Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 109
Filtrar
1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266155

RESUMO

Women carriers of pathogenic variants (mutations) in the BRCA1/2 genes face a high lifetime risk of developing breast cancer (BC) and/or ovarian cancer (OC). However, metabolic factors may influence BRCA penetrance. We studied the association of metabolic factors with BRCA1/2 variants and the risk effect of metabolic exposures in relation to the position of the mutations within the BRCA1/2. Overall, 438 women carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, aged 18-70, with or without a previous diagnosis of BC/OC and without metastases, who joined our randomized dietary trial, were included in the study. The pathogenic variants were divided, according to their predicted effect, into loss of function (LOF) and nonsynonymous variants. The association between metabolic exposures and variants were analyzed by a logistic regression model. LOF variant carriers showed higher levels of metabolic parameters compared to carriers of nonsynonymous variants. LOF variant carriers had significantly higher levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin than nonsynonymous variant carriers (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001, respectively). This study suggests that higher insulin levels are significantly associated with LOF variants. Further investigations are required to explore the association of metabolic factors with LOF variants and the mechanisms by which these factors may affect BRCA-related cancer risk.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899294

RESUMO

Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the TP53 gene, predisposing to a wide spectrum of early-onset cancers, including brain tumors. In medulloblastoma patients, the role of TP53 has been extensively investigated, though the prevalence of de novo mutations has not been addressed. We characterized TP53 mutations in a monocentric cohort of consecutive Sonic Hedgehog (SHH)-activated medulloblastoma patients. Germline testing was offered based on tumor p53 immunostaining positivity. Among 24 patients, three (12.5%) showed tumor p53 overexpression, of whom two consented to undergo germline testing and resulted as carriers of TP53 mutations. In the first case, family history was uneventful and the mutation was not found in either of the parents. The second patient, with a family history suggestive of LFS, unexpectedly resulted as a carrier of the mosaic mutation c.742=/C>T p.(Arg248=/Trp). The allele frequency was 26% in normal tissues and 42-77% in tumor specimens. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the tumor was also confirmed. Notably, the mosaic case has been in complete remission for more than one year, while the first patient, as most TP53-mutated medulloblastoma cases from other cohorts, showed a severe and rapidly progressive disease. Our study reported the first TP53 mosaic mutation in medulloblastoma patients and confirmed the importance of germline testing in p53 overexpressed SHH-medulloblastoma, regardless of family history.

3.
Nat Genet ; 52(5): 494-504, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341527

RESUMO

Most genetic susceptibility to cutaneous melanoma remains to be discovered. Meta-analysis genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 36,760 cases of melanoma (67% newly genotyped) and 375,188 controls identified 54 significant (P < 5 × 10-8) loci with 68 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms. Analysis of risk estimates across geographical regions and host factors suggests the acral melanoma subtype is uniquely unrelated to pigmentation. Combining this meta-analysis with GWAS of nevus count and hair color, and transcriptome association approaches, uncovered 31 potential secondary loci for a total of 85 cutaneous melanoma susceptibility loci. These findings provide insights into cutaneous melanoma genetic architecture, reinforcing the importance of nevogenesis, pigmentation and telomere maintenance, together with identifying potential new pathways for cutaneous melanoma pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Pigmentação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325837

RESUMO

The contribution of recently established or candidate susceptibility genes to melanoma missing heritability has yet to be determined. Multigene panel testing could increase diagnostic yield and better define the role of candidate genes. We characterized 273 CDKN2A/ARF and CDK4-negative probands through a custom-designed targeted gene panel that included CDKN2A/ARF, CDK4, ACD, BAP1, MITF, POT1, TERF2IP, ATM, and PALB2. Co-segregation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH)/protein expression analysis, and splicing characterization were performed to improve variant classification. We identified 16 (5.9%) pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants in established high/medium penetrance cutaneous melanoma susceptibility genes (BAP1, POT1, ACD, MITF, and TERF2IP), including two novel variants in BAP1 and 4 in POT1. We also found four deleterious and five likely deleterious variants in ATM (3.3%). Thus, including potentially deleterious variants in ATM increased the diagnostic yield to about 9%. Inclusion of rare variants of uncertain significance would increase the overall detection yield to 14%. At least 10% of melanoma missing heritability may be explained through panel testing in our population. To our knowledge, this is the highest frequency of putative ATM deleterious variants reported in melanoma families, suggesting a possible role in melanoma susceptibility, which needs further investigation.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276467

RESUMO

Previous studies on breast and ovarian carcinoma (BC and OC) revealed constitutional BRCA1 and RAD51C promoter hypermethylation as epigenetic alterations leading to tumor predisposition. Nevertheless, the impact of epimutations at these genes is still debated. One hundred and eight women affected by BC, OC, or both and considered at very high risk of carrying BRCA1 germline mutations were studied. All samples were negative for pathogenic variants or variants of uncertain significance at BRCA testing. Quantitative BRCA1 and RAD51C promoter methylation analyses were performed by Epityper mass spectrometry on peripheral blood samples and results were compared with those in controls. All the 108 analyzed cases showed methylation levels at the BRCA1/RAD51C promoter comparable with controls. Mean methylation levels (± stdev) at the BRCA1 promoter were 4.3% (± 1.4%) and 4.4% (± 1.4%) in controls and patients, respectively (p > 0.05; t-test); mean methylation levels (± stdev) at the RAD51C promoter were 4.3% (± 0.9%) and 3.7% (± 0.9%) in controls and patients, respectively (p > 0.05; t-test). Based on these observations; the analysis of constitutional methylation at promoters of these genes does not seem to substantially improve the definition of cancer risks in patients. These data support the idea that epimutations represent a very rare event in high-risk BC/OC populations.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991861

RESUMO

Germline protein truncating variants (PTVs) in the FANCM gene have been associated with a 2-4-fold increased breast cancer risk in case-control studies conducted in different European populations. However, the distribution and the frequency of FANCM PTVs in Europe have never been investigated. In the present study, we collected the data of 114 European female breast cancer cases with FANCM PTVs ascertained in 20 centers from 13 European countries. We identified 27 different FANCM PTVs. The p.Gln1701* PTV is the most common PTV in Northern Europe with a maximum frequency in Finland and a lower relative frequency in Southern Europe. On the contrary, p.Arg1931* seems to be the most common PTV in Southern Europe. We also showed that p.Arg658*, the third most common PTV, is more frequent in Central Europe, and p.Gln498Thrfs*7 is probably a founder variant from Lithuania. Of the 23 rare or unique FANCM PTVs, 15 have not been previously reported. We provide here the initial spectrum of FANCM PTVs in European breast cancer cases.

7.
Endocr Connect ; 8(8): 1224-1229, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336362

RESUMO

Breast cancer in men is a rare and still poorly characterized disease. Inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2 genes, as well as common polymorphisms, play a role in male breast cancer genetic predisposition. Male breast cancer is considered a hormone-dependent tumor specifically related to hyperestrogenism. Polymorphisms in genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism pathways, such as CYP17A1 and CYP1B1, have been associated with breast cancer risk. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of CYP17A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms in male breast cancer risk. A series of 597 male breast cancer cases and 1022 male controls, recruited within the Italian Multicenter Study on male breast cancer, was genotyped for CYP17A1 rs743572, CYP1B1 rs1056836 and rs1800440 polymorphisms by allelic discrimination real-time PCR with TaqMan probes. Associations with male breast cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression. No statistically significant associations between male breast cancer risk and the three analyzed polymorphisms emerged. Similar results were obtained also when BRCA1/2 mutational status was considered. No significant differences in the distribution of the genotypes according to estrogen receptor status emerged. In conclusion, our study, based on a large series of male breast cancer cases, is likely to exclude a relevant role of CYP17A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms in male breast cancer predisposition. Overall, these results add new data to the increasing evidence that polymorphisms in these genes may not be associated with breast cancer risk.

8.
Psychooncology ; 28(9): 1871-1878, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Female carriers of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations (BRCAm) are at increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. The main prevention options currently available consist in either clinical-radiological surveillance or risk-reducing surgery. This study investigated factors that might influence the choice of risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and/or salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) over surveillance in high-risk women. METHODS: One hundred twenty-eight BRCAm women, 75 (58.60%) cancer affected (C-A) and 53 (41.40%) cancer-unaffected (C-UN), completed a baseline questionnaire concerning socio-demographic factors, personal medical history, cancer family history, and psychological dimensions. Preferences about prevention strategies were evaluated after 15 months. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the relationship between these factors and the choice of RRSO or RRM in the whole cohort and the choice of surgery (RRM and/or RRSO) in C-A and C-UN women. RESULTS: The analyses on the whole cohort highlighted factors associated with the choice of both RRM and RRSO ("cancer concern," "previous therapeutic mastectomy," and "number of cancer-affected family members"), but also a few specifically associated with either RRM (age) or RRSO ("health" and "energy" perception and "number of children"). Surgery was more likely to be chosen by C-A (76%) than C-UN women (34%). With the exception of "cancer concern," factors associated with the choice of surgery were different between C-A ("number of deaths for cancer in the family" and "feeling downhearted and blue") and C-UN ("number of children" and "health perception") women. CONCLUSION: This study highlights potential drivers underlying the choice of preventive surgery, which should be considered when supporting the decision-making process in these women.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Comportamento de Escolha , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mastectomia/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Salpingectomia/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Conduta Expectante
9.
Hum Mutat ; 40(11): e1-e23, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209999

RESUMO

BRCA1 BRCA2 mutational spectrum in the Middle East, North Africa, and Southern Europe is not well characterized. The unique history and cultural practices characterizing these regions, often involving consanguinity and inbreeding, plausibly led to the accumulation of population-specific founder pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs). To determine recurring BRCA PSVs in these locales, a search in PUBMED, EMBASE, BIC, and CIMBA was carried out combined with outreach to researchers from the relevant countries for unpublished data. We identified 232 PSVs in BRCA1 and 239 in BRCA2 in 25 of 33 countries surveyed. Common PSVs that were detected in four or more countries were c.5266dup (p.Gln1756Profs), c.181T>G (p.Cys61Gly), c.68_69del (p.Glu23Valfs), c.5030_5033del (p.Thr1677Ilefs), c.4327C>T (p.Arg1443Ter), c.5251C>T (p.Arg1751Ter), c.1016dup (p.Val340Glyfs), c.3700_3704del (p.Val1234Glnfs), c.4065_4068del (p.Asn1355Lysfs), c.1504_1508del (p.Leu502Alafs), c.843_846del (p.Ser282Tyrfs), c.798_799del (p.Ser267Lysfs), and c.3607C>T (p.Arg1203Ter) in BRCA1 and c.2808_2811del (p.Ala938Profs), c.5722_5723del (p.Leu1908Argfs), c.9097dup (p.Thr3033Asnfs), c.1310_1313del (p. p.Lys437Ilefs), and c.5946del (p.Ser1982Argfs) for BRCA2. Notably, some mutations (e.g., p.Asn257Lysfs (c.771_775del)) were observed in unrelated populations. Thus, seemingly genotyping recurring BRCA PSVs in specific populations may provide first pass BRCA genotyping platform.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Grupos Populacionais/genética , África do Norte , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Alelos , Mineração de Dados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Genótipo , Humanos , Oriente Médio , Projetos de Pesquisa
10.
Gynecol Oncol Rep ; 28: 68-70, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957000

RESUMO

Background: Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is a congenital disorder of yet unknown etiology, characterized by agenesis/hypoplasia of the müllerian duct system. The occurrence of ovarian cancer (OC) in MRKHS is rare, with <20 cases reported to date. Case: A woman affected with MRKHS, developed an abdominal mass at the age of 33 years. Surgical examination revealed a blind vagina, small rudimentary uterus, two fully developed tubes and large bilateral ovarian tumors. The histological diagnosis was a low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSOC) of both ovaries, staged IIB. The patient showed a normal female karyotype and resulted negative at the BRCA1/2 genetic testing. Conclusion: This is the first report of a LGSOC in a patient with MRKHS. Although the identification of familial cases with both MRKHS and OC raised the hypothesis of a common genetic origin, further data and reports of additional cases are needed in order to assess a possible association of the two conditions.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(3)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832263

RESUMO

Highly penetrant variants of BRCA1/2 genes are involved in hereditary predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. The detection of pathogenic BRCA variants has a considerable clinical impact, allowing appropriate cancer-risk management. However, a major drawback is represented by the identification of variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Many VUS potentially affect mRNA splicing, making transcript analysis an essential step for the definition of their pathogenicity. Here, we characterize the impact on splicing of ten BRCA1/2 variants. Aberrant splicing patterns were demonstrated for eight variants whose alternative transcripts were fully characterized. Different events were observed, including exon skipping, intron retention, and usage of de novo and cryptic splice sites. Transcripts with premature stop codons or in-frame loss of functionally important residues were generated. Partial/complete splicing effect and quantitative contribution of different isoforms were assessed, leading to variant classification according to Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium guidelines. Two variants could be classified as pathogenic and two as likely benign, while due to a partial splicing effect, six variants remained of uncertain significance. The association with an undefined tumor risk justifies caution in recommending aggressive risk-reduction treatments, but prevents the possibility of receiving personalized therapies with potential beneficial effect. This indicates the need for applying additional approaches for the analysis of variants resistant to classification by gene transcript analyses.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(2)2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696104

RESUMO

Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes has led to the identification of many unique variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Multifactorial likelihood models that predict the odds ratio for VUS in favor or against cancer causality, have been developed, but their use is conditioned by the amount of necessary data, which are difficult to obtain if a variant is rare. As an alternative, variants mapping to the coding regions can be examined using in vitro functional assays. BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins promote genome protection by interacting with different proteins. In this study, we assessed the functional effect of two sets of variants in BRCA genes by exploiting the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-reassembly in vitro assay, which was set-up to test the BRCA1/BARD1, BRCA1/UbcH5a, and BRCA2/DSS1 interactions. Based on the findings observed for the validation panels of previously classified variants, BRCA1/UbcH5a and BRCA2/DSS1 binding assays showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in identifying pathogenic and non-pathogenic variants. While the actual efficiency of these assays in assessing the clinical significance of BRCA VUS has to be verified using larger validation panels, our results suggest that the GFP-reassembly assay is a robust method to identify variants affecting normal protein functioning and contributes to the classification of VUS.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(1)2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634417

RESUMO

Early age at onset of breast cancer (eoBC) is suggestive of an increased genetic risk. Although genetic testing is offered to all eoBC-affected women, in isolated cases the detection rate of pathogenic variants is <10%. This study aimed at assessing the role of constitutive promoter methylation at BC-associated loci as an underlying predisposing event in women with eoBC and negative family history. Promoter methylation at 12 loci was assessed by the MassARRAY technology in blood from 154 BRCA1/2 negative patients with eoBC and negative family history, and 60 healthy controls. Hypermethylation was determined, within each promoter, by comparing the patient's mean methylation value with thresholds based on one-sided 95% bootstrap confidence interval of the controls' mean. Three patients had hypermethylated results, two at BRCA1 and one at RAD51C. Analyses on tumor tissue from the patient exceeding the highest threshold at BRCA1 revealed a mean methylation >60% and loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 17q. The patient hypermethylated at RAD51C showed low methylation in the tumor sample, ruling out a role for methylation-induced silencing in tumor development. In isolated eoBC patients, BRCA1 constitutive promoter methylation may be a predisposing event. Further studies are required to define the impact of methylation changes occurring at BC-predisposing genes and their role in tumorigenesis.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 145(2): 390-400, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613976

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) in men is rare and genetic predisposition is likely to play a relevant role in its etiology. Inherited mutations in BRCA1/2 account for about 13% of all cases and additional genes that may contribute to the missing heritability need to be investigated. In our study, a well-characterized series of 523 male BC (MBC) patients from the Italian multicenter study on MBC, enriched for non-BRCA1/2 MBC cases, was screened by a multigene custom panel of 50 cancer-associated genes. The main clinical-pathologic characteristics of MBC in pathogenic variant carriers and non-carriers were also compared. BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants were detected in twenty patients, thus, a total of 503 non-BRCA1/2 MBC patients were examined in our study. Twenty-seven of the non-BRCA1/2 MBC patients were carriers of germline pathogenic variants in other genes, including two APC p.Ile1307Lys variant carriers and one MUTYH biallelic variant carrier. PALB2 was the most frequently altered gene (1.2%) and PALB2 pathogenic variants were significantly associated with high risk of MBC. Non-BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers were more likely to have personal (p = 0.0005) and family (p = 0.007) history of cancer. Results of our study support a central role of PALB2 in MBC susceptibility and show a low impact of CHEK2 on MBC predisposition in the Italian population. Overall, our data indicate that a multigene testing approach may benefit from appropriately selected patients with implications for clinical management and counseling of MBC patients and their family members.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Oncol ; 8: 583, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564557

RESUMO

Inherited mutations in BRCA1, and, mainly, BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). Mutations in PALB2 and CHEK2 genes may also increase MBC risk. Overall, these genes are functionally linked to DNA repair pathways, highlighting the central role of genome maintenance in MBC genetic predisposition. MUTYH is a DNA repair gene whose biallelic germline variants cause MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) syndrome. Monoallelic MUTYH variants have been reported in families with both colorectal and breast cancer and there is some evidence on increased breast cancer risk in women with monoallelic variants. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether MUTYH germline variants may contribute to MBC susceptibility. To this aim, we screened the entire coding region of MUTYH in 503 BRCA1/2 mutation negative MBC cases by multigene panel analysis. Moreover, we genotyped selected variants, including p.Tyr179Cys, p.Gly396Asp, p.Arg245His, p.Gly264Trpfs*7, and p.Gln338His, in a total of 560 MBC cases and 1,540 male controls. Biallelic MUTYH pathogenic variants (p.Tyr179Cys/p.Arg241Trp) were identified in one MBC patient with phenotypic manifestation of adenomatous polyposis. Monoallelic pathogenic variants were identified in 14 (2.5%) MBC patients, in particular, p.Tyr179Cys was detected in seven cases, p.Gly396Asp in five cases, p.Arg245His and p.Gly264Trpfs*7 in one case each. The majority of MBC cases with MUTYH pathogenic variants had family history of cancer including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. In the case-control study, an association between the variant p.Tyr179Cys and increased MBC risk emerged by multivariate analysis [odds ratio (OR) = 4.54; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-17.58; p = 0.028]. Overall, our study suggests that MUTYH pathogenic variants may have a role in MBC and, in particular, the p.Tyr179Cys variant may be a low/moderate penetrance risk allele for MBC. Moreover, our results suggest that MBC may be part of the tumor spectrum associated with MAP syndrome, with implication in the clinical management of patients and their relatives. Large-scale collaborative studies are needed to validate these findings.

16.
Front Oncol ; 8: 480, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410870

RESUMO

PALB2 (partner and localizer of BRCA2) was initially identified as a binding partner of BRCA2. It interacts also with BRCA1 forming a complex promoting DNA repair by homologous recombination. Germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2 DNA repair genes are associated with high risk of developing breast cancer. Mutation screening in these breast cancer predisposition genes is routinely performed and allows the identification of individuals who carry pathogenic variants and are at risk of developing the disease. However, variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) are often detected and establishing their pathogenicity and clinical relevance remains a central challenge for the risk assessment of the carriers and the clinical decision-making process. Many of these VUSs are missense variants leading to single amino acid substitutions, whose impact on protein function is uncertain. Typically, VUSs are rare and due to the limited genetic, clinical, and pathological data the multifactorial approaches used for classification cannot be applied. Thus, these variants can only be characterized through functional analyses comparing their effect with that of normal and mutant gene products used as positive and negative controls. The two missense variants BRCA2:c.91T >G (p.Trp31Gly) and PALB2:c.3262C >T (p.Pro1088Ser) were detected in two breast cancer probands originally ascertained at Breast Cancer Units of Institutes located in Milan and Bergamo (Northern Italy), respectively. These variants were located in the BRCA2-PALB2 interacting domains, were predicted to be deleterious by in silico analyses, and were very rare and clinically not classified. Therefore, we initiate to study their functional effect by exploiting a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-reassembly in vitro assay specifically designed to test the BRCA2-PALB2 interaction. This functional assay proved to be easy to develop, robust and reliable. It also allows testing variants located in different genes. Results from these functional analyses showed that the BRCA2:p.Trp31Gly and the PALB2:p.Pro1088Ser prevented the BRCA2-PALB2 binding. While caution is warranted when the interpretation of the clinical significance of rare VUSs is based on functional studies only, our data provide initial evidences in favor of the possibility that these variants are pathogenic.

17.
Mol Cytogenet ; 11: 53, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250511

RESUMO

Background: The 13q deletion syndrome is a rare chromosome disorder associated with wide phenotypic spectrum, which is related to size and location of the deleted region and includes intellectual disability, growth retardation, craniofacial dysmorphisms, congenital malformations, and increased risk of retinoblastoma. Case presentation: Here, we report on a teenage boy with a mild phenotype characterized by obesity, hyperactivity, dysphagia, dysgraphia, sleep disturbance, and minor dysmorphic features (round face, bushy eyebrows, and stubby hands). Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization on blood identified a mosaic 13q14.13-13q31.1 deletion, with a mosaicism rate around 40%, which was confirmed by quantitative PCR and interphase Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (iFISH) on both blood genomic DNA and cultured/uncultured blood lymphocytes, respectively. Conversely, karyotype analysis on blood estimated a mosaicism rate of 24% and iFISH on buccal smears revealed a borderline value of 0.4%, suggesting the absence of 13q deletion in this cell line. Conclusions: The comparison with previous patients carrying similar deletions informed that the proband clinical presentation is the mildest reported to date, thus supporting the burden of mosaicism in modulating the phenotype also in case of large chromosomal rearrangements. Characterization of further cases by in-depth mosaicism rate in tissues with different embryonic origins might contribute in the future to a better definition of genotype-phenotype correlation, including tumor risk.

18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 10(9)2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and other markers of insulin resistance (IRm) might influence the penetrance of BRCA gene mutation. In a demonstration project on BRCA mutation carriers we tested the effect of the 'Mediterranean diet', with moderate protein restriction, on serum levels of IGF-I and IRm. METHODS: BRCA mutation carriers, with or without breast cancer, aged 18⁻70 years and without metastases were eligible. After the baseline examinations, women were randomized to an active dietary intervention or to a control group. The intervention group attended six full days of life-style intervention activities (cookery classes followed by lunch, sessions of walking for 45 min and nutritional conferences) over the next six months. RESULTS: 213 BRCA mutation carriers completed the six-month study. Women in the intervention group (110) showed major changes in all the parameters under study. They significantly lost weight (p < 0.001), fat mass (p = 0.002), with reduced hip circumference (p = 0.01), triglycerides (p = 0.02) and IGF-I (p = 0.02) compared with controls. They also had a significantly higher levels of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFI-BP3) (p = 0.03) and a lower IGF-I/IGFI-BP3 ratio (p = 0.04). The reduction of serum levels of IGF-I was significantly associated with the reduction in the consumption of animal products (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Women in the intervention group showed significant improvements in IGF-I and in other IRm that might influence the penetrance of BRCA mutations.

19.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 2025-2039, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204945

RESUMO

The widespread use of next generation sequencing for clinical testing is detecting an escalating number of variants in noncoding regions of the genome. The clinical significance of the majority of these variants is currently unknown, which presents a significant clinical challenge. We have screened over 6,000 early-onset and/or familial breast cancer (BC) cases collected by the ENIGMA consortium for sequence variants in the 5' noncoding regions of BC susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, and identified 141 rare variants with global minor allele frequency < 0.01, 76 of which have not been reported previously. Bioinformatic analysis identified a set of 21 variants most likely to impact transcriptional regulation, and luciferase reporter assays detected altered promoter activity for four of these variants. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that three of these altered the binding of proteins to the respective BRCA1 or BRCA2 promoter regions, including NFYA binding to BRCA1:c.-287C>T and PAX5 binding to BRCA2:c.-296C>T. Clinical classification of variants affecting promoter activity, using existing prediction models, found no evidence to suggest that these variants confer a high risk of disease. Further studies are required to determine if such variation may be associated with a moderate or low risk of BC.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Idade de Início , Proteína BRCA1/química , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/química , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8703, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880896

RESUMO

Platinum salts are active against metastatic triple negative breast cancer (mTNBC), and biomarkers to predict their effectiveness are urgently needed. In recent years, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have emerged as prognostic biomarkers in many malignancies, but their predictive role in platinum-treated mTNBC patients remains unexplored. We performed a retrospective, single centre study to evaluate the association between baseline NLR or PLR and progression free survival (PFS) of mTNBC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. As a control population, we analysed data from patients with hormone receptor-positive HER2-negative (HR+ HER2-) metastatic breast cancer. Among 57 mTNBC patients treated with the carboplatin-paclitaxel or carboplatin-gemcitabine combination, high NLR and PLR were associated with significantly lower PFS at both univariate and multivariable analysis. Conversely, we did not find a significant association between NLR or PLR and the PFS of 148 patients in the control population. Our findings suggest that the NLR and PLR are predictive of benefit from platinum-containing chemotherapy specifically in mTNBC patients. If validated in larger prospective studies, these easy-to-measure parameters could be combined with emerging predictive biomarkers, such as BRCA 1/2 mutations, to improve the selection of mTNBC patients more likely to benefit from platinum-based chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Adulto , Idoso , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/sangue , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...