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1.
Bioinformatics ; 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605102

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: New in silico tools to predict biological affinities for input structures are presented. The tools are implemented in the DRUDIT (DRUgs DIscovery Tools) web service. The DRUDIT biological finder module is based on molecular descriptors that are calculated by the MOLDESTO (MOLecular DEScriptors TOol) software module developed by the same authors, which is able to calculate more than one thousand molecular descriptors. At this stage, DRUDIT includes 250 biological targets, but new external targets can be added. This feature extends the application scope of DRUDIT to several fields. Moreover, two more functions are implemented: the Multi-Target and On/Off-Target tasks. These tools applied to input structures allow for predicting the polypharmacology and evaluating the collateral effects. RESULTS: The applications described in the paper show that DRUDIT is able to predict a single biological target, to identify similarities among biological targets, and to discriminate different target isoforms. The main advantages of DRUDIT for the scientific community lie in its ease of use by worldwide scientists and the possibility to be used also without specific, and often expensive, hardware and software. In fact, it is fully accessible through the WWW from any device to perform calculations. Just a click or a tap can start tasks to predict biological properties for new compounds or repurpose drugs, lead compounds, or unsuccessful compounds. To date, DRUDIT is supported by 4 servers each able to execute 8 jobs simultaneously. AVAILABILITY: The web service is accessible at the www.drudit.com URL and its use is free of charge. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

2.
Intern Emerg Med ; 14(8): 1307-1315, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309520

RESUMO

The primary study objective is to compare the outcomes of patients taking oral anticoagulant medications in two distinct populations treated according to different management models (comprehensive vs. usual care). (Design: regional prospective cohort study; setting: hospital admission data from two regions). Eligible partecipants were patients taking oral anticoagulant drugs (vitamin K antagonist or direct oral anticoagulants), residents in the Vicenza and Cremona districts from February 1st, 2016 to June 30th, 2017. Patients were identified by accessing the administrative databases of patient drug prescriptions. The primary study outcome was admission to the Emergency Department for stroke, systemic arterial embolism, recurrence of venous thromboembolism or major bleeding. The study evaluated outcomes in 14,226 patients taking oral anticoagulants, of whom 6725 being followed in Cremona with a comprehensive management model. There were 19 and 45 thromboembolic events over 6205 and 6530 patient-years in the Cremona and Vicenza cohort, respectively (IRR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.77). The reduction of events in the Cremona cohort was almost entirely explained by a decrease of events in patients taking VKA (IRR 0.41, 95% CI 0.20-0.78) but not DOACs (IRR 1.08, 95% CI 0.25-5.24). The rate of major bleeding was non-significantly higher in Cremona than in Vicenza (IRI 1.32; 95% CI 0.74-2.40). Across the two cohorts, the risk of bleeding was lower in patients being treated with DOACs rather than warfarin (10/4574 vs. 42/8161 event/person-years, respectively, IRR 0.42 95% CI 0.19-0.86). We conclude that a comprehensive management model providing centralized dose prescription and follow-up may significantly reduce the rate of thromboembolic complications, without substantially increasing the number of bleeding complications. Patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants appear to have a rate of thromboembolic complications comparable to VKA patients under the best management model, with a reduction of major bleeding.

3.
J Pediatr Orthop B ; 28(3): 214-220, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531204

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare clinical and radiographical results for treatment of lower limb multiaxial deformities±limb length discrepancy (LLD) of at least 2 cm with the Truelok hexapod fixator system (TL-HEX). All consecutive cases of lower limb multiaxial deformities were included. Patients were divided in two groups: group 1, lower limb angular deformity+LLD less than 2 cm, and group 2, lower limb angular deformity+LLD of at least 2 cm. Only patients with age younger than or equal to 20 years and follow-up of 6 months after removal of the external fixator were included. A total of 27 (six femur and 39 tibia treated) and 20 patients (12 femur and 19 tibia) were enrolled in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Complete correction of the deformity was achieved in 90 and 96% of the patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively. There were no differences in terms of external fixator, maturation, and distraction indexes between the two groups and between different anatomical sites. Good to excellent functional results (ASAMI score) were obtained in 93% of patients in group 1 and 75% in group 2 (P=0.01). Complication rate was similar between the two groups (7.4 vs. 10%, respectively). Average follow-up after removal of the external fixator was 25.6 (range: 7.0-54.0) months. The TL-HEX external fixator system allows a predictable correction of complex lower limb deformities regardless of the presence of LLD. Although complication rate is similar between the two groups, lower functional outcomes can be expected in patients with significant preoperative LLD.


Assuntos
Fixadores Externos/tendências , Desigualdade de Membros Inferiores/diagnóstico por imagem , Desigualdade de Membros Inferiores/terapia , Perna (Membro)/anormalidades , Perna (Membro)/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Circulation ; 139(3): 337-346, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), infarct size correlates directly with heart failure and mortality. Preclinical testing has shown that, in comparison with reperfusion alone, mechanically unloading the left ventricle (LV) before reperfusion reduces infarct size and that 30 minutes of unloading activates a cardioprotective program that limits reperfusion injury. The DTU-STEMI pilot trial (Door-To-Unload in STEMI Pilot Trial) represents the first exploratory study testing whether LV unloading and delayed reperfusion in patients with STEMI without cardiogenic shock is safe and feasible. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective, randomized exploratory safety and feasibility trial, we assigned 50 patients with anterior STEMI to LV unloading by using the Impella CP followed by immediate reperfusion (U-IR) versus delayed reperfusion after 30 minutes of unloading (U-DR). The primary safety outcome was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events at 30 days. Efficacy parameters included the assessment of infarct size by using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: All patients completed the U-IR (n=25) or U-DR (n=25) protocols with respective mean door-to-balloon times of 72 versus 97 minutes. Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event rates were not statistically different between the U-IR versus U-DR groups (8% versus 12%, respectively, P=0.99). In comparison with the U-IR group, delaying reperfusion in the U-DR group did not affect 30-day mean infarct size measured as a percentage of LV mass (15±12% versus 13±11%, U-IR versus U-DR, P=0.53). CONCLUSIONS: We report that LV unloading using the Impella CP device with a 30-minute delay before reperfusion is feasible within a relatively short time period in anterior STEMI. The DTU-STEMI pilot trial did not identify prohibitive safety signals that would preclude proceeding to a larger pivotal study of LV unloading before reperfusion. An appropriately powered pivotal trial comparing LV unloading before reperfusion to the current standard of care is required. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT03000270.


Assuntos
Infarto Miocárdico de Parede Anterior/terapia , Coração Auxiliar , Reperfusão Miocárdica/métodos , Implantação de Prótese/instrumentação , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infarto Miocárdico de Parede Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Miocárdico de Parede Anterior/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reperfusão Miocárdica/efeitos adversos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Implantação de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(3)2018 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522444

RESUMO

Electrospun veils from copolyethersulfones (coPES) were prepared as soluble interlaminar veils for carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Neat, resin samples were impregnated into coPES veils with unmodified resin, while dry carbon fabrics were covered with electrospun veils and then infused with the unmodified epoxy resin to prepare reinforced laminates. The thermoplastic content varied from 10 wt% to 20 wt%. TGAP epoxy monomer showed improved and fast dissolution for all the temperatures tested. The unreinforced samples were cured first at 180 °C for 2 h and then were post-cured at 220 °C for 3 h. These sample showed a high dependence on the curing cycle. Carbon reinforced samples showed significant differences compared to the neat resin samples in terms of both viscoelastic and morphological properties.

6.
Epidemiol Prev ; 40(1 Suppl 2): 1-120, 2016 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26951748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This collaborative study, based on data collected by the network of Italian Cancer Registries (AIRTUM), describes the burden of rare cancers in Italy. Estimated number of new rare cancer cases yearly diagnosed (incidence), proportion of patients alive after diagnosis (survival), and estimated number of people still alive after a new cancer diagnosis (prevalence) are provided for about 200 different cancer entities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data herein presented were provided by AIRTUM population- based cancer registries (CRs), covering nowadays 52% of the Italian population. This monograph uses the AIRTUM database (January 2015), which includes all malignant cancer cases diagnosed between 1976 and 2010. All cases are coded according to the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O-3). Data underwent standard quality checks (described in the AIRTUM data management protocol) and were checked against rare-cancer specific quality indicators proposed and published by RARECARE and HAEMACARE (www.rarecarenet.eu; www.haemacare.eu). The definition and list of rare cancers proposed by the RARECAREnet "Information Network on Rare Cancers" project were adopted: rare cancers are entities (defined as a combination of topographical and morphological codes of the ICD-O-3) having an incidence rate of less than 6 per 100,000 per year in the European population. This monograph presents 198 rare cancers grouped in 14 major groups. Crude incidence rates were estimated as the number of all new cancers occurring in 2000-2010 divided by the overall population at risk, for males and females (also for gender-specific tumours).The proportion of rare cancers out of the total cancers (rare and common) by site was also calculated. Incidence rates by sex and age are reported. The expected number of new cases in 2015 in Italy was estimated assuming the incidence in Italy to be the same as in the AIRTUM area. One- and 5-year relative survival estimates of cases aged 0-99 years diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 in the AIRTUM database, and followed up to 31 December 2009, were calculated using complete cohort survival analysis. To estimate the observed prevalence in Italy, incidence and follow-up data from 11 CRs for the period 1992-2006 were used, with a prevalence index date of 1 January 2007. Observed prevalence in the general population was disentangled by time prior to the reference date (≤2 years, 2-5 years, ≤15 years). To calculate the complete prevalence proportion at 1 January 2007 in Italy, the 15-year observed prevalence was corrected by the completeness index, in order to account for those cancer survivors diagnosed before the cancer registry activity started. The completeness index by cancer and age was obtained by means of statistical regression models, using incidence and survival data available in the European RARECAREnet data. RESULTS: In total, 339,403 tumours were included in the incidence analysis. The annual incidence rate (IR) of all 198 rare cancers in the period 2000-2010 was 147 per 100,000 per year, corresponding to about 89,000 new diagnoses in Italy each year, accounting for 25% of all cancer. Five cancers, rare at European level, were not rare in Italy because their IR was higher than 6 per 100,000; these tumours were: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and squamous cell carcinoma of larynx (whose IRs in Italy were 7 per 100,000), multiple myeloma (IR: 8 per 100,000), hepatocellular carcinoma (IR: 9 per 100,000) and carcinoma of thyroid gland (IR: 14 per 100,000). Among the remaining 193 rare cancers, more than two thirds (No. 139) had an annual IR <0.5 per 100,000, accounting for about 7,100 new cancers cases; for 25 cancer types, the IR ranged between 0.5 and 1 per 100,000, accounting for about 10,000 new diagnoses; while for 29 cancer types the IR was between 1 and 6 per 100,000, accounting for about 41,000 new cancer cases. Among all rare cancers diagnosed in Italy, 7% were rare haematological diseases (IR: 41 per 100,000), 18% were solid rare cancers. Among the latter, the rare epithelial tumours of the digestive system were the most common (23%, IR: 26 per 100,000), followed by epithelial tumours of head and neck (17%, IR: 19) and rare cancers of the female genital system (17%, IR: 17), endocrine tumours (13% including thyroid carcinomas and less than 1% with an IR of 0.4 excluding thyroid carcinomas), sarcomas (8%, IR: 9 per 100,000), central nervous system tumours and rare epithelial tumours of the thoracic cavity (5%with an IR equal to 6 and 5 per 100,000, respectively). The remaining (rare male genital tumours, IR: 4 per 100,000; tumours of eye, IR: 0.7 per 100,000; neuroendocrine tumours, IR: 4 per 100,000; embryonal tumours, IR: 0.4 per 100,000; rare skin tumours and malignant melanoma of mucosae, IR: 0.8 per 100,000) each constituted <4% of all solid rare cancers. Patients with rare cancers were on average younger than those with common cancers. Essentially, all childhood cancers were rare, while after age 40 years, the common cancers (breast, prostate, colon, rectum, and lung) became increasingly more frequent. For 254,821 rare cancers diagnosed in 2000-2008, 5-year RS was on average 55%, lower than the corresponding figures for patients with common cancers (68%). RS was lower for rare cancers than for common cancers at 1 year and continued to diverge up to 3 years, while the gap remained constant from 3 to 5 years after diagnosis. For rare and common cancers, survival decreased with increasing age. Five-year RS was similar and high for both rare and common cancers up to 54 years; it decreased with age, especially after 54 years, with the elderly (75+ years) having a 37% and 20% lower survival than those aged 55-64 years for rare and common cancers, respectively. We estimated that about 900,000 people were alive in Italy with a previous diagnosis of a rare cancer in 2010 (prevalence). The highest prevalence was observed for rare haematological diseases (278 per 100,000) and rare tumours of the female genital system (265 per 100,000). Very low prevalence (<10 prt 100,000) was observed for rare epithelial skin cancers, for rare epithelial tumours of the digestive system and rare epithelial tumours of the thoracic cavity. COMMENTS: One in four cancers cases diagnosed in Italy is a rare cancer, in agreement with estimates of 24% calculated in Europe overall. In Italy, the group of all rare cancers combined, include 5 cancer types with an IR>6 per 100,000 in Italy, in particular thyroid cancer (IR: 14 per 100,000).The exclusion of thyroid carcinoma from rare cancers reduces the proportion of them in Italy in 2010 to 22%. Differences in incidence across population can be due to the different distribution of risk factors (whether environmental, lifestyle, occupational, or genetic), heterogeneous diagnostic intensity activity, as well as different diagnostic capacity; moreover heterogeneity in accuracy of registration may determine some minor differences in the account of rare cancers. Rare cancers had worse prognosis than common cancers at 1, 3, and 5 years from diagnosis. Differences between rare and common cancers were small 1 year after diagnosis, but survival for rare cancers declined more markedly thereafter, consistent with the idea that treatments for rare cancers are less effective than those for common cancers. However, differences in stage at diagnosis could not be excluded, as 1- and 3-year RS for rare cancers was lower than the corresponding figures for common cancers. Moreover, rare cancers include many cancer entities with a bad prognosis (5-year RS <50%): cancer of head and neck, oesophagus, small intestine, ovary, brain, biliary tract, liver, pleura, multiple myeloma, acute myeloid and lymphatic leukaemia; in contrast, most common cancer cases are breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers, which have a good prognosis. The high prevalence observed for rare haematological diseases and rare tumours of the female genital system is due to their high incidence (the majority of haematological diseases are rare and gynaecological cancers added up to fairly high incidence rates) and relatively good prognosis. The low prevalence of rare epithelial tumours of the digestive system was due to the low survival rates of the majority of tumours included in this group (oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, and liver), regardless of the high incidence rate of rare epithelial cancers of these sites. This AIRTUM study confirms that rare cancers are a major public health problem in Italy and provides quantitative estimations, for the first time in Italy, to a problem long known to exist. This monograph provides detailed epidemiologic indicators for almost 200 rare cancers, the majority of which (72%) are very rare (IR<0.5 per 100,000). These data are of major interest for different stakeholders. Health care planners can find useful information herein to properly plan and think of how to reorganise health care services. Researchers now have numbers to design clinical trials considering alternative study designs and statistical approaches. Population-based cancer registries with good quality data are the best source of information to describe the rare cancer burden in a population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias das Glândulas Endócrinas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Endócrinas/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Oculares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Oculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/prevenção & controle , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/epidemiologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias Torácicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Torácicas/prevenção & controle
7.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 22(1): 62-70, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26290172

RESUMO

RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Assuring the best standards of care - in a sustainable way - in chronic diseases as breast cancer is nowadays an important challenge for any health system. The aim of this study was to present the methodology used to define a set of quality indicators, computable from administrative data for the pathway of care of breast cancer, and its application at a population level. METHOD: The cohort of 2007-2009 incident cases of breast cancer was identified through a network of six cancer registers in Northern Italy. Cases of sarcoma and lymphoma, patients with multiple primary cancers and those metastatic at diagnosis were excluded; 9614 women were retained for the analysis. For each indicator, the sub-cohort of women eligible for the diagnostic/therapeutic procedures was identified and calculations were performed through record linkage between the cohort and sources of health information. Data on potential available confounders or prognostic factors were also collected. RESULTS: For a few indicators, such as cyto-histological assessment before surgery (62%) and intensive follow-up (79%), deviation from recommendations was evident. Younger patients (≤50 years) more frequently needed a short term re-intervention, while older patients less frequently underwent reconstructive surgery and received palliative care. Several indicators had a great variability across hospitals. In some cases, this heterogeneity appeared to be related to the hospital size, with high-volume hospitals being more compliant to guidelines. CONCLUSION: It is possible to evaluate the quality of cancer care delivered in clinical practice in recent years, in order to implement interventions aimed to improve adherence to international standards of care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Procedimentos Clínicos , Enfermagem Oncológica , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Itália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros
8.
J Orthop ; 12(Suppl 1): S130-2, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26719606

RESUMO

Dislocations of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are an uncommon injury and only few cases of anterior dislocations have been reported. We report a rare case of anterior dislocation of a 10-year-old posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty in a 74-year-old woman. The patient was successfully treated by close reduction of the dislocation followed by immobilization in full extension with a long leg cast. Because of a high risk of neurovascular complications, a high index of suspicion for vascular injury must be maintained. For this reason, a proper diagnosis is required and immediate reduction is recommended.

9.
Epidemiol Prev ; 38(1): 16-28, 2014 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24736958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to present a set of indicators developed from six Local Health Authorities of the Lombardy Region to monitor the diagnostic and therapeutic pathway of breast cancer patients, applied to 2007-2009 incident cases. DESIGN: retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: all subjects with primary breast cancer, incident in the period 2007-2009, and collected by cancer registries of Milano 1, Bergamo, Cremona, Milano, Milano 2 and Monza-Brianza (5,320,272 inhabitants) were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: through the use of combined current health databases (health registry, hospitalizations, outpatient, pharmaceutical prescription and specific database for anticancer drugs), for each incident case 34 different indicators have been developed to measure the appropriateness of the procedures provided for diagnosis, treatment (surgical and medical) and follow-up. For each indicator, we analyzed the relationship with age, stage, deprivation index, type of treatment, volume of the specific procedure of the hospital where primary surgery was performed. Estimates were adjusted using multilevel regression models. RESULTS: 12,988 incident cases, without metastatic diseases and other cancers, were included in the cohort: 62% were localized to the breast, 33% to the axillary lymph-nodes, 3% metastatic ab initio, and 2% with unknown stage. Deviations from the expected value of different magnitude depending on the type of indicator were observed: the most important differences were detected for the follow-up indicators. There was, in fact, an excess of several procedures in the first year of follow-up: 75% of the cases performed a dosage of a tumor marker, 67% an ecography or a CT scan or an MR, and 37% a bone scan. On the other hand, the access to neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatments in older women was far below the expected values. CONCLUSIONS: the study presents data derived from a large cohort of population cases; the set of indicators was validated by a board of oncologists. The use of indicators calculated by linking the cancer registries (that provide staging) and administrative databases allows the assessment of compliance to the guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of tumours. This experience shows that it is possible to develop a methodology, shared with clinicians, to define indicators that measure the distance between guidelines and current clinical practice in order to decrease variability, to limit inappropriateness, and to reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests for patients (and, consequently, hospitals organizational overload). In order to be sustainable and equitable, a health care system must be able to ensure implementation of protocols/procedures based exclusively on the best available scientific evidences.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Mastectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 178(7): 1139-45, 2013 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23863759

RESUMO

MF59-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Siena, Italy) has been shown to be more effective than nonadjuvanted vaccine in the elderly population. Here we present results from a large-scale, observational, noninterventional, prospective postlicensure study that evaluated the safety of MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in elderly subjects aged 65 years or more. The study was performed in 5 northern Italian health districts during the 2006-2007, 2007-2008, and 2008-2009 influenza seasons. The choice of vaccine-either adjuvanted vaccine or a nonadjuvanted influenza vaccine-was determined by individual providers on the basis of local influenza vaccination policy. Hospitalizations for potential adverse events of special interest (AESIs) were identified from hospital databases and then reviewed against recognized case definitions to identify confirmed cases of AESI. Cumulative incidences were calculated for AESIs in predefined biologically plausible time windows, as well as in a 6-month window following vaccination. During the 3-year study period, 170,988 vaccine doses were administered to a total of 107,661 persons. Despite the large study size, cases of AESI resulting in hospitalization were rare, and risks of AESI were similar in both the MF59-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted vaccination groups. In conclusion, similar safety profiles were observed for both nonadjuvanted and MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines in elderly recipients.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Atividades Cotidianas , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Itália , Masculino , Polissorbatos , Estudos Prospectivos , Esqualeno
11.
Am J Epidemiol ; 176(6): 527-33, 2012 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22940713

RESUMO

Although vaccination against influenza is recommended for elderly and high-risk patients in many countries, efficacy in the elderly has been suboptimal. The MF59 adjuvanted trivalent inactivated vaccine (ATIV) was developed to increase the immune response of elderly subjects to influenza vaccination, but its effectiveness has not yet been well documented. This prospective, observational study evaluated the relative effectiveness of ATIV versus nonadjuvanted trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) in individuals at least 65 years of age in Lombardy, northern Italy. Hospitalizations for influenza or pneumonia (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, codes 480-487) during the 2006-2007, 2007-2008, and 2008-2009 influenza seasons were identified from administrative databases. Stratified and regression analyses, including the propensity score to adjust for confounding, as well as generalized estimating equations to account for repeated vaccination, were used. Overall, 107,661 records were evaluated, contributing 170,988 person-seasons of observation. Since ATIV is preferentially recommended for more frail individuals, subjects vaccinated with ATIV were older and had more functional impairment and comorbidities. In the primary analysis, risk of hospitalization for influenza or pneumonia was 25% lower for ATIV relative to TIV (relative risk = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.57, 0.98). To the extent that there is residual bias, ATIV is likely to be even more protective than this result suggests.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Vacinas contra Influenza/química , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Polissorbatos , Esqualeno , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/química
12.
Diabetes Care ; 34(1): 210-5, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20937689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Some obese individuals have normal insulin sensitivity. It is controversial whether this phenotype is associated with increased all-cause mortality risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Fifteen-year all-cause mortality data were obtained through the Regional Health Registry for 2,011 of 2,074 Caucasian middle-aged individuals of the Cremona Study, a population study on the prevalence of diabetes in Italy. Individuals were divided in four categories according to BMI (nonobese: <30 kg/m²; obese: ≥30 kg/m²) and estimated insulin resistance (insulin sensitive: homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance <2.5; insulin resistant ≥2.5). RESULTS: Obese insulin-sensitive subjects represented 11% (95% CI 8.1-14.5) of the obese population. This phenotype had similar BMI but lower waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and fibrinogen and higher HDL cholesterol than obese insulin-resistant subjects. In the 15-year follow-up, 495 deaths (cardiovascular disease [CVD]: n = 221; cancer: n = 180) occurred. All-cause mortality adjusted for age and sex was higher in the obese insulin-resistant subjects (hazard ratio 1.40 [95% CI 1.08-1.81], P = 0.01) but not in the obese insulin-sensitive subjects (0.99 [0.46-2.11], P = 0.97) when compared with nonobese insulin-sensitive subjects. Also, mortality for CVD and cancer was higher in the obese insulin-resistant subjects but not in the obese insulin-sensitive subjects when compared with nonobese insulin-sensitive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to obese insulin-resistant subjects, metabolically healthy obese individuals are less common than previously thought and do not show increased all-cause, cancer, and CVD mortality risks in a 15-year follow-up study.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/patologia , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
13.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 29(4): 332-41, 2006 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16985391

RESUMO

Pain afflicts most cancer patients, mainly in the advanced and metastatic phases of the disease. Despite the existence of several guidelines for cancer pain management that are based on the recommendations by the World Health Organization and the availability of effective treatments for 70% to 90% of cases, undertreatment is well documented and can involve up to 40% of patients. Undertreatment is usually attributed to an incorrect use of opioids for reasons often conceptualized in terms of barriers related to healthcare provider, patient, family, institution, and society. In Italy, opioid consumption rates are among the lowest in Europe despite some of recent efforts to improve the analgesic prescription and utilization. In the context of a wide project coordinated by the Mario Negri Institute, a non-for-profit private foundation located in Milan, Italy, 4 activities were launched: (1) a critical appraisal of information available on the Web, with the preparation and publication of a meta-site to facilitate the use of selected resources; (2) an evaluation of prescriptions of analgesic drugs in a cohort of cancer patients using a large administrative database; (3) a nationwide outcome research study to assess the epidemiology, quality, and effectiveness of different analgesic strategies; and (4) a multimodal, community-based intervention based on information, education, and training programs to change the knowledge, opinions, and attitude toward cancer pain treatment. Activities started in 2005. Some results and outputs are already available; others will be ready by the end of 2007.


Assuntos
Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Neoplasias , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Pediatrics ; 116(1): e26-33, 2005 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15930187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Results from a relatively small case-control study recently showed that niflumic acid increases the risk of serious mucocutaneous reactions in children. As a consequence, the Italian Ministry of Health sent a "Dear Doctor" letter in June 2001 to warn pediatricians about the alleged adverse effects. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the incidence of mild and severe mucocutaneous reactions among children using niflumic acid, other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or nonopioid analgesics. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Italy is one of the few countries in which a specific primary care system is devoted to children up to 14 years of age: every child is registered at birth and receives free medical care from 1 of the approximately 6000 family pediatricians working for the National Health Service. This study was conducted with the Pedianet network of Italian family pediatricians who use computerized electronic patient records for routine care; 185 pediatricians participated in the study. The patient records comprise information on demographics, diagnoses, symptoms, prescriptions, referrals, laboratory examinations, and hospitalizations. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 0 to 14 years and registered with 1 of the collaborating pediatricians between January 1, 1998, and May 31, 2001. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence rate of severe (hospitalized or referred) and mild mucocutaneous reactions (exanthema, disseminated or localized pruritus, urticaria, angioedema, fixed eruption, dermatitis, erythema multiforme, vesicles, bullae, pustules, toxic epidermal necrolysis, purpura, and vasculitis) was estimated during use of niflumic acid, other NSAIDs, or nonopioid analgesics. For each episode of drug use, the following covariates were assessed: age, gender, region, year, indication for study drug, use of antibiotics, antimycotic agents, glucocorticoids, and other NSAIDs. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted relative risk of mucocutaneous disorders during use of niflumic acid compared with use of other NSAIDs or use of acetaminophen alone. RESULTS: The population included 193727 children, 45351 of whom received at least 1 of the study drugs. The most frequently prescribed drugs were niflumic acid, acetaminophen, and propionic acid derivatives (ketoprofen and flurbiprofen). Users of niflumic acid (n = 32150) were younger and slightly more often had otitis media or upper respiratory tract infections as an indication compared with the other NSAIDs. During use of the various study drugs we identified 1451 mild mucocutaneous events and 42 severe reactions. The incidence rates of severe and mild mucocutaneous reactions after the administration of any study drug were 10.3 per 100000 exposure person-days and 3.7 per 1000 exposure person-days, respectively. Both incidence rates decreased strongly with increasing age. In comparison with other NSAIDs, the adjusted relative risks of niflumic acid were 0.5 (95% confidence interval: 0.23-1.27) for severe and 0.9 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-1.11) for mild mucocutaneous reactions. The use of acetaminophen as a reference category instead of other NSAIDs, restriction of the children to those who received NSAIDs for respiratory tract infections, or restriction to those who did not use antibiotics never revealed an increased risk of serious or mild mucocutaneous reactions during use of niflumic acid. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with other NSAIDs or acetaminophen, niflumic acid is not associated with an increased risk of severe or mild mucocutaneous reactions in children. This was true for the different age groups and various types of mucocutaneous reactions, was independent of the concomitant use of antibiotics, and was not sensitive to changes in our assumptions regarding exposure and outcomes.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Erupção por Droga/etiologia , Ácido Niflúmico/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Uso de Medicamentos , Humanos , Lactente , Ácido Niflúmico/uso terapêutico , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente
15.
Epidemiology ; 14(1): 99-102, 2003 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12500056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interest in the incidence of varicella (chickenpox) has increased since the discovery of an effective vaccine, but calculations to date have incorrectedly ignored the question of susceptibility. METHODS: We studied the occurrence of varicella in Italy on the basis of 33,343 children (age 0-14 years) cared for by 35 pediatricians between 1 October 1997 and 30 September 1998. The life-table technique was used to calculate the number of susceptible children. On this basis, we estimated the corrected age-specific and cumulative incidence. RESULTS: We identified 1749 cases among the estimated 21,783 susceptible children, for a crude incidence of 8.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.7-8.4). The rate age-standardized to the Italian population 0-14 years old was 6.8 (CI = 6.5-7.2). The incidence was more than 16% among children age 3-4 years and more than 4% for those age 1-10 years. Comparison of the usual method and our corrected method showed that the uncorrected method underestimates the crude annual incidence (5.2% 8.0%), shifts the peak incidence to earlier ages, and underestimates cumulative incidence (at age 14, 49% 67%). CONCLUSIONS: The use of our corrected method provides more valid estimates of the incidence of varicella than the ones that are currently available. Corrected estimates should be preferred to uncorrected ones in models to study the cost-effectiveness of universal vaccination against varicella.


Assuntos
Varicela/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia
16.
Arthritis Rheum ; 47(2): 132-40, 2002 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11954006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the iatrogenic costs of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the primary and secondary care claims data registered in the regional health service database in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy). The study cohort comprised all persons(265,114) who received at least one prescription for any NSAID between August 1996 and July 1998. The outcomes of interest were the costs of medical interventions for upper gastrointestinal disorders following NSAID treatment (i.e., prescriptions for gastroprotective drugs, hospitalizations, and outpatient diagnostic procedures). RESULTS: The study population received a total of 660,311 NSAID prescriptions for a cost of 6,587,533 Euros (0.53 euro per treatment day). The cost of medical interventions for gastrointestinal events added 58% to the cost of NSAID therapy (0.31 euro per NSAID treatment day, up to 64% directly attributable to NSAID use). The iatrogenic costs were generated by 12.4% of the patients, 77% of whom had a positive history of gastrointestinal disorders and 82% of whom were older than 50 years. Co-prescriptions for gastroprotective drugs accounted for 78.6% of the overall iatrogenic costs. The iatrogenic costs did not differ between cyclooxygenase (COX) nonselective and COX-2 preferential drugs within strata of age and prior history of gastrointestinal disorders, but were significantly higher for the parenteral NSAIDs than the oral or rectal formulations. CONCLUSIONS: In Italy, the iatrogenic costs of NSAID therapy add 58% to the cost of NSAID treatment; most of the cost is generated by co-prescriptions of gastroprotective drugs to elderly NSAID users or patients with a history of gastrointestinal disorders.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Gastroenteropatias/economia , Doença Iatrogênica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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