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1.
Lung Cancer ; 135: 73-79, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Delta-like protein 3 (DLL3), an inhibitory Notch ligand, is the target for rovalpituzumab tesirine in development for the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We studied the expression of DLL3, its reproducibility and prognostic role in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional pathology files were searched for resected pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (1995-2017). Expression of DLL3 (clone SP347) was categorized as high (≥50% of tumor cells) or low (<50%). Interobserver agreement among 5 thoracic pathologists was measured by Krippendorff's α coefficient. Staging (N = 148) was performed according to the 8th AJCC. RESULTS: Our study included 157 patients with a median age of 62.2 years (range 23.2-88.1) including 59 men (37.6%). Tumors included 44 (28.0%) SCLC, 46 (29.3%) atypical and 67 (42.7%) typical carcinoid tumors at stages I (N = 83, 56.1%), II (N = 28, 18.9%), and III/IV (N = 37, 25.0%). Interobserver agreement for high vs low DLL3 expression (N = 70) was 82.9% (α = 0.79, substantial). High DLL3 expression was observed in 35 (79.5%) SCLC, 17 (37.0%) atypical and 22 (32.8%) typical carcinoid tumors. High DLL3 was associated with SCLC morphology (p < 0.0001). During a median follow-up of 4.2 years (range, 2 days-20.3 years), 70 patients died; 19 died from disease. High DLL3 expression was associated with better overall survival in SCLC (p = 0.049) but not after adjusting for age, tumor size and stage. CONCLUSIONS: DLL3 expression is reliably quantifiable by pathologists and is highly expressed in the majority of SCLC and a subset of carcinoid tumors, making it an attractive target for anti-DLL3 treatment.

2.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470129

RESUMO

Detailed guidelines pertaining to radiological assessment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are currently lacking due to the rarity of the disease, complex morphology, propensity to invade multiple planes simultaneously and lack of specific recommendations within the radiology community about assessment, reporting and follow-up. In March 2017, a multidisciplinary meeting of mesothelioma experts was co-sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thoracic Malignancy Steering Committee, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), and the Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation (MARF). One of the outcomes of this conference was the foundation of detailed, multidisciplinary consensus imaging and management guidelines. Here, we present the recommendations for radiologic assessment of MPM in the setting of clinical trial enrollment. We discuss optimization of imaging parameters across modalities, standardized reporting and response assessment within clinical trials.

3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(8): 1599-1622, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378235

RESUMO

Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive disease with distinct pathological, clinical, and molecular characteristics from non-small-cell lung cancer. SCLC has high metastatic potential, resulting in a clinically poor prognosis. Early concurrent chemo-radiation is the standard of care for limited-stage SCLC (LS-SCLC). Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is recommended for patients with LS-SCLC without progression of disease after initial therapy. A combination of etoposide and cisplatin or carboplatin remains the mainstay of first-line treatment for ES-SCLC, with the addition of atezolizumab, now becoming standard. Most SCLCs initially respond to therapy but almost invariably recur. Topotecan and amrubicin (in Japan) remain the primary chemotherapy options for relapsed SCLC. Immunotherapy, including nivolumab with or without ipilimumab, is now available for refractory disease. In general, the poor prognosis of SCLC has not improved significantly for more than 3 decades. Recently, next-generation molecular profiling studies have identified new therapeutic targets for SCLC. A variety of proapoptotic agents, compounds capitalizing on DNA-repair defects, immunotherapy agents, and antibody-drug conjugates are being evaluated in SCLC, with a number of them showing early promise.

4.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 3: 1-15, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335166

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This pilot study examined the ability to operationalize the collection of real-world data to explore the potential use of real-world end points extracted from data from diverse health care data organizations and to assess how these relate to similar end points in clinical trials for immunotherapy-treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Researchers from six organizations followed a common protocol using data from administrative claims and electronic health records to assess real-world end points, including overall survival (rwOS), time to next treatment, time to treatment discontinuation (rwTTD), time to progression, and progression-free survival, among patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with programmed death 1/programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitors in real-world settings. Data sets included from 269 to 6,924 patients who were treated between January 2011 and October 2017. Results from contributors were anonymized. RESULTS: Correlations between real-world intermediate end points (rwTTD and time to next treatment) and rwOS were moderate to high (range, 0.6 to 0.9). rwTTD was the most consistent end points as treatment detail was available in all data sets. rwOS at 1 year post-programmed death-ligand 1 initiation ranged from 40% to 57%. In addition, rwOS as assessed via electronic health records and claims data fell within the range of median OS values observed in relevant clinical trials. Data sources had been used extensively for research with ongoing data curation to assure accuracy and practical completeness before the initiation of this research. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that real-world end points are generally consistent with each other and with outcomes observed in randomized clinical trials, which substantiates the potential validity of real-world data to support regulatory and payer decision making. Differences observed likely reflect true differences between real-world and protocol-driven practices.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315884

RESUMO

The MERIT study was a single-arm, phase II clinical trial of nivolumab for the second- or third-line treatment of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma in Japan. MERIT confirmed that PD-1 inhibition has activity in mesothelioma and led to the regulatory approval of nivolumab for the treatment of mesothelioma in Japan.See related article by Okada et al., p. xxx.

6.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 69(5): 402-429, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283845

RESUMO

Mesothelioma affects mostly older individuals who have been occupationally exposed to asbestos. The global mesothelioma incidence and mortality rates are unknown, because data are not available from developing countries that continue to use large amounts of asbestos. The incidence rate of mesothelioma has decreased in Australia, the United States, and Western Europe, where the use of asbestos was banned or strictly regulated in the 1970s and 1980s, demonstrating the value of these preventive measures. However, in these same countries, the overall number of deaths from mesothelioma has not decreased as the size of the population and the percentage of old people have increased. Moreover, hotspots of mesothelioma may occur when carcinogenic fibers that are present in the environment are disturbed as rural areas are being developed. Novel immunohistochemical and molecular markers have improved the accuracy of diagnosis; however, about 14% (high-resource countries) to 50% (developing countries) of mesothelioma diagnoses are incorrect, resulting in inadequate treatment and complicating epidemiological studies. The discovery that germline BRCA1-asssociated protein 1 (BAP1) mutations cause mesothelioma and other cancers (BAP1 cancer syndrome) elucidated some of the key pathogenic mechanisms, and treatments targeting these molecular mechanisms and/or modulating the immune response are being tested. The role of surgery in pleural mesothelioma is controversial as it is difficult to predict who will benefit from aggressive management, even when local therapies are added to existing or novel systemic treatments. Treatment outcomes are improving, however, for peritoneal mesothelioma. Multidisciplinary international collaboration will be necessary to improve prevention, early detection, and treatment.

7.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260832

RESUMO

The accurate diagnosis of mesothelioma is critical for the appropriate clinical management of this cancer. Many issues complicate making the diagnosis of mesothelioma including the presence of reactive mesothelial cells in benign pleural effusions, the heterogeneity of mesothelioma histopathology, the relatively high incidence of other epithelial malignancies that metastasize to the pleura, and primary sarcomas that arise within the pleura. Given the rapidly evolving field of molecular profiling and the need for translational correlates in mesothelioma clinical trials, the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer-Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation Clinical Trials Planning Meeting was convened in March 2017 to develop a consensus on standard pathology guidelines for future NCI-sponsored clinical trials in mesothelioma. This consensus statement covers recommendations for specimen handling, pathologic classification and diagnosis, biobanking, and tissue correlative studies.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0216485, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166985

RESUMO

A systemic analysis of the tumor-immune interactions within the heterogeneous tumor microenvironment is of particular importance for understanding the antitumor immune response. We used multiplexed immunofluorescence to elucidate cellular spatial interactions and T-cell infiltrations in metastatic melanoma tumor microenvironment. We developed two novel computational approaches that enable infiltration clustering and single cell analysis-cell aggregate algorithm and cell neighborhood analysis algorithm-to reveal and to compare the spatial distribution of various immune cells relative to tumor cell in sub-anatomic tumor microenvironment areas. We showed that the heterogeneous tumor human leukocyte antigen-1 expressions differently affect the magnitude of cytotoxic T-cell infiltration and the distributions of CD20+ B cells and CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells within and outside of T-cell infiltrated tumor areas. In a cohort of 166 stage III melanoma samples, high tumor human leukocyte antigen-1 expression is required but not sufficient for high T-cell infiltration, with significantly improved overall survival. Our results demonstrate that tumor cells with heterogeneous properties are associated with differential but predictable distributions of immune cells within heterogeneous tumor microenvironment with various biological features and impacts on clinical outcomes. It establishes tools necessary for systematic analysis of the tumor microenvironment, allowing the elucidation of the "homogeneous patterns" within the heterogeneous tumor microenvironment.

9.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(7): 1286-1295, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078775

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although most patients with SCLC die within a few months of diagnosis, a subgroup of patients survive for many years. Factors determining long-term survivorship remain largely unknown. We present the first comprehensive comparative genomic and tumor microenvironment analyses of SCLC between patients with long-term survivorship and patients with the expected survivorship. METHODS: We compared surgically resected tumors of 23 long-term SCLC survivors (survival >4 years) and 18 SCLC survivors with the expected survival time (survival ≤2 years). There were no significant differences in clinical variables, including TNM staging and curative- versus non-curative-intent surgery between the groups. Gene expression profiling was performed by using microarrays, and tumor microenvironment analyses were performed by immunohistochemistry of prominent immune-related markers. RESULTS: Immune-related genes and pathways represented the majority of the differentially overexpressed genes in long-term survivorship compared with in expected survivorship. The differences in the immunological tumor microenvironment were confirmed by quantitative immunostaining. Increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating and associated lymphocytes were present throughout tumors of long-term survivors of SCLC. Several differentiating patterns of enhanced antitumor immunity were identified. Although some areas of the tumors of long-term survivors of SCLC also harbored higher numbers of suppressive immune cells (monocytes, regulatory lymphocytes, and macrophages), the ratios of these suppressive cells to CD3-positive lymphocytes were generally lower in the tumors of long-term survivors of SCLC, indicating a less tumor-suppressive microenvironment. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that long-term survivorship of patients with SCLC is strongly influenced by the presence of the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Characterization of the antitumor immune responses may identify opportunities for individualized immunotherapies for SCLC.

10.
Oncologist ; 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have emerged as a serious clinical issue in the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Risk factors for irAEs remain controversial. Therefore, we studied sex differences in irAEs in patients treated with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with metastatic melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with anti-PD-1 therapy at Mayo Clinic Rochester and Florida from 2015 to 2018 were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test was used for time-to-event analysis. RESULTS: In 245 patients with metastatic melanoma, premenopausal women were more likely to experience irAEs (all grades) compared with postmenopausal women and men (67% vs. 60% vs. 46%), primarily because of an increase in endocrinopathies (33% vs. 12% vs. 10%, respectively). In patients with NSCLC (231 patients), women (all ages) were also more likely to develop irAEs of all grades (48% vs. 31%). Women with NSCLC were more likely to develop pneumonitis (11% vs. 4%) and endocrinopathies (14% vs. 5%). No differences in grade ≥3 toxicities were seen across sexes in both cohorts, but women were more likely to receive systemic steroids for the treatment of irAEs compared with men. Better progression-free-survival was observed in women with NSCLC and irAEs (10 months vs. 3.3 months) compared with women without irAEs. CONCLUSION: Women with metastatic melanoma and NSCLC are more likely to experience irAEs compared with men. We also observed differences between sexes in the frequency of certain irAEs. Larger studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms underlying these associations. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The results of this study suggest that women may be at a higher risk for immune-related adverse events (irAEs) compared with men when treated with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 therapy. In addition, women were more likely to develop certain irAEs, including endocrinopathies and pneumonitis. Close follow-up of women undergoing treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors will allow clinicians to diagnose these treatment-related complications early, potentially reducing their associated morbidity and mortality. In addition, a possible association between irAEs and response to therapy was observed.

11.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(9): 1567-1582, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103780

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genomic technologies present a promising mechanism of resolving the clinical dilemma of distinguishing independent primary tumors from intrapulmonary metastases in NSCLC. We evaluated the utility of discordant mapping somatic junctions from chromosomal rearrangements in diagnosing metastatic disease compared to the current standard histologic review. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mate-pair sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from 76 distinct tumors from 37 cases of multiple lung cancers. Discordant mapping junctions and chromosomal copy levels were assessed for each tumor. Blood-derived DNA was available on 22 of these cases for germline assessments. A lung cancer next-generation sequencing panel was additionally performed on tumor pairs from 17 patients. RESULTS: Whereas mate-pair sequencing was able to classify lineage in all tumor pairs, histologic review appeared to misclassify lineage in 9 of 33 (27%) same-histology tumor pair comparisons. Based on disagreement between the reviewing pathologists, histopathologic lineage was classified as indeterminate in seven cases. In two cases where pathologists agreed on a metastatic call, no shared junctions were found suggesting independent primaries. Although germline junctions passing algorithmic filters were common, on average less than three were present and all had predictable structures of small focal rearrangements or transposons. Evaluation of shared chromosomal copy changes and driver mutations through a lung cancer next-generation sequencing panel, while informative, were nondefinitive in calling lineage in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: The highly unique nature and prevalence of chromosomal rearrangement in lung cancers provide a useful and definitive technique for calling lineage in multifocal lung cancer.

14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446588

RESUMO

PD-L1 expression levels derived from >16,000 samples guided the selection of tumor types likely to benefit from pembrolizuamb monotherapy in clinical trials. While not fail-proof, FDA approvals for most of the prioritized indications speak to the power of RNA expression profiling and the value of large genomic datasets.

15.
Invest New Drugs ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460505

RESUMO

Introduction VLX600 is a novel iron chelator designed to interfere with intracellular iron metabolism, leading to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and bioenergetic catastrophe and resultant tumor cell death. Methods We conducted a multicenter, phase 1, dose escalation study to determine the safety and adverse event profile and the maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase 2 dose of VLX600. Other endpoints included pharmacokinetics, and preliminary evidence of anti-cancer efficacy as assessed according to RECIST 1.1 criteria. VLX600 was administered intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day treatment cycle. Results Nineteen patients were enrolled, and seventeen received at least one dose of VLX600. Dose increments were reduced to 50% after dose level 3 (40 mg) due to the occurrence of a grade 3 pulmonary embolism. The study was then closed early due to slow recruitment. No maximum tolerated dose (MTD) nor RP2D had been identified at the time of study closure. Overall, the drug was well tolerated and no DLTs were observed. Fourteen patients experienced drug-related adverse events of any grade. The most frequently reported drug-related AEs were fatigue, nausea, constipation, vomiting, increased alkaline phosphatase, anemia, and decreased appetite. No formal efficacy or survival analyses were performed. No objective responses were observed, though six patients (32%) had stable disease as best response. Conclusion VLX600 was reasonably well tolerated and, together with preclinical data, there is support for further efforts to explore its activity as single agent and in combination with drugs or radiation.

16.
Oncologist ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early phase clinical trials evaluate the safety and efficacy of new treatments. The exclusion/inclusion criteria in these trials are usually rigorous and may exclude many patients seen in clinical practice. Our objective was to study the comorbidities limiting the participation of patients with breast, colorectal, or lung cancer in clinical trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We queried ClinicalTrials.gov on December 31, 2016. We reviewed the eligibility criteria of 1,103 trials. Logistic regression analyses were completed, and exclusion was studied as a binary variable. RESULTS: Out of 1,103 trials, 70 trials (6%) excluded patients >75 years of age, and 45% made no reference to age. Eighty-six percent of trials placed restrictions on patients with history of prior malignancies. Regarding central nervous system (CNS) metastasis, 416 trials (38%) excluded all patients with CNS metastasis, and 373 (34%) only allowed asymptomatic CNS metastasis. Regarding chronic viral infections, 347 trials (31%) excluded all patients with human immunodeficiency virus, and 228 trials (21%) excluded all patients with hepatitis B or C infection. On univariate analysis, chemotherapy trials were more likely to exclude patients with CNS metastasis and history of other malignancies than targeted therapy trials. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that industry-sponsored trials had higher odds of excluding patients with compromised liver function. CONCLUSION: Many clinical trials excluded large segments of the population of patients with cancer. Frequent exclusion criteria included patients with CNS metastasis, history of prior malignancies, and chronic viral infections. The criteria for participation in some clinical trials may be overly restrictive and limit enrollment. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The results of this study revealed that most early phase clinic trials contain strict exclusion criteria, potentially excluding the patients who may be more likely to represent the population treated in clinical settings, leaving patients susceptible to unintended harm from inappropriate generalization of trial results. Careful liberalization of the inclusion/exclusion criteria in clinical trials will allow investigators to understand the benefits and drawbacks of the experimental drug for a broader population, and possibly improve recruitment of patients with cancer into clinical trials.

17.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a disease primarily associated with exposure to the carcinogen asbestos. Whereas other carcinogen-related tumors are associated with a high tumor mutation burden, mesothelioma is not. We sought to resolve this discrepancy. METHODS: We used mate-pair (n = 22), RNA (n = 28), and T cell receptor sequencing along with in silico predictions and immunologic assays to understand how structural variants of chromosomes affect the transcriptome. RESULTS: We observed that inter- or intrachromosomal rearrangements were present in every specimen and were frequently in a pattern of chromoanagenesis such as chromoplexy or chromothripsis. Transcription of rearrangement-related junctions was predicted to result in many potential neoantigens, some of which were proven to bind patient-specific major histocompatibility complex molecules and to expand intratumoral T cell clones. T cells responsive to these predicted neoantigens were also present in a patient's circulating T cell repertoire. Analysis of genomic array data from the mesothelioma cohort in The Cancer Genome Atlas suggested that multiple chromothriptic-like events negatively impact survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings represent the discovery of potential neoantigen expression driven by structural chromosomal rearrangements. These results may have implications for the development of novel immunotherapeutic strategies and the selection of patients to receive immunotherapies.

18.
N Engl J Med ; 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhancing tumor-specific T-cell immunity by inhibiting programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-programmed death 1 (PD-1) signaling has shown promise in the treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. Combining checkpoint inhibition with cytotoxic chemotherapy may have a synergistic effect and improve efficacy. METHODS: We conducted this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial to evaluate atezolizumab plus carboplatin and etoposide in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer who had not previously received treatment. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carboplatin and etoposide with either atezolizumab or placebo for four 21-day cycles (induction phase), followed by a maintenance phase during which they received either atezolizumab or placebo (according to the previous random assignment) until they had unacceptable toxic effects, disease progression according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1, or no additional clinical benefit. The two primary end points were investigator-assessed progression-free survival and overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: A total of 201 patients were randomly assigned to the atezolizumab group, and 202 patients to the placebo group. At a median follow-up of 13.9 months, the median overall survival was 12.3 months in the atezolizumab group and 10.3 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio for death, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.91; P=0.007). The median progression-free survival was 5.2 months and 4.3 months, respectively (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.96; P=0.02). The safety profile of atezolizumab plus carboplatin and etoposide was consistent with the previously reported safety profile of the individual agents, with no new findings observed. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of atezolizumab to chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer resulted in significantly longer overall survival and progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech; IMpower133 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02763579 .).

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205124

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the effects of metastasis-directed stereotactic body radiation therapy (mdSBRT) on CD8+ T-cell subpopulations and to correlate post-mdSBRT immunophenotypic responses with clinical outcomes in patients with oligometastatic prostate cancer (OPCa). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were prospectively isolated from 37 patients with OPCa (≤3 metastases) treated with mdSBRT. Immunophenotyping identified circulating CD8+ T-cell subpopulations including: Tumor-Reactive (TTR), Effector Memory (TEM), Central Memory (TCM), Effector (TEF), and Naïve (TN) T-cells from samples collected before and after mdSBRT. Univariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess whether changes in these T-cell subpopulations were potential risk factors for death and/or progression. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival. Cumulative incidence for progression and new distant metastasis was estimated considering death as a competing risk. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 39 months (IQR 34-43). Overall survival at 3 years was 78.2%. Cumulative incidence for local progression and new distant metastasis at 3 years was 16.5% and 67.6%, respectively. Between baseline and day 14 after mdSBRT, an increase in the TCM cell subpopulation was associated with the risk of death (HR 1.22 [95%CI, 1.02-1.47]; P=0.033), and an increase in the TTR cell subpopulation was protective against the risk of local progression (HR 0.80 [95%CI, 0.65-0.98]; P=0.032). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in the TTR cell subpopulation was protective against the risk of disease progression while an increase in the TCM cell subpopulation was associated with the risk of death in patients with OPCa treated with mdSBRT. Disease control may be further improved by better understanding the CD8+ T-cell subpopulations, and by enhancing their anti-tumor effect.

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