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1.
Nano Lett ; 19(11): 8155-8160, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603685

RESUMO

Thermal transport across interfaces depends on the matching of vibrational structure at the interface. This work examines the transfer of thermal excitation from an organic ligand coating to either all-inorganic cesium lead tribromide (CsPbBr3) nanocrystals or hybrid organic-inorganic formamidinium lead tribromide (FAPbBr3) nanocrystals using selective infrared optical excitation. These two semiconductors are directly compared because they (or similar semiconductors) are currently envisioned as strong candidates in many optoelectronic technologies and they differ due to the presence of an organic or inorganic cation, which introduces substantial differences in the phonon density of states in otherwise quite similar semiconductors. Infrared excitation of C-H vibrations of surface-bound ligands generates a temperature gradient between the organic ligand shell and nanocrystal core, which results in heat flow, measured by probing changes of the semiconductor band gap. Heat transfer to both perovskite compositions of comparable sizes is similar (25-30 ps), due to fast intramolecular vibrational relaxation and similar matching of low-energy phonons with the organic ligand, but FAPbBr3 samples show a slow bleaching kinetic on the order of 1 ns. This slow, heat-induced change in the semiconductor band gap is attributed not to interfacial heat transfer but instead to thermal equilibration between the organic and inorganic sublattices of FAPbBr3. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations support the hypothesis that low-energy inorganic sublattice phonon modes are populated initially in the heat transfer process, with a slow thermal population of the higher-energy phonon modes associated primarily with the organic cation. Slow thermal equilibration of FAPbBr3 is likely to substantially impact the time-dependent response of optoelectronic devices that heat the semiconductor active layer and provide further evidence that the poor bulk thermal transport of hybrid perovskite materials extends to microscopic thermal processes.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(9): 9583-9593, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789701

RESUMO

Lead halide perovskites present a versatile class of solution-processable semiconductors with highly tunable bandgaps that span ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. We explore phase-separated chloride and iodide lead perovskite mixtures as candidate materials for intermediate band applications in future photovoltaics. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveal that deposition of precursor solutions across the MAPbCl3/MAPbI3 composition space affords quasi-epitaxial cocrystallized films, in which the two perovskites do not alloy but instead remain phase-segregated. First-principle calculations further support the formation of an epitaxial interface and predict energy offsets in the valence band and conduction band edges that could result in intermediate energy absorption. The charge dynamics of variable mixtures of the relatively narrow bandgap (1.57 eV) MAPbI3 perovskite and wide bandgap (3.02 eV) MAPbCl3 are probed to map charge and energy flow direction and kinetics. Time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption measurements reveal charge transfer of photoexcited carriers in MAPbCl3 to MAPbI3 in tens of picoseconds. The rate of quenching can be further tuned by replacing MAPbI3 with two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper (BA)2(MA) n-1Pb nI3 n+1 ( n = 3, 2, and 1) perovskites, which also remain phase-separated.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 482, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696817

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites such as methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) are game-changing semiconductors for solar cells and light-emitting devices owing to their defect tolerance and exceptionally long carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths. Determining whether the dynamically disordered organic cations with large dipole moment benefit the optoelectronic properties of CH3NH3PbI3 has been an outstanding challenge. Herein, via transient absorption measurements employing an infrared pump pulse tuned to a methylammonium vibration, we observe slow, nanosecond-long thermal dissipation from the selectively excited organic mode to the inorganic sublattice. The resulting transient electronic signatures, during the period of thermal-nonequilibrium when the induced thermal motions are mostly concentrated on the organic sublattice, reveal that the induced atomic motions of the organic cations do not alter the absorption or the photoluminescence response of CH3NH3PbI3, beyond thermal effects. Our results suggest that the attractive optoelectronic properties of CH3NH3PbI3 mainly derive from the inorganic lead-halide framework.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(86): 11751-11754, 2017 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29022972

RESUMO

We report a heterogeneous catalytic protocol for the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF) using a mesoporous manganese doped cobalt oxide material. The absence of precious metals and additives, use of air as the sole oxidant, and easy isolation of products, along with proper catalyst reusability, make our catalytic protocol attractive for the selective oxidation of HMF to DFF.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(33): 21270-7, 2016 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27467895

RESUMO

Recently, there has been a growing interest in developing wide band gap dielectric materials as the next generation insulators for capacitors, photovoltaic devices, and transistors. Organotin polyesters have shown promise as high dielectric constant, low loss, and high band gap materials. Guided by first-principles calculations from density functional theory (DFT), in line with the emerging codesign concept, the polymer poly(dimethyltin 3,3-dimethylglutarate), p(DMTDMG), was identified as a promising candidate for dielectric applications. Blends and copolymers of poly(dimethyltin suberate), p(DMTSub), and p(DMTDMG) were compared using increasing amounts of p(DMTSub) from 10% to 50% to find a balance between electronic properties and film morphology. DFT calculations were used to gain further insight into the structural and electronic differences between p(DMTSub) and p(DMTDMG). Both blend and copolymer systems showed improved results over the homopolymers with the films having dielectric constants of 6.8 and 6.7 at 10 kHz with losses of 1% and 2% for the blend and copolymer systems, respectively. The energy density of the film measured as a D-E hysteresis loop was 6 J/cc for the copolymer, showing an improvement compared to 4 J/cc for the blend. This improvement is hypothesized to come from a more uniform distribution of diacid repeat units in the copolymer compared to the blend, leading toward improved film quality and subsequently higher energy density.

6.
J Chem Phys ; 144(23): 234905, 2016 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27334192

RESUMO

A particularly attractive method to predict the dielectric properties of materials is density functional theory (DFT). While this method is very popular, its large computational requirements allow practical treatments of unit cells with just a small number of atoms in an ordered array, i.e., in a crystalline morphology. By comparing DFT and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations on the same ordered arrays of functional polyolefins, we confirm that both methodologies yield identical estimates for the dipole moments and hence the ionic component of the dielectric storage modulus. Additionally, MD simulations of more realistic semi-crystalline morphologies yield estimates for this polar contribution that are in good agreement with the limited experiments in this field. However, these predictions are up to 10 times larger than those for pure crystalline simulations. Here, we show that the constraints provided by the surrounding chains significantly impede dipolar relaxations in the crystalline regions, whereas amorphous chains must sample all configurations to attain their fully isotropic spatial distributions. These results, which suggest that the amorphous phase is the dominant player in the context, argue strongly that the proper polymer morphology needs to be modeled to ensure accurate estimates of the ionic component of the dielectric constant.

7.
Adv Mater ; 28(30): 6277-91, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27167752

RESUMO

Although traditional materials discovery has historically benefited from intuition-driven experimental approaches and serendipity, computational strategies have risen in prominence and proven to be a powerful complement to experiments in the modern materials research environment. It is illustrated here how one may harness a rational co-design approach-involving synergies between high-throughput computational screening and experimental synthesis and testing-with the example of polymer dielectrics design for electrostatic energy storage applications. Recent co-design efforts that can potentially enable going beyond present-day "standard" polymer dielectrics (such as biaxially oriented polypropylene) are highlighted. These efforts have led to the identification of several new organic polymer dielectrics within known generic polymer subclasses (e.g., polyurea, polythiourea, polyimide), and the recognition of the untapped potential inherent in entirely new and unanticipated chemical subspaces offered by organometallic polymers. The challenges that remain and the need for additional methodological developments necessary to further strengthen the co-design concept are then presented.

8.
Sci Data ; 3: 160012, 2016 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26927478

RESUMO

Emerging computation- and data-driven approaches are particularly useful for rationally designing materials with targeted properties. Generally, these approaches rely on identifying structure-property relationships by learning from a dataset of sufficiently large number of relevant materials. The learned information can then be used to predict the properties of materials not already in the dataset, thus accelerating the materials design. Herein, we develop a dataset of 1,073 polymers and related materials and make it available at http://khazana.uconn.edu/. This dataset is uniformly prepared using first-principles calculations with structures obtained either from other sources or by using structure search methods. Because the immediate target of this work is to assist the design of high dielectric constant polymers, it is initially designed to include the optimized structures, atomization energies, band gaps, and dielectric constants. It will be progressively expanded by accumulating new materials and including additional properties calculated for the optimized structures provided.


Assuntos
Estrutura Molecular , Polímeros/química , Condutividade Elétrica
9.
Sci Rep ; 6: 20952, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26876223

RESUMO

The ability to efficiently design new and advanced dielectric polymers is hampered by the lack of sufficient, reliable data on wide polymer chemical spaces, and the difficulty of generating such data given time and computational/experimental constraints. Here, we address the issue of accelerating polymer dielectrics design by extracting learning models from data generated by accurate state-of-the-art first principles computations for polymers occupying an important part of the chemical subspace. The polymers are 'fingerprinted' as simple, easily attainable numerical representations, which are mapped to the properties of interest using a machine learning algorithm to develop an on-demand property prediction model. Further, a genetic algorithm is utilised to optimise polymer constituent blocks in an evolutionary manner, thus directly leading to the design of polymers with given target properties. While this philosophy of learning to make instant predictions and design is demonstrated here for the example of polymer dielectrics, it is equally applicable to other classes of materials as well.

10.
Adv Mater ; 27(2): 346-51, 2015 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25420940

RESUMO

Poly(dimethyltin glutarate) is presented as the first organometallic polymer, a high dielectric constant, and low dielectric loss material. Theoretical results correspond well in terms of the dielectric constant. More importantly, the dielectric constant can be tuned depending on the solvent a film of the polymer is cast from. The breakdown strength is increased through blending with a second organometallic polymer.

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