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2.
J Pathol ; 251(4): 378-387, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462735

RESUMO

Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumours with a hereditary background in over one-third of patients. Mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes increase the risk for PPGLs and several other tumours. Mutations in subunit B (SDHB) in particular are a risk factor for metastatic disease, further highlighting the importance of identifying SDHx mutations for patient management. Genetic variants of unknown significance, where implications for the patient and family members are unclear, are a problem for interpretation. For such cases, reliable methods for evaluating protein functionality are required. Immunohistochemistry for SDHB (SDHB-IHC) is the method of choice but does not assess functionality at the enzymatic level. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based measurements of metabolite precursors and products of enzymatic reactions provide an alternative method. Here, we compare SDHB-IHC with metabolite profiling in 189 tumours from 187 PPGL patients. Besides evaluating succinate:fumarate ratios (SFRs), machine learning algorithms were developed to establish predictive models for interpreting metabolite data. Metabolite profiling showed higher diagnostic specificity compared to SDHB-IHC (99.2% versus 92.5%, p = 0.021), whereas sensitivity was comparable. Application of machine learning algorithms to metabolite profiles improved predictive ability over that of the SFR, in particular for hard-to-interpret cases of head and neck paragangliomas (AUC 0.9821 versus 0.9613, p = 0.044). Importantly, the combination of metabolite profiling with SDHB-IHC has complementary utility, as SDHB-IHC correctly classified all but one of the false negatives from metabolite profiling strategies, while metabolite profiling correctly classified all but one of the false negatives/positives from SDHB-IHC. From 186 tumours with confirmed status of SDHx variant pathogenicity, the combination of the two methods resulted in 185 correct predictions, highlighting the benefits of both strategies for patient management. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

3.
J Hypertens ; 38(8): 1443-1456, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412940

RESUMO

: Phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are chromaffin cell tumours that require timely diagnosis because of their potentially serious cardiovascular and sometimes life- threatening sequelae. Tremendous progress in biochemical testing, imaging, genetics and pathophysiological understanding of the tumours has far-reaching implications for physicians dealing with hypertension and more importantly affected patients. Because hypertension is a classical clinical clue for PPGL, physicians involved in hypertension care are those who are often the first to consider this diagnosis. However, there have been profound changes in how PPGLs are discovered; this is often now based on incidental findings of adrenal or other masses during imaging and increasingly during surveillance based on rapidly emerging new hereditary causes of PPGL. We therefore address the relevant genetic causes of PPGLs and outline how genetic testing can be incorporated within clinical care. In addition to conventional imaging (computed tomography, MRI), new functional imaging approaches are evaluated. The novel knowledge of genotype-phenotype relationships, linking distinct genetic causes of disease to clinical behaviour and biochemical phenotype, provides the rationale for patient-tailored strategies for diagnosis, follow-up and surveillance. Most appropriate preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients are reviewed, as is minimally invasive surgery. Finally, we discuss risk factors for developing metastatic disease and how they may facilitate personalised follow-up. Experts from the European Society of Hypertension have prepared this position document that summarizes the current knowledge in epidemiology, genetics, diagnosis, treatment and surveillance of PPGL.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817072

RESUMO

Metabolic interplay between the tumor microenvironment and cancer cells is a potential target for novel anti-cancer approaches. Among stromal components, adipocytes and adipose precursors have been shown to actively participate in tumor progression in several solid malignancies. In adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a rare endocrine neoplasia with a poor prognosis, cancer cells often infiltrate the fat mass surrounding the adrenal organ, enabling possible crosstalk with the adipose cells. Here, by using an in vitro co-culture system, we show that the interaction between adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and the adrenocortical cancer cell line H295R leads to metabolic and functional reprogramming of both cell types: cancer cells limit differentiation and increase proliferation of ASCs, which in turn support tumor growth and invasion. This effect associates with a shift from the paracrine cancer-promoting IGF2 axis towards an ASC-associated leptin axis, along with a shift in the SDF-1 axis towards CXCR7 expression in H295R cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that adipose precursors, as pivotal components of the ACC microenvironment, promote cancer cell reprogramming and invasion, opening new perspectives for the development of more effective therapeutic approaches.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379752

RESUMO

Background: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor entity with restricted therapeutic opportunities. HSP90 (Heat Shock Protein 90) chaperone activity is fundamental for cell survival and contributes to different oncogenic signaling pathways. Indeed, agents targeting HSP90 function have shown therapeutic efficacy in several cancer types. We have examined the expression of HSP90 in different adrenal tumors and evaluated the use of HSP90 inhibitors in vitro as possible therapy for ACC. Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of HSP90 isoforms was investigated in different adrenocortical tumors and associated with clinical features. Additionally, a panel of N-terminal (17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), luminespib, and ganetespib) and C-terminal (novobiocin and silibinin) HSP90 inhibitors were tested on various ACC cell lines. Results: Within adrenocortical tumors, ACC samples exhibited the highest expression of HSP90ß. Within a cohort of ACC patients, HSP90ß expression levels were inversely correlated with recurrence-free and overall survival. In functional assays, among five different compounds tested luminespib and ganetespib induced a significant decrease in cell viability in single as well as in combined treatments with compounds of the clinically used EDP-M scheme (etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin, mitotane). Inhibition of cell viability correlated furthermore with a decrease in proliferation, in cell migration and an increase in apoptosis. Moreover, analysis of cancer pathways indicated a modulation of the ERK1/2-and AKT-pathways by luminespib and ganetespib treatment. Conclusions: Our findings emphasize HSP90 as a marker with prognostic impact and promising target with N-terminal HSP90 inhibitors as drugs with potential therapeutic efficacy toward ACC.

6.
Theranostics ; 9(17): 4946-4958, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410193

RESUMO

Rationale: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that present variable outcomes. To date, no effective therapies or reliable prognostic markers are available for patients who develop metastatic PPGL (mPPGL). Our aim was to discover robust prognostic markers validated through in vitro models, and define specific therapeutic options according to tumor genomic features. Methods: We analyzed three PPGL miRNome datasets (n=443), validated candidate markers and assessed them in serum samples (n=36) to find a metastatic miRNA signature. An integrative study of miRNome, transcriptome and proteome was performed to find miRNA targets, which were further characterized in vitro. Results: A signature of six miRNAs (miR-21-3p, miR-183-5p, miR-182-5p, miR-96-5p, miR-551b-3p, and miR-202-5p) was associated with metastatic risk and time to progression. A higher expression of five of these miRNAs was also detected in PPGL patients' liquid biopsies compared with controls. The combined expression of miR-21-3p/miR-183-5p showed the best power to predict metastasis (AUC=0.804, P=4.67·10-18), and was found associated in vitro with pro-metastatic features, such as neuroendocrine-mesenchymal transition phenotype, and increased cell migration rate. A pan-cancer multi-omic integrative study correlated miR-21-3p levels with TSC2 expression, mTOR pathway activation, and a predictive signature for mTOR inhibitor-sensitivity in PPGLs and other cancers. Likewise, we demonstrated in vitro a TSC2 repression and an enhanced rapamycin sensitivity upon miR-21-3p expression. Conclusions: Our findings support the assessment of miR-21-3p/miR-183-5p, in tumors and liquid biopsies, as biomarkers for risk stratification to improve the PPGL patients' management. We propose miR-21-3p to select mPPGL patients who may benefit from mTOR inhibitors.

7.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294750

RESUMO

Importance: The risk stratification of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based on tumor proliferation index and stage is limited. Adjuvant therapy after surgery is recommended for most patients. Pan-genomic studies have identified distinct molecular groups closely associated with outcome. Objective: To compare the molecular classification for prognostic assessment of ACC with other known prognostic factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective biomarker analysis, ACC tumor samples from 368 patients who had undergone surgical tumor removal were collected from March 1, 2005, to September 30, 2015 (144 in the training cohort and 224 in the validation cohort) at 21 referral centers with a median follow-up of 35 months (interquartile range, 18-74 months). Data were analyzed from March 2016 to March 2018. Exposures: Meta-analysis of pan-genomic studies (transcriptome, methylome, chromosome alteration, and mutational profiles) was performed on the training cohort. Targeted biomarker analysis, including targeted gene expression (BUB1B and PINK1), targeted methylation (PAX5, GSTP1, PYCARD, and PAX6), and targeted next-generation sequencing, was performed on the training and validation cohorts. Main Outcomes and Measures: Disease-free survival. Cox proportional hazards regression and C indexes were used to assess the prognostic value of each model. Results: Of the 368 patients (mean [SD] age, 49 [16] years), 144 were in the training cohort (100 [69.4%] female) and 224 were in the validation cohort (142 [63.4%] female). In the training cohort, pan-genomic measures classified ACC into 3 molecular groups (A1, A2, and A3-B), with 5-year survival of 9% for group A1, 45% for group A2, and 82% for group A3-B (log-rank P < .001). Molecular class was an independent prognostic factor of recurrence in stage I to III ACC after complete surgery (hazard ratio, 55.91; 95% CI, 8.55-365.40; P < .001). The combination of European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) stage, tumor proliferation index, and molecular class provided the most discriminant prognostic model (C index, 0.88). In the validation cohort, the molecular classification, determined by targeted biomarker measures, was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor of recurrence (hazard ratio, 5.96 [95% CI, 1.81-19.58], P = .003 for the targeted classifier combining expression, methylation, and chromosome alterations; and 2.61 [95% CI, 1.31-5.19], P = .006 for the targeted classifier combining methylation, chromosome alterations, and mutational profile). The prognostic value of the molecular markers was limited for patients with stage IV ACC. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that in localized ACC, targeted classifiers may be used as independent markers of recurrence. The determination of molecular class may improve individual prognostic assessment and thus may spare unnecessary adjuvant treatment.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214117

RESUMO

Chromaffin tumors are included among the causes of secondary hypertension because of the release of catecholamines. Nevertheless, the clinical, cardiovascular, and hypertensive picture of patients affected by pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PPGL) is extremely variable, due to the different quantitative and qualitative releasing activity of these tumors. A consistent percentage of these patients, about 20%, is normotensive and not affected by the characteristic symptomatic crises due to sudden release of catecholamines. The factors causing such wide clinical variability are many and probably not all known. It is well known that many of these tumors are genetically determined and that the genetic profile influences the biochemical characteristics and the biology of the tumors as well as the clinical presentation of the affected patients. The number of asymptomatic or poorly symptomatic patients is increased after the introduction of genetic screening and the early diagnosis in mutation carriers. In this paper we can review the genotype-phenotype correlation of PPGLs with a focus on the cardiovascular picture.

9.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(6): 2367-2374, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (MPP) are characterized by prognostic heterogeneity. Our objective was to look for prognostic parameters of overall survival (OS) in MPP patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective multicenter study of MPP characterized by a neck-thoraco-abdomino-pelvic CT or MRI at the time of malignancy diagnosis in European centers between 1998 and 2010. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-nine patients from 18 European centers were included. Main characteristics of patients with MPP were: primary pheochromocytoma in 53% of patients; tumor- or hormone-related symptoms in 57% or 58% of cases; positive plasma or urine hormones in 81% of patients; identification of a mutation in SDHB in 42% of cases. Metastatic sites included bone (64%), lymph node (40%), lung (29%), and liver (26%); mean time between initial and malignancy diagnosis was 43 months (range, 0 to 614). Median follow-up was 68 months and median survival 6.7 years. Using univariate analysis, better survival was associated with head and neck paraganglioma, age <40 years, metanephrines less than fivefold the upper limits of the normal range, and low proliferative index. In multivariate analysis, hypersecretion [hazard ratio 3.02 (1.65 to 5.55); P = 0.0004] was identified as an independent significant prognostic factor of worst OS. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not confirm SDHB mutations as a major prognostic parameter in MPP and suggest additional key molecular events involved in MPP tumor progression. Aside from SDHB mutation, the biology of aggressive MPP remains to be understood.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/mortalidade , Paraganglioma/mortalidade , Feocromocitoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Paraganglioma/genética , Feocromocitoma/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Succinato Desidrogenase/genética
10.
FASEB J ; 33(2): 2263-2277, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247985

RESUMO

The adrenal gland is a multiendocrine organ with a steroidogenic mesenchymal cortex and an inner catecholamine-producing medulla of neuroendocrine origin. After embryonic development, this plastic organ undergoes a functional postnatal remodeling. Elucidating these complex processes is pivotal for understanding the early bases of functional endocrine disorders and tumors affecting the mature gland. We developed an in vitro human adrenal cell model derived from fetal adrenal specimens at different gestational ages, consisting of neuroendocrine and cortical components and expressing the zona and functional markers of the original fetal organ. These cortical and neuroendocrine progenitor cells retain in vitro an intrinsic gestational-age-related differentiation and functional program. In vitro these cells spontaneously form 3-dimensional structure organoids with a structure similar to the fetal gland. The organoids show morphofunctional features and adrenal steroidogenic factor, steroid acute regulatory, cytochrome-P450-17A1, dosage-sensitive, sex-reversal, adrenal hypoplasia-critical region on chromosome X protein , NOTCH1, and nephroblastoma overexpressed/cysteine-rich protein 61/connective tissue growth factor/nephroblastoma overexpressed gene-3; stem (BMI1, nestin); and chromaffin (chromogranin A, tyrosine hydroxylase) markers similar to those of the populations of origin. This in vitro human adrenal system represents a unique but preliminar model for investigating the pathophysiological processes underlying physiologic adrenal remodeling and pathologic alterations involved in organ hypo- and hyperplasia and cancer.-Poli, G., Sarchielli, E., Guasti, D., Benvenuti, S., Ballerini, L., Mazzanti, B., Armignacco, R., Cantini, G., Lulli, M., Chortis, V., Arlt, W., Romagnoli, P., Vannelli, G. B., Mannelli, M., Luconi, M. Human fetal adrenal cells retain age-related stem- and endocrine-differentiation potential in culture.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Senescência Celular , Feto/citologia , Humanos
11.
Genet Med ; 21(3): 705-717, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050099

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Metabolic aberrations have been described in neoplasms with pathogenic variants (PV) in the Krebs cycle genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), fumarate hydratase (FH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). In turn, accumulation of oncometabolites succinate, fumarate, and 2-hydroxyglutarate can be employed to identify tumors with those PV . Additionally, such metabolic readouts may aid in genetic variant interpretation and improve diagnostics. METHODS: Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, 395 pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) from 391 patients were screened for metabolites to indicate Krebs cycle aberrations. Multigene panel sequencing was applied to detect driver PV in cases with indicative metabolite profiles but undetermined genetic drivers. RESULTS: Aberrant Krebs cycle metabolomes identified rare cases of PPGLs with germline PV in FH and somatic PV in IDHx and SDHx, including the first case of a somatic IDH2 PV in PPGL. Metabolomics also reliably identified PPGLs with SDHx loss-of-function (LOF) PV. Therefore we utilized tumor metabolite profiles to further classify variants of unknown significance in SDHx, thereby enabling missense variants associated with SDHx LOF to be distinguished from benign variants. CONCLUSION: We propose incorporation of metabolome data into the diagnostics algorithm in PPGLs to guide genetic testing and variant interpretation and to help identify rare cases with PV in FH and IDHx.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Paraganglioma/genética , Feocromocitoma/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Fumarato Hidratase/genética , Fumarato Hidratase/fisiologia , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/fisiologia , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Metaboloma/genética , Succinato Desidrogenase/genética , Succinato Desidrogenase/fisiologia
12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(2): 312-318, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383267

RESUMO

Background: Up to 7% of all adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are pheochromocytomas (PCCs). In the evaluation of AI, it is generally recommended that PCC be excluded by measurement of plasma-free or 24-hour urinary fractionated metanephrines. However, recent studies suggest that biochemical exclusion of PCC not be performed for lesions with CT characteristics of an adrenocortical adenoma (ACA). Aim: To determine the proportion of PCCs with ACA-like attenuation or contrast washout on CT. Methods: For this multicenter retrospective study, two central investigators independently analyzed the CT reports of 533 patients with 548 histologically confirmed PCCs. Data on tumor size, unenhanced Hounsfield units (HU), absolute percentage washout (APW), and relative percentage washout (RPW) were collected in addition to clinical parameters. Results: Among the 376 PCCs for which unenhanced attenuation data were available, 374 had an attenuation of >10 HU (99.5%). In the two exceptions (0.5%), unenhanced attenuation was exactly 10 HU, which lies just within the range of ≤10 HU that would suggest a diagnosis of ACA. Of 76 PCCs with unenhanced HU > 10 and available washout data, 22 (28.9%) had a high APW and/or RPW, suggestive of ACA. Conclusion: Based on the lack of PCCs with an unenhanced attenuation of <10 HU and the low proportion (0.5%) of PCCs with an attenuation of 10 HU, it seems reasonable to abstain from biochemical testing for PCC in AIs with an unenhanced attenuation of ≤10 HU. The assessment of contrast washout, however, is unreliable for ruling out PCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Meios de Contraste , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feocromocitoma/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(5): 1712-1724, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476173

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Novel tumor markers are urgently needed to better stratify adrenocortical cancer (ACC) patients and improve therapies for this aggressive neoplasm. OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of the actin-bundling protein fascin-1 (FSCN1) in adrenocortical tumors. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A local series of 37 malignant/37 benign adrenocortical tumors at Careggi University Hospital and two independent validation ACC cohorts (Cochin, TCGA) from the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors were studied. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: FSCN1 expression was quantified by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR in ACC specimens; overall and disease-free survival associated with FSCN1 expression were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared with that of Ki67 labeling index and tumor stage. RESULTS: Despite the low diagnostic power, in the Florence ACC series, FSCN1 immunohistochemical detection appeared as an independent prognostic factor, also refining results obtained with staging and Ki67 labeling index. The robust prognostic power of FSCN1 levels was further confirmed in two independent ACC cohorts. A positive correlation was found between FSCN1 and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), with a substantially higher expression of both factors in ACCs at advanced stages and with at least one of the three Weiss score parameters associated with invasiveness. Moreover, we demonstrated FSCN1 role in promoting cell invasion in a human ACC cell line only in the case of increased SF-1 dosage. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that FSCN1 is a novel independent prognostic marker in ACC and may serve as a potential therapeutic target to block tumor spread.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/cirurgia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/metabolismo , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 18(1): 98, 2018 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulinoma is a rare tumour representing 1-2% of all pancreatic neoplasms and it is malignant in only 10% of cases. Locoregional invasion or metastases define malignancy, whereas the dimension (> 2 cm), CK19 status, the tumor staging and grading (Ki67 > 2%), and the age of onset (> 50 years) can be considered elements of suspect. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 68-year-old man presenting symptoms compatible with hypoglycemia. The symptoms regressed with food intake. These episodes initially occurred during physical activity, later also during fasting. The fasting test was performed and the laboratory results showed endogenous hyperinsulinemia compatible with insulinoma. The patient appeared responsive to somatostatin analogs and so he was treated with short acting octreotide, obtaining a good control of glycemia. Imaging investigations showed the presence of a lesion of the uncinate pancreatic process of about 4 cm with a high sst2 receptor density. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and duodenocephalopancreasectomy after one month. The definitive histological examination revealed an insulinoma (T3N1MO, AGCC VII G1) with a low replicative index (Ki67: 2%). CONCLUSIONS: This report describes a case of malignant insulinoma responsive to octreotide analogs administered pre-operatively in order to try to prevent hypoglycemia. The response to octreotide analogs is not predictable and should be initially assessed under strict clinical surveillance.


Assuntos
Insulinoma/terapia , Octreotida/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Idoso , Duodeno/fisiologia , Duodeno/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Insulinoma/diagnóstico , Insulinoma/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados
15.
Cell Tissue Res ; 374(3): 473-485, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159755

RESUMO

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PGLs) due to mutations of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) B, a subunit of the SDH complex with a role in the Krebs cycle and the respiratory chain, tend to be larger at diagnosis and more prone to metastatic disease than other tumors. This presentation contrasts with the behavior of some cell line models of SDHB impairment, which show reduced growth compared to wild type. We hypothesize that reduced growth of SDHB-impaired monolayer culture models might reflect lack of support from sources within the tumor microenvironment. The present study therefore investigates how the microenvironment, modeled here by fibroblast co-culture, modulates cell metabolism, growth and invasion in an Sdhb-impaired mouse pheochromocytoma cell line. We employed two different constructs of short hairpin RNA to knockdown Sdhb and compared growth in a monolayer with and without fibroblast co-culture. Sdhb-silenced cells showed functional impairment of SDH with elevated succinate to fumarate ratio and decreased oxidative capacity. Cell growth was delayed with an increase in doubling time of 2 h or 20 h. Clonogenic cell survival and viability, on the other hand, were either unchanged or increased compared to control. In standard monolayer culture, no differences in pro-metastatic features were present. Co-culture with primary mouse fibroblast reversed the difference of proliferation between control and Sdhb knockdown but was unable to significantly influence invasiveness under these culture conditions. Metabolic studies identified that lactate secreted by fibroblasts was taken up preferentially by Sdhb-silenced cells. In summary, the present study identified a potential role for the tumor microenvironment in influencing phenotypic features of SDHB-mutated PGLs, providing a basis for the use of therapies targeted towards the tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Feocromocitoma/metabolismo , Feocromocitoma/patologia , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Camundongos , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Succinato Desidrogenase/genética
16.
Genet Med ; 20(12): 1652-1662, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008476

RESUMO

PURPOSE: MDH2 (malate dehydrogenase 2) has recently been proposed as a novel potential pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL) susceptibility gene, but its role in the disease has not been addressed. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MDH2 pathogenic variants among PPGL patients and determine the associated phenotype. METHODS: Eight hundred thirty patients with PPGLs, negative for the main PPGL driver genes, were included in the study. Interpretation of variants of unknown significance (VUS) was performed using an algorithm based on 20 computational predictions, by implementing cell-based enzymatic and immunofluorescence assays, and/or by using a molecular dynamics simulation approach. RESULTS: Five variants with potential involvement in pathogenicity were identified: three missense (p.Arg104Gly, p.Val160Met and p.Ala256Thr), one in-frame deletion (p.Lys314del), and a splice-site variant (c.429+1G>T). All were germline and those with available biochemical data, corresponded to noradrenergic PPGL. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that MDH2 pathogenic variants may play a role in PPGL susceptibility and that they might be responsible for less than 1% of PPGLs in patients without pathogenic variants in other major PPGL driver genes, a prevalence similar to the one recently described for other PPGL genes. However, more epidemiological data are needed to recommend MDH2 testing in patients negative for other major PPGL genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Malato Desidrogenase/genética , Paraganglioma/genética , Feocromocitoma/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Paraganglioma/patologia , Feocromocitoma/patologia , Isoformas de Proteínas
17.
Hypertension ; 71(4): 585-591, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483224

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism (PA) causes cardiovascular damage in excess to the blood pressure elevation, but there are no prospective studies proving a worse long-term prognosis in adrenalectomized and medically treated patients. We have, therefore, assessed the outcome of PA patients according to treatment mode in the PAPY study (Primary Aldosteronism Prevalence in Hypertension) patients, 88.8% of whom were optimally treated patients with primary (essential) hypertension (PH), and the rest had PA and were assigned to medical therapy (6.4%) or adrenalectomy (4.8%). Total mortality was the primary end point; secondary end points were cardiovascular death, major adverse cardiovascular events, including atrial fibrillation, and total cardiovascular events. Kaplan-Meier and Cox analysis were used to compare survival between PA and its subtypes and PH patients. After a median of 11.8 years, complete follow-up data were obtained in 89% of the 1125 patients in the original cohort. Only a trend (P=0.07) toward a worse death-free survival in PA than in PH patients was observed. However, at both univariate (90.0% versus 97.8%; P=0.002) and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.08; P=0.025), medically treated PA patients showed a lower atrial fibrillation-free survival than PH patients. By showing that during a long-term follow-up adrenalectomized aldosterone-producing adenoma patients have a similar long-term outcome of optimally treated PH patients, whereas, at variance, medically treated PA patients remain at a higher risk of atrial fibrillation, this large prospective study emphasizes the importance of an early identification of PA patients who need adrenalectomy as a key measure to prevent incident atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Adrenalectomia , Anti-Hipertensivos , Fibrilação Atrial , Tratamento Conservador , Hiperaldosteronismo , Hipertensão , Adrenalectomia/efeitos adversos , Adrenalectomia/métodos , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Anti-Hipertensivos/classificação , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Tratamento Conservador/efeitos adversos , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Hiperaldosteronismo/epidemiologia , Hiperaldosteronismo/fisiopatologia , Hiperaldosteronismo/cirurgia , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Tempo
18.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 178(1): R11-R17, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28924001

RESUMO

Mutations in one of the five genes encoding the succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) or mitochondrial complex II cause the corresponding family syndromes characterized by the occurrence of pheochromocytomas (PHEO) and paragangliomas (PGL). Recently, other solid growths, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) and pituitary adenomas (PAs) have been associated with these syndromes. In the absence of prospective studies assessing their frequency, at present, their occurrence seems too infrequent to suggest systematic screening for SDHx mutation carriers. However, SDHB immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tumor tissues or SDHx genetic testing on blood or tumor samples should be performed in patients affected by GISTs, RCCs or PAs with clinicopathologic phenotypes suggesting an etiologic role of SDHx genes.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/genética , Paraganglioma/diagnóstico , Paraganglioma/genética , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico , Feocromocitoma/genética , Succinato Desidrogenase/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/genética
19.
Oncotarget ; 8(39): 65525-65533, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29029450

RESUMO

Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare aggressive malignancy. Recent ACC integrated genomics analysis contributed to redefine the risk groups on molecular basis, including tumor microRNAs (miRs), detectable also in the bloodstream. We developed a quantitative real-time (RT) assay for the measurement of miR483 and miR483-5p absolute levels in plasma samples. miR483/miR483-5p levels were evaluated in plasma samples of 27 patients with ACC before surgery and at follow-up. Statistically significant differences in miR483-5p and miR483 levels were found between stage 1/2 and stage 3/4 ACCs in pre-surgery and post-surgery samples. ROC curve analysis of miR483-5p levels gave a prediction of the clinical stage (accuracy 0.917±0.084), with the best cut-off value of 0.221 ng/ml, prognosticating overall and recurrence-free survival. In a multivariate Cox analysis (HR 16.2, 95%CI[1.39-188.6, P<0.026]), miR483-5p was the only variable that significantly predicted recurrence, but not overall survival. In addition, miR483 and miR483-5p levels correlated with the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detected in the same blood samples, independently of the timing of sampling. In conclusion, we demonstrated that miR483-5p absolute plasma levels in ACC patients are powerful molecular markers that may help in the follow-up of patients after surgery and chemotherapy, and contribute to more accurately classify and predict tumor progression.

20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(9): 3491-3498, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28911143

RESUMO

Context: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy with overall poor prognosis. The Ki67 labeling index (LI) has a major prognostic role in localized ACC after complete resection, but its estimates may suffer from considerable intra- and interobserver variability. VAV2 overexpression induced by increased Steroidogenic Factor-1 dosage is an essential factor driving ACC tumor cell invasion. Objective: To assess the prognostic role of VAV2 expression in ACC by investigation of a large cohort of patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 171 ACC cases (157 primary tumors, six local recurrences, eight metastases) from seven European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors centers were studied. Outcome Measurements: H-scores were generated to quantify VAV2 expression. VAV2 expression was divided into two categories: low (H-score, <2) and high (H-score, ≥2). The Ki67 LI retrieved from patients' pathology records was also categorized into low (<20%) and high (≥20%). Clinical and immunohistochemical markers were correlated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: VAV2 expression and Ki67 LI were significantly correlated with each other and with PFS and OS. Heterogeneity of VAV2 expression inside the same tumor was very low. Combined assessment of VAV2 expression and Ki67 LI improved patient stratification to low-risk and high-risk groups. Conclusion: Combined assessment of Ki67 LI and VAV2 expression improves prognostic prediction in ACC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/sangue , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/mortalidade , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/sangue , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/mortalidade , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-vav/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/terapia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Biópsia por Agulha , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Internacionalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-vav/sangue , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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