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1.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521161

RESUMO

The size, morphology, and purity control of coordination compound powders is a key stage for their conversion into materials and devices. In particular, surface science techniques require highly pure bulk materials with a narrow crystallite-size distribution together with straightforward, scalable, and reproducible crystallization procedures. In this work we demonstrate how sonocrystallization, i.e. the application of ultrasound during the crystallization process, can afford very quickly powders made of crystallites with controlled size, morphology, and purity. We show that this process drastically diminishes the crystallite-size distribution (low polydispersity indexes, PDI) and crystallite aspect ratio. By comparing sonicated samples with samples obtained by various silent crystallization conditions, we unambiguously show that the improvement in the crystallite morphology and size distribution is not due to any thermal effect but to the sonication of the crystallizing media. The application of sonocrystallization on crystallization batches of single-chain magnets (SCMs) maintains the chemical integrity of the SCMs together with their original magnetic behavior. Moreover, luminescent measurements show that sonocrystallization induces an efficient micromixing that drastically enhances the purity of the SCM powders. We thus propose that sonocrystallization, which is already used on organic or MOF compounds, can be applied to (magnetic) coordination compounds to readily afford bulk powders for characterization or shaping techniques that require pure, morphology- and crystallite-size-controlled powder samples.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551478

RESUMO

Spin crossover complexes are among the most studied classes of molecular switches and have attracted considerable attention for their potential technological use as active units in multifunctional devices. A fundamental step toward their practical implementation is the integration in macroscopic devices adopting hybrid vertical architectures. First, the physical properties of technological interest shown by these materials in the bulk phase have to be retained once they are deposited on a solid surface. Herein, we describe the study of a hybrid molecular inorganic junction embedding the spin crossover complex [Fe(qnal)2] (qnal = quinoline-naphthaldehyde) as an active switchable thin film sandwiched within energy-optimized metallic electrodes. In these junctions, developed and characterized with the support of state of the art techniques including synchrotron Mössbauer source (SMS) spectroscopy and focused-ion beam scanning transmission electron microscopy, we observed that the spin state conversion of the Fe(II)-based spin crossover film is associated with a transition from a space charge-limited current (SCLC) transport mechanism with shallow traps to a SCLC mechanism characterized by the presence of an exponential distribution of traps concomitant with the spin transition temperature.

3.
Adv Mater ; 32(24): e2000566, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390212

RESUMO

Magnetic crystals formed by 2D layers interacting by weak van der Waals forces are currently a hot research topic. When these crystals are thinned to nanometric size, they can manifest strikingly different magnetic behavior compared to the bulk form. This can be the result of, for example, quantum electronic confinement effects, the presence of defects, or pinning of the crystallographic structure in metastable phases induced by the exfoliation process. In this work, an investigation of the magnetism of micromechanically cleaved CrCl3 flakes with thickness >10 nm is performed. These flakes are characterized by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, surface-sensitive X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and spatially resolved magnetic force microscopy. The results highlight an enhancement of the CrCl3 antiferromagnetic interlayer interaction that appears to be independent of the flake size when the thickness is tens of nanometers. The estimated exchange field is 9 kOe, representing an increase of ≈900% compared to the one of the bulk crystals. This effect can be attributed to the pinning of the high-temperature monoclinic structure, as recently suggested by polarized Raman spectroscopy investigations in thin (8-35 nm) CrCl3 flakes.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159166

RESUMO

The spin crossover (SCO) efficiency of [57Fe(bpz)2(phen)] (where bpz = bis(pyrazol-1-yl)borohydride and phen = 9,10-phenantroline) molecules deposited on gold substrates was investigated by means of synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy. The spin transition was driven thermally, or light induced via the LIESST (light induced excited spin-state trapping) effect. Both sets of measurements show that, once deposited on a gold substrate, the efficiency of the SCO mechanism is modified with respect to molecules in the bulk phase. A correlation in the distribution of hyperfine parameters in the sublimated films, not evidenced so far in the bulk phase, is reported. This translates into geometrical distortions of the first coordination sphere of the iron atom that seem to correlate with the decreased spin conversion. The work reported clearly shows the potentiality of synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy for the characterization of nanostructured Fe-based SCO systems, thus resulting as a key tool in view of their applications in innovative nanoscale devices.

5.
Nat Mater ; 19(5): 546-551, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066930

RESUMO

Magnetic materials interfaced with superconductors may reveal new physical phenomena with potential for quantum technologies. The use of molecules as magnetic components has already shown great promise, but the diversity of properties offered by the molecular realm remains largely unexplored. Here we investigate a submonolayer of tetrairon(III) propeller-shaped single molecule magnets deposited on a superconducting lead surface. This material combination reveals a strong influence of the superconductor on the spin dynamics of the single molecule magnet. It is shown that the superconducting transition to the condensate state switches the single molecule magnet from a blocked magnetization state to a resonant quantum tunnelling regime. Our results open perspectives to control single molecule magnetism via superconductors and to use single molecule magnets as local probes of the superconducting state.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(2): 780-784, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682058

RESUMO

We report a single-chain magnet (SCM) made of a terbium(III) building block and a nitronyl-nitroxide radical (NIT) functionalized with an aliphatic chain. This substitution is targeted to induce a long-range distortion of the polymeric chain and accordingly it gives rise to chains that are curled with almost 20 nm helical pitch. They self-organize as a chiral tubular superstructure made of 11 chains wound around each other. The supramolecular tubes have a 4.5 nm internal diameter. Overall, this forms a porous chiral network with almost 44 % porosity. Ab initio calculations highlight that each TbIII ion possesses high magnetic anisotropy. Indeed, notwithstanding the supramolecular arrangement each chain behaves as a SCM. Magnetic relaxation with both finite and infinite-size regimes is observed and confirms the validity of the Ising approximation. This is associated with quite strong coercive field and magnetic remanence (Hc =2400 Oe MR =2.09 µB at 0.5 K) for this class of compounds.

7.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 10: 2073-2083, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728255

RESUMO

The new generation of solar cells aims to overcome many of the issues created by silicon-based devices (e.g., decommissioning, flexibility and high-energy production costs). Due to the scarcity of the resources involved in the process and the need for the reduction of potential pollution, a greener approach to solar cell material production is required. Among others, the solvothermal approach for the synthesis of nanocrystalline Cu-Sn-S (CTS) materials fulfils all of these requirements. The material constraints must be considered, not only for the final product, but for the whole production process. Most works reporting the successful synthesis of CTS have employed surfactants, high pressure or noxious solvents. In this paper, we demonstrate the synthesis of nanocrystalline kuramite by means of a simpler, greener and scalable solvothermal synthesis. We exploited a multianalytical characterization approach (X-ray diffraction, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electronic microprobe analysis (EMPA)) to discriminate kuramite from other closely related polymorphs. Moreover, we confirmed the presence of structural defects due to a relevant antisite population.

8.
Nanoscale ; 11(42): 20006-20014, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603165

RESUMO

Thin films of an iron(ii) complex with a photochromic diarylethene-based ligand and featuring a spin-crossover behaviour have been grown by sublimation in ultra-high vacuum on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and spectroscopically characterized through high-resolution X-ray and ultraviolet photoemission, as well as via X-ray absorption. Temperature-dependent studies demonstrated that the thermally induced spin-crossover is preserved at a sub-monolayer (0.7 ML) coverage. Although the photochromic ligand ad hoc integrated into the complex allows the photo-switching of the spin state of the complex at room temperature both in bulk and for a thick film on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, this photomagnetic effect is not observed in sub-monolayer deposits. Ab initio calculations justify this behaviour as the result of specific adsorbate-substrate interactions leading to the stabilization of the photoinactive form of the diarylethene ligand over photoactive one on the surface.

9.
Nano Lett ; 18(12): 7955-7961, 2018 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452271

RESUMO

Atomic-scale magnetic moments in contact with superconductors host rich physics based on the emergence of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) magnetic bound states within the superconducting condensate. Here, we focus on a magnetic bound state induced into Pb nanoislands by individual vanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc) molecules deposited on the Pb surface. The VOPc molecule is characterized by a spin magnitude of 1/2 arising from a well-isolated singly occupied d xy-orbital and is a promising candidate for a molecular spin qubit with long coherence times. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements show that the molecular spin remains unperturbed even for molecules directly deposited on the Pb surface. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations identify two adsorption geometries for this "asymmetric" molecule (i.e., absence of a horizontal symmetry plane): (a) oxygen pointing toward the vacuum with the Pc laying on the Pb, showing negligible spin-superconductor interaction, and (b) oxygen pointing toward the Pb, presenting an efficient interaction with the Pb and promoting a Yu-Shiba-Rusinov bound state. Additionally, we find that in the first case a YSR state can be induced smoothly by exerting mechanical force on the molecules with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip. This allows the interaction strength to be tuned continuously from an isolated molecular spin case, through the quantum critical point (where the bound state energy is zero) and beyond. DFT indicates that a gradual bending of the VO bond relative to the Pc ligand plane promoted by the STM tip can modify the interaction in a continuously tunable manner. The ability to induce a tunable YSR state in the superconductor suggests the possibility of introducing coupled spins on superconductors with switchable interaction.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(56): 7826-7829, 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947367

RESUMO

Muon spin relaxation (µSR) experiments on a single-molecule magnet enriched in different Dy isotopes detect unambiguously the slowing down of the zero field spin dynamics for the non-magnetic isotope. This occurs in the low temperature regime dominated by quantum tunnelling, in agreement with previous ac susceptibility investigations. In contrast to the latter, however, µSR is sensitive to all fluctuation modes affecting the lifetime of the spin levels.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 47(19): 6772-6778, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29717326

RESUMO

The search for new environment-friendly visible-light absorbing catalysts is an urgent task. g-C3N4 has excellent photocatalytic properties and the possibility of developing cost-effective routes to make this material a viable alternative to the currently used catalysts is required. In this work, we show that a simple chemical oxidation process of g-C3N4 with nitric acid allowed significantly enhancing the hydrogen photogeneration from aqueous triethanolamine, under simulated solar light. An 8-fold improvement of the H2 production, with respect to the pristine sample, was achieved by properly controlling the physical-chemical parameters of the oxidation process, reaching a value of about 4000 µmol g-1 h-1, which is one of the highest hydrogen production rates for bulk g-C3N4. Such high levels of photocatalytic activity result from the combination of improved surface area and changes in the electronic structure induced by the oxidation process.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 480, 2018 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396458

RESUMO

The use of single molecule magnets (SMMs) as cornerstone elements in spintronics and quantum computing applications demands that magnetic bistability is retained when molecules are interfaced with solid conducting surfaces. Here, we employ synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy to investigate a monolayer of a tetrairon(III) (Fe4) SMM chemically grafted on a gold substrate. At low temperature and zero magnetic field, we observe the magnetic pattern of the Fe4 molecule, indicating slow spin fluctuations compared to the Mössbauer timescale. Significant structural deformations of the magnetic core, induced by the interaction with the substrate, as predicted by ab initio molecular dynamics, are also observed. However, the effects of the modifications occurring at the individual iron sites partially compensate each other, so that slow magnetic relaxation is retained on the surface. Interestingly, these deformations escaped detection by conventional synchrotron-based techniques, like X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, thus highlighting the power of synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy for the investigation of hybrid interfaces.

13.
RSC Adv ; 8(10): 5578-5585, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820317

RESUMO

A new series of sidewall modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with perfluorophenyl molecules bearing carboxylic acid or methyl ester moieties are herein reported. Pristine and functionalized SWCNTs (p-SWCNTs and f-SWCNTs, respectively) were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nitrene-based functionalization provided intact SWCNTs with methyl 4-azido-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoate (SWCNT-N-C6F4CO2CH3) and 4-azido-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoic acid (SWCNT-N-C6F4CO2H) attached every 213 and 109 carbon atoms, respectively. Notably, SWCNT-N-C6F4CO2H was sensitive in terms of the percentage of conductance variation from 5 to 40 ppm of ammonia (NH3) and trimethylamine (TMA) with a two-fold higher variation of conductance compared to p-SWCNTs at 40 ppm. The sensors are highly sensitive to NH3 and TMA as they showed very low responses (0.1%) toward 200 ppm of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) containing various functional groups representative of different classes of analytes such as benzene, tetrahydrofurane (THF), hexane, ethyl acetate (AcOEt), ethanol, acetonitrile (CH3CN), acetone and chloroform (CHCl3). Our system is a promising candidate for the realization of single-use chemiresistive sensors for the detection of threshold crossing by low concentrations of gaseous NH3 and TMA at room temperature.

14.
Small ; 14(5)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226595

RESUMO

The complexation between 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidinone (UPy) and 2,7-diamido-1,8-naphthyridine (NaPy) is used to promote the mild chemisorption of a UPy-functionalized terbium(III) double decker system on a silicon surface. The adopted strategy allows the single-molecule magnet behavior of the system to be maintained unaltered on the surface.

15.
Nano Lett ; 17(3): 1899-1905, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28165249

RESUMO

The magnetic properties of some single molecule magnets (SMM) on surfaces can be strongly modified by the molecular packing in nanometric films/aggregates or by interactions with the substrate, which affect the molecular orientation and geometry. Detailed investigations of the magnetism of thin SMM films and nanostructures are necessary for the development of spin-based molecular devices, however this task is challenged by the limited sensitivity of laboratory-based magnetometric techniques and often requires access to synchrotron light sources to perform surface sensitive X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) investigations. Here we show that low-temperature magnetic force microscopy is an alternative powerful laboratory tool able to extract the field dependence of the magnetization and to identify areas of in-plane and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in microarrays of the SMM terbium(III) bis-phthalocyaninato (TbPc2) neutral complex grown as nanosized films on SiO2 and perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA), and this is in agreement with data extracted from nonlocal XMCD measurements performed on homogeneous TbPc2/PTCDA films.

16.
ACS Omega ; 2(2): 517-521, 2017 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457452

RESUMO

We present here a reaction scheme to connect TbPc2 single-molecule magnets into 1D architectures using acyclic diene metathesis. To investigate the impact of the bonding through aliphatic chains on the magnetic properties of TbPc2, we isolate and characterize the dimeric species obtained as one of the products of the reaction. Remarkably, the magnetic properties are only slightly modified after the formation of the bond between molecules, enlightening the great potential of this reaction scheme.

17.
Chemistry ; 23(11): 2517-2521, 2017 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27981632

RESUMO

In a proof-of-principle study, a soluble macrocyclic single-molecule magnet (SMM) containing a CuII3 TbIII magnetic core was covalently grafted onto small gold nanoparticles pre-functionalised with carboxylate-terminated tethers. A modified microemulsion method allowed production of the small and monodisperse nanoparticles (approximately 3.5 nm in diameter) for the chemisorption of a large amount of intact macrocyclic complexes in the hybrid system.

18.
ACS Nano ; 10(6): 5663-9, 2016 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27139335

RESUMO

The organization of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) on surfaces via thermal sublimation is a prerequisite for the development of future devices for spintronics exploiting the richness of properties offered by these magnetic molecules. However, a change in the SMM properties due to the interaction with specific surfaces is usually observed. Here we present a rare example of an SMM system that can be thermally sublimated on gold surfaces while maintaining its intact chemical structure and magnetic properties. Muon spin relaxation and ac susceptibility measurements are used to demonstrate that, unlike other SMMs, the magnetic properties of this system in thin films are very similar to those in the bulk, throughout the full volume of the film, including regions near the metal and vacuum interfaces. These results exhibit the robustness of chemical and magnetic properties of this complex and provide important clues for the development of nanostructures based on SMMs.

19.
Adv Mater ; 28(32): 6946-51, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27232580

RESUMO

Cantilever torque magnetometry is used to elucidate the orientation of magnetic molecules in thin films. The technique allows depth-resolved investigations by intercalating a layer of anisotropic magnetic molecules in a film of its isotropic analogues. The proof-of-concept is here demonstrated with the single-molecule magnet TbPc2 evidencing also an exceptional long-range templating effect on substrates coated by the organic molecule perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride.

20.
J Magn Reson ; 263: 116-121, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26774649

RESUMO

The use of the magnetic field associated with Maxwell displacement current in a capacitor is proposed for the detection of Electron Spin Resonance. A probe based on this concept is realized and successfully tested with CW radio-frequency in the band going from 200MHz to 1GHz with a DPPH sample. A significant increase of Signal to Noise Ratio is observed while increasing the frequency.

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