUMO

We tested the accuracy of thermal imaging as a lie detection tool in airport screening. Fifty-one passengers in an international airport departure hall told the truth or lied about their forthcoming trip in an interview. Their skin temperature was recorded via a thermal imaging camera. Liars' skin temperature rose significantly during the interview, whereas truth tellers' skin temperature remained constant. On the basis of these different patterns, 64% of truth tellers and 69% of liars were classified correctly. The interviewers made veracity judgements independently from the thermal recordings. The interviewers outperformed the thermal recordings and classified 72% of truth tellers and 77% of liars correctly. Accuracy rates based on the combination of thermal imaging scores and interviewers' judgements were the same as accuracy rates based on interviewers' judgements alone. Implications of the findings for the suitability of thermal imaging as a lie detection tool in airports are discussed.


Assuntos
Aviação , Detecção de Mentiras , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Termografia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gestão da Segurança , Temperatura Cutânea , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
16.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 249(2): 209-14, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20737163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macular degeneration is known to be a bilateral disease. This study set out to determine the symmetry of phenotype between eyes of patients with bilateral early AMD (or drusen) or late-stage AMD. This may be important information when considering the likelihood of anti-VEGF treatment. METHODS: This prospective, observational, cross-sectional study graded the color fundus photographs of both eyes of 1,114 Caucasian patients with either early or late-stage AMD. Patients were recruited from a tertiary referral UK population. The main outcomes were phenotype, comparison of number, type and overall area of drusen in early AMD and symmetry of late AMD. RESULTS: The overall agreement of phenotype in the entire cohort of patients was 53%, kappa statistic (κ)=0.31, (95% CI = 0.27-0.36). Within this group, a total of 271 patients were identified with bilateral soft and hard drusen (early AMD). Symmetry of phenotype within this group was high in terms of total of area of drusen (agreement = 79%, weighted κ = 0.75) and number of drusen. In those with bilateral geographic atrophy (GA), symmetry between area of GA was moderate (agreement 72%, weighted κ = 0.54), and in those with bilateral neovascular disease (choroidal neovascularization or pigment epithelial detachment), symmetry was poor (agreement 45%, weighted κ = 0.16). Out of the entire cohort, 62% (n = 688) had neovascular disease in at least one eye and 37.5% of these had bilateral disease. CONCLUSIONS: The observed symmetry of phenotype between eyes with drusen appears to reduce in GA and neovascular forms of AMD. Overall, 53% of the cohort had symmetrical disease in terms of phenotype, 23% had neovascular disease in both eyes, 9.3% had GA in both eyes, and 39% of patients had neovascular disease in one eye and non-neovascular disease in the other. This may have implications for the potential need for anti-VEGF treatment of AMD in second eye involvement.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide/diagnóstico , Lateralidade Funcional , Atrofia Geográfica/patologia , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Drusas Retinianas/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neovascularização de Coroide/classificação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/classificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 134(3): 323-9, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20398882

RESUMO

We examined the efficacy of a new approach to detect truths and lies in expressing opinions: the Devil's Advocate approach. Interviewees are first asked an opinion eliciting question that asks participants to argue in favour of their personal view. This is followed by a Devil's Advocate question that asks participants to argue against their personal view. People normally think more about reasons that support rather than oppose their opinion. Therefore we expected truth tellers to provide more information and shorter latency times in their responses to the opinion eliciting question than to the Devil's Advocate question. Liars are expected to reveal the opposite pattern as the Devil's Advocate question is more compatible with their beliefs than is the opinion eliciting question. In Experiment 1, we interviewed seventeen truth tellers and liars via the Devil's Advocate approach and measured the difference in number of words and latency times to the two questions. Our hypotheses were supported. In Experiment 2, 25 observers were shown these interviews, and made qualitative judgements about the statements. Truth tellers' opinion eliciting answers were seen as more immediate and plausible and revealed more emotional involvement than their Devil's Advocate answers. No clear differences emerged in liars' answers to the two types of question. We conclude that the Devil's Advocate approach is a promising lie detection approach that deserves attention in future research.


Assuntos
Decepção , Detecção de Mentiras/psicologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Law Hum Behav ; 33(2): 159-66, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18523881

RESUMO

We hypothesised that the responses of pairs of liars would correspond less with each other than would responses of pairs of truth tellers, but only when the responses are given to unanticipated questions. Liars and truth tellers were interviewed individually about having had lunch together in a restaurant. The interviewer asked typical opening questions which we expected the liars to anticipate, followed by questions about spatial and/or temporal information which we expected suspects not to anticipate, and also a request to draw the layout of the restaurant. The results supported the hypothesis, and based on correspondence in responses to the unanticipated questions, up to 80% of liars and truth tellers could be correctly classified, particularly when assessing drawings.


Assuntos
Entrevistas como Assunto , Detecção de Mentiras , Direito Penal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Law Hum Behav ; 32(3): 253-65, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17694424

RESUMO

In two experiments, we tested the hypotheses that (a) the difference between liars and truth tellers will be greater when interviewees report their stories in reverse order than in chronological order, and (b) instructing interviewees to recall their stories in reverse order will facilitate detecting deception. In Experiment 1, 80 mock suspects told the truth or lied about a staged event and did or did not report their stories in reverse order. The reverse order interviews contained many more cues to deceit than the control interviews. In Experiment 2, 55 police officers watched a selection of the videotaped interviews of Experiment 1 and made veracity judgements. Requesting suspects to convey their stories in reverse order improved police observers' ability to detect deception and did not result in a response bias.


Assuntos
Cognição , Decepção , Rememoração Mental , Detecção de Sinal Psicológico , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comunicação não Verbal , Revelação da Verdade
20.
Law Hum Behav ; 31(5): 499-518, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17211691

RESUMO

In Experiment 1, we examined whether three interview styles used by the police, accusatory, information-gathering and behaviour analysis, reveal verbal cues to deceit, measured with the Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA) and Reality Monitoring (RM) methods. A total of 120 mock suspects told the truth or lied about a staged event and were interviewed by a police officer employing one of these three interview styles. The results showed that accusatory interviews, which typically result in suspects making short denials, contained the fewest verbal cues to deceit. Moreover, RM distinguished between truth tellers and liars better than CBCA. Finally, manual RM coding resulted in more verbal cues to deception than automatic coding of the RM criteria utilising the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software programme. In Experiment 2, we examined the effects of the three police interview styles on the ability to detect deception. Sixty-eight police officers watched some of the videotaped interviews of Experiment 1 and made veracity and confidence judgements. Accuracy scores did not differ between the three interview styles; however, watching accusatory interviews resulted in more false accusations (accusing truth tellers of lying) than watching information-gathering interviews. Furthermore, only in accusatory interviews, judgements of mendacity were associated with higher confidence. We discuss the possible danger of conducting accusatory interviews.


Assuntos
Decepção , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Detecção de Mentiras , Polícia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido
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