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1.
Sci Immunol ; 6(55)2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452106

RESUMO

The developmental origins of memory T cells remain incompletely understood. During the expansion phase of acute viral infection, we identified a distinct subset of virus-specific CD8+ T cells that possessed distinct characteristics including expression of CD62L, T cell factor 1 (TCF-1), and Eomesodermin; relative quiescence; expression of activation markers; and features of limited effector differentiation. These cells were a quantitatively minor subpopulation of the TCF-1+ pool and exhibited self-renewal, heightened DNA damage surveillance activity, and preferential long-term recall capacity. Despite features of memory and somewhat restrained proliferation during the expansion phase, this subset displayed evidence of stronger TCR signaling than other responding CD8+ T cells, coupled with elevated expression of multiple inhibitory receptors including programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), lymphocyte activating gene 3 (LAG-3), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), CD5, and CD160. Genetic ablation of PD-1 and LAG-3 compromised the formation of this CD62Lhi TCF-1+ subset and subsequent CD8+ T cell memory. Although central memory phenotype CD8+ T cells were formed in the absence of these cells, subsequent memory CD8+ T cell recall responses were compromised. Together, these results identify an important link between genome integrity maintenance and CD8+ T cell memory. Moreover, the data indicate a role for inhibitory receptors in preserving key memory CD8+ T cell precursors during initial activation and differentiation. Identification of this rare subpopulation within the memory CD8+ T cell precursor pool may help reconcile models of the developmental origin of long-term CD8+ T cell memory.

2.
Cell ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306960

RESUMO

Lymphocyte migration is essential for adaptive immune surveillance. However, our current understanding of this process is rudimentary, because most human studies have been restricted to immunological analyses of blood and various tissues. To address this knowledge gap, we used an integrated approach to characterize tissue-emigrant lineages in thoracic duct lymph (TDL). The most prevalent immune cells in human and non-human primate efferent lymph were T cells. Cytolytic CD8+ T cell subsets with effector-like epigenetic and transcriptional signatures were clonotypically skewed and selectively confined to the intravascular circulation, whereas non-cytolytic CD8+ T cell subsets with stem-like epigenetic and transcriptional signatures predominated in tissues and TDL. Moreover, these anatomically distinct gene expression profiles were recapitulated within individual clonotypes, suggesting parallel differentiation programs independent of the expressed antigen receptor. Our collective dataset provides an atlas of the migratory immune system and defines the nature of tissue-emigrant CD8+ T cells that recirculate via TDL.

3.
Nat Immunol ; 21(9): 1010-1021, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661362

RESUMO

Robust CD8+ T cell memory is essential for long-term protective immunity but is often compromised in cancer, where T cell exhaustion leads to loss of memory precursors. Immunotherapy via checkpoint blockade may not effectively reverse this defect, potentially underlying disease relapse. Here we report that mice with a CD8+ T cell-restricted neuropilin-1 (NRP1) deletion exhibited substantially enhanced protection from tumor rechallenge and sensitivity to anti-PD1 immunotherapy, despite unchanged primary tumor growth. Mechanistically, NRP1 cell-intrinsically limited the self-renewal of the CD44+PD1+TCF1+TIM3- progenitor exhausted T cells, which was associated with their reduced ability to induce c-Jun/AP-1 expression on T cell receptor restimulation, a mechanism that may contribute to terminal T cell exhaustion at the cost of memory differentiation in wild-type tumor-bearing hosts. These data indicate that blockade of NRP1, a unique 'immune memory checkpoint', may promote the development of long-lived tumor-specific Tmem that are essential for durable antitumor immunity.

4.
Science ; 369(6508)2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669297

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a global pandemic, but human immune responses to the virus remain poorly understood. We used high-dimensional cytometry to analyze 125 COVID-19 patients and compare them with recovered and healthy individuals. Integrated analysis of ~200 immune and ~50 clinical features revealed activation of T cell and B cell subsets in a proportion of patients. A subgroup of patients had T cell activation characteristic of acute viral infection and plasmablast responses reaching >30% of circulating B cells. However, another subgroup had lymphocyte activation comparable with that in uninfected individuals. Stable versus dynamic immunological signatures were identified and linked to trajectories of disease severity change. Our analyses identified three immunotypes associated with poor clinical trajectories versus improving health. These immunotypes may have implications for the design of therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
bioRxiv ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511371

RESUMO

COVID-19 has become a global pandemic. Immune dysregulation has been implicated, but immune responses remain poorly understood. We analyzed 71 COVID-19 patients compared to recovered and healthy subjects using high dimensional cytometry. Integrated analysis of ~200 immune and >30 clinical features revealed activation of T cell and B cell subsets, but only in some patients. A subgroup of patients had T cell activation characteristic of acute viral infection and plasmablast responses could reach >30% of circulating B cells. However, another subgroup had lymphocyte activation comparable to uninfected subjects. Stable versus dynamic immunological signatures were identified and linked to trajectories of disease severity change. These analyses identified three "immunotypes" associated with poor clinical trajectories versus improving health. These immunotypes may have implications for therapeutics and vaccines.

6.
Immunity ; 52(5): 825-841.e8, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396847

RESUMO

CD8+ T cell exhaustion is a major barrier to current anti-cancer immunotherapies. Despite this, the developmental biology of exhausted CD8+ T cells (Tex) remains poorly defined, restraining improvement of strategies aimed at "re-invigorating" Tex cells. Here, we defined a four-cell-stage developmental framework for Tex cells. Two TCF1+ progenitor subsets were identified, one tissue restricted and quiescent and one more blood accessible, that gradually lost TCF1 as it divided and converted to a third intermediate Tex subset. This intermediate subset re-engaged some effector biology and increased upon PD-L1 blockade but ultimately converted into a fourth, terminally exhausted subset. By using transcriptional and epigenetic analyses, we identified the control mechanisms underlying subset transitions and defined a key interplay between TCF1, T-bet, and Tox in the process. These data reveal a four-stage developmental hierarchy for Tex cells and define the molecular, transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms that could provide opportunities to improve cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transcrição Genética/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Epigênese Genética/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/imunologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/genética
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2111: 1-20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933194

RESUMO

T-cell diversity is multifactorial and includes variability in antigen specificity, differentiation, function, and cell-trafficking potential. Spectral overlap limits the ability of traditional flow cytometry to fully capture the diversity of T-cell subsets and function. The development of mass cytometry permits deep immunoprofiling of T-cell subsets, activation state, and function simultaneously from even small volumes of blood. This chapter describes our methods for mass cytometry and high-throughput data analysis of T cells in patient cohorts. We provide a pipeline that includes practical considerations when customizing a panel for mass cytometry. We also provide protocols for the conjugation and titration of metal-labeled antibodies (including two T-cell panels) and a staining procedure. Finally, with the aim to support translational science, we provide R scripts that contain a detailed workflow for initial evaluation of high-dimensional data generated from cohorts of patients.

8.
J Immunol ; 204(4): 990-1000, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900334

RESUMO

In the metastasis-targeted organs, angiogenesis is essential for the progression of dormant micrometastases to rapidly growing and clinically overt lesions. However, we observed changes suggesting angiogenic switching in the mouse lungs prior to arrival of tumor cells (i.e., in the premetastatic niche) in the models of breast carcinoma. This angiogenic switching appears to be caused by myeloid-derived suppressor cells recruited to the premetastatic lungs through complement C5a receptor 1 signaling. These myeloid cells are known to secrete several proangiogenic factors in tumors, including IL-1ß and matrix metalloproteinase-9, and we found upregulation of these genes in the premetastatic lungs. Blockade of C5a receptor 1 synergized with antiangiogenic Listeria monocytogenes-based vaccines to decrease the lung metastatic burden by reducing vascular density and improving antitumor immunity in the lungs. This was mediated even when growth of primary breast tumors was not affected by these treatments. This work provides initial evidence that angiogenesis contributes to the premetastatic niche in rapidly progressing cancers and that inhibiting this process through immunotherapy is beneficial for reducing or even preventing metastasis.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/terapia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Neovascularização Patológica/terapia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Complemento C5a/imunologia , Complemento C5a/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/imunologia , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/imunologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/patologia , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica/imunologia , Metástase Neoplásica/terapia , Neovascularização Patológica/imunologia , Receptor da Anafilatoxina C5a/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor da Anafilatoxina C5a/genética , Receptor da Anafilatoxina C5a/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
9.
Immunity ; 51(5): 840-855.e5, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606264

RESUMO

TCF-1 is a key transcription factor in progenitor exhausted CD8 T cells (Tex). Moreover, this Tex cell subset mediates responses to PD-1 checkpoint pathway blockade. However, the role of the transcription factor TCF-1 in early fate decisions and initial generation of Tex cells is unclear. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and lineage tracing identified a TCF-1+Ly108+PD-1+ CD8 T cell population that seeds development of mature Tex cells early during chronic infection. TCF-1 mediated the bifurcation between divergent fates, repressing development of terminal KLRG1Hi effectors while fostering KLRG1Lo Tex precursor cells, and PD-1 stabilized this TCF-1+ Tex precursor cell pool. TCF-1 mediated a T-bet-to-Eomes transcription factor transition in Tex precursors by promoting Eomes expression and drove c-Myb expression that controlled Bcl-2 and survival. These data define a role for TCF-1 in early-fate-bifurcation-driving Tex precursor cells and also identify PD-1 as a protector of this early TCF-1 subset.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Doença Crônica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Camundongos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Linfócitos T/genética , Viroses/genética , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/virologia
10.
J Clin Invest ; 129(8): 3185-3200, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264971

RESUMO

T follicular helper cells (Tfh), a subset of CD4+ T cells, provide requisite help to B cells in the germinal centers (GC) of lymphoid tissue. GC Tfh are identified by high expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and the inhibitory molecule PD-1. Although more accessible, blood contains lower frequencies of CXCR5+ and PD-1+ cells that have been termed circulating Tfh (cTfh). However, it remains unclear whether GC Tfh exit lymphoid tissues and populate this cTfh pool. To examine exiting cells, we assessed the phenotype of Tfh present within the major conduit of efferent lymph from lymphoid tissues into blood, the human thoracic duct. Unlike what was found in blood, we consistently identified a CXCR5-bright PD-1-bright (CXCR5BrPD-1Br) Tfh population in thoracic duct lymph (TDL). These CXCR5BrPD-1Br TDL Tfh shared phenotypic and transcriptional similarities with GC Tfh. Moreover, components of the epigenetic profile of GC Tfh could be detected in CXCR5BrPD-1Br TDL Tfh and the transcriptional imprint of this epigenetic signature was enriched in an activated cTfh subset known to contain vaccine-responding cells. Together with data showing shared TCR sequences between the CXCR5BrPD-1Br TDL Tfh and cTfh, these studies identify a population in TDL as a circulatory intermediate connecting the biology of Tfh in blood to Tfh in lymphoid tissue.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Ducto Torácico/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/citologia , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Receptores CXCR5/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/citologia , Ducto Torácico/citologia
11.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(496)2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189717

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is a key environmental determinant of mammalian metabolism. Regulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) by the gut microbiota is a process critical to maintaining metabolic fitness, and gut dysbiosis can contribute to the development of obesity and insulin resistance (IR). However, how the gut microbiota regulates WAT function remains largely unknown. Here, we show that tryptophan-derived metabolites produced by the gut microbiota controlled the expression of the miR-181 family in white adipocytes in mice to regulate energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity. Moreover, dysregulation of the gut microbiota-miR-181 axis was required for the development of obesity, IR, and WAT inflammation in mice. Our results indicate that regulation of miR-181 in WAT by gut microbiota-derived metabolites is a central mechanism by which host metabolism is tuned in response to dietary and environmental changes. As we also found that MIR-181 expression in WAT and the plasma abundance of tryptophan-derived metabolites were dysregulated in a cohort of obese human children, the MIR-181 family may represent a potential therapeutic target to modulate WAT function in the context of obesity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Inflamação/genética , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Triptofano/metabolismo
12.
Nature ; 571(7764): 211-218, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207603

RESUMO

Exhausted CD8+ T (Tex) cells in chronic infections and cancer have limited effector function, high co-expression of inhibitory receptors and extensive transcriptional changes compared with effector (Teff) or memory (Tmem) CD8+ T cells. Tex cells are important clinical targets of checkpoint blockade and other immunotherapies. Epigenetically, Tex cells are a distinct immune subset, with a unique chromatin landscape compared with Teff and Tmem cells. However, the mechanisms that govern the transcriptional and epigenetic development of Tex cells remain unknown. Here we identify the HMG-box transcription factor TOX as a central regulator of Tex cells in mice. TOX is largely dispensable for the formation of Teff and Tmem cells, but it is critical for exhaustion: in the absence of TOX, Tex cells do not form. TOX is induced by calcineurin and NFAT2, and operates in a feed-forward loop in which it becomes calcineurin-independent and sustained in Tex cells. Robust expression of TOX therefore results in commitment to Tex cells by translating persistent stimulation into a distinct Tex cell transcriptional and epigenetic developmental program.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Epistasia Genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genótipo , Memória Imunológica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral
13.
Mol Cancer Res ; 17(8): 1639-1651, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088907

RESUMO

We discovered that 90.3% of patients with angiomyolipomas, lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) carry the arginine variant of codon 72 (R72) of TP53 and that R72 increases the risk for angiomyolipoma. R72 transactivates NOTCH1 and NODAL better than the proline variant of codon 72 (P72); therefore, the expression of NOTCH1 and NODAL is increased in angiomyolipoma cells that carry R72. The loss of Tp53 and Tsc1 within nestin-expressing cells in mice resulted in the development of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) with high Notch1 and Nodal expression, suggesting that similar downstream mechanisms contribute to tumorigenesis as a result of p53 loss in mice and p53 polymorphism in humans. The loss of murine Tp53 or expression of human R72 contributes to tumorigenesis via enhancing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and motility of tumor cells through the Notch and Nodal pathways. IMPLICATIONS: This work revealed unexpected contributions of the p53 polymorphism to the pathogenesis of TSC and established signaling alterations caused by this polymorphism as a target for therapy. We found that the codon 72 TP53 polymorphism contributes to TSC-associated tumorigenesis via Notch and Nodal signaling.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/patologia , Proteína Nodal/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Esclerose Tuberosa/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/fisiologia , Angiomiolipoma/genética , Angiomiolipoma/metabolismo , Angiomiolipoma/patologia , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Camundongos , Mutação , Proteína Nodal/genética , Receptor Notch1/genética , Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Esclerose Tuberosa/metabolismo , Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
14.
Nat Med ; 25(3): 454-461, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804515

RESUMO

Immunologic responses to anti-PD-1 therapy in melanoma patients occur rapidly with pharmacodynamic T cell responses detectable in blood by 3 weeks. It is unclear, however, whether these early blood-based observations translate to the tumor microenvironment. We conducted a study of neoadjuvant/adjuvant anti-PD-1 therapy in stage III/IV melanoma. We hypothesized that immune reinvigoration in the tumor would be detectable at 3 weeks and that this response would correlate with disease-free survival. We identified a rapid and potent anti-tumor response, with 8 of 27 patients experiencing a complete or major pathological response after a single dose of anti-PD-1, all of whom remain disease free. These rapid pathologic and clinical responses were associated with accumulation of exhausted CD8 T cells in the tumor at 3 weeks, with reinvigoration in the blood observed as early as 1 week. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated a pretreatment immune signature (neoadjuvant response signature) that was associated with clinical benefit. In contrast, patients with disease recurrence displayed mechanisms of resistance including immune suppression, mutational escape, and/or tumor evolution. Neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 treatment is effective in high-risk resectable stage III/IV melanoma. Pathological response and immunological analyses after a single neoadjuvant dose can be used to predict clinical outcome and to dissect underlying mechanisms in checkpoint blockade.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Transcriptoma , Evasão Tumoral
16.
Sci Immunol ; 3(24)2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858286

RESUMO

Current paradigms of CD8+ T cell-mediated protection in HIV infection center almost exclusively on studies of peripheral blood, which is thought to provide a window into immune activity at the predominant sites of viral replication in lymphoid tissues (LTs). Through extensive comparison of blood, thoracic duct lymph (TDL), and LTs in different species, we show that many LT memory CD8+ T cells bear phenotypic, transcriptional, and epigenetic signatures of resident memory T cells (TRMs). Unlike their circulating counterparts in blood or TDL, most of the total and follicular HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in LTs also resemble TRMs Moreover, high frequencies of HIV-specific CD8+ TRMs with skewed clonotypic profiles relative to matched blood samples are present in LTs of individuals who spontaneously control HIV replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (elite controllers). Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis confirmed that HIV-specific TRMs are enriched for effector-related immune genes and signatures compared with HIV-specific non-TRMs in elite controllers. Together, these data indicate that previous studies in blood have largely failed to capture the major component of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses resident within LTs.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Tecido Linfoide/citologia , Adulto , Animais , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Tecido Linfoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral/imunologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cancer Cell ; 33(6): 1017-1032.e7, 2018 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29894689

RESUMO

A significant proportion of cancer patients do not respond to immune checkpoint blockade. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying these treatments, we explored the role of CD4+Foxp3- T cells expressing PD-1 (4PD1hi) and observed that 4PD1hi accumulate intratumorally as a function of tumor burden. Interestingly, CTLA-4 blockade promotes intratumoral and peripheral 4PD1hi increases in a dose-dependent manner, while combination with PD-1 blockade mitigates this effect and improves anti-tumor activity. We found that lack of effective 4PD1hi reduction after anti-PD-1 correlates with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, we provide evidence that mouse and human circulating and intra-tumor 4PD1hi inhibit T cell functions in a PD-1/PD-L1 dependent fashion and resemble follicular helper T cell (TFH)-like cells. Accordingly, anti-CTLA-4 activity is improved in TFH deficient mice.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
18.
Cell Rep ; 23(7): 2142-2156, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768211

RESUMO

Persistent viral infections and tumors drive development of exhausted T (TEX) cells. In these settings, TEX cells establish an important host-pathogen or host-tumor stalemate. However, TEX cells erode over time, leading to loss of pathogen or cancer containment. We identified microRNA (miR)-155 as a key regulator of sustained TEX cell responses during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Genetic deficiency of miR-155 ablated CD8 T cell responses during chronic infection. Conversely, enhanced miR-155 expression promoted expansion and long-term persistence of TEX cells. However, rather than strictly antagonizing exhaustion, miR-155 promoted a terminal TEX cell subset. Transcriptional profiling identified coordinated control of cell signaling and transcription factor pathways, including the key AP-1 family member Fosl2. Overexpression of Fosl2 reversed the miR-155 effects, identifying a link between miR-155 and the AP-1 transcriptional program in regulating TEX cells. Thus, we identify a mechanism of miR-155 regulation of TEX cells and a key role for Fosl2 in T cell exhaustion.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células/genética , Doença Crônica , Doenças Transmissíveis/patologia , Antígeno 2 Relacionado a Fos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
19.
Immunity ; 48(5): 1029-1045.e5, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768164

RESUMO

Exhausted CD8 T (Tex) cells are immunotherapy targets in chronic infection and cancer, but a comprehensive assessment of Tex cell diversity in human disease is lacking. Here, we developed a transcriptomic- and epigenetic-guided mass cytometry approach to define core exhaustion-specific genes and disease-induced changes in Tex cells in HIV and human cancer. Single-cell proteomic profiling identified 9 distinct Tex cell clusters using phenotypic, functional, transcription factor, and inhibitory receptor co-expression patterns. An exhaustion severity metric was developed and integrated with high-dimensional phenotypes to define Tex cell clusters that were present in healthy subjects, common across chronic infection and cancer or enriched in either disease, linked to disease severity, and changed with HIV therapy. Combinatorial patterns of immunotherapy targets on different Tex cell clusters were also defined. This approach and associated datasets present a resource for investigating human Tex cell biology, with implications for immune monitoring and immunomodulation in chronic infections, autoimmunity, and cancer.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
Cell Rep ; 22(2): 411-426, 2018 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29320737

RESUMO

Acute respiratory tract viral infections (ARTIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. CD8 T cells are fundamental to host responses, but transcriptional alterations underlying anti-viral mechanisms and links to clinical characteristics remain unclear. CD8 T cell transcriptional circuitry in acutely ill pediatric patients with influenza-like illness was distinct for different viral pathogens. Although changes included expected upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), transcriptional downregulation was prominent upon exposure to innate immune signals in early IFV infection. Network analysis linked changes to severity of infection, asthma, sex, and age. An influenza pediatric signature (IPS) distinguished acute influenza from other ARTIs and outperformed other influenza prediction gene lists. The IPS allowed a deeper investigation of the connection between transcriptional alterations and clinical characteristics of acute illness, including age-based differences in circuits connecting the STAT1/2 pathway to ISGs. A CD8 T cell-focused systems immunology approach in pediatrics identified age-based alterations in ARTI host response pathways.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia
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