Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.181
Filtrar
1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(9): 97007, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Short-term exposures to air pollution have been associated with AF triggering; less is known regarding associations between long-term air pollution exposures and AF incidence. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the association between long-term exposures to air pollution and distance to road on incidence of AF in a cohort of U.S. women. METHODS: We assessed the association of high resolution spatiotemporal model predictions of long-term exposures to particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and distance to major roads with incidence of AF diagnosis, identified through Medicare linkage, among 83,117 women in the prospective Women's Health Initiative cohort, followed from enrollment in Medicare through December 2012, incidence of AF, or death. Using time-varying Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, study component, body mass index, physical activity, menopausal hormone therapy, smoking, diet quality, alcohol consumption, educational attainment, and neighborhood socioeconomic status, we estimated the relative risk of incident AF in association with each pollutant. RESULTS: A total of 16,348 incident AF cases were observed over 660,236 person-years of follow-up. Most exposure-response associations were nonlinear. NO2 was associated with risk of AF in multivariable adjusted models [Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.24, comparing the top to bottom quartile, p-for-trend=<0.0001]. Women living closer to roadways were at higher risk of AF (e.g., HR=1.07; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.13 for living within 50m of A3 roads, compared with ≥1,000 m, p-for-trend=0.02), but we did not observe adverse associations with exposures to PM10, PM2.5, or SO2. There were adverse associations with PM10 (top quartile HR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.16, p-for-trend=<0.0001) and PM2.5 (top quartile HR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.14, p-for-trend=0.002) in sensitivity models adjusting for census region. DISCUSSION: In this study of postmenopausal women, NO2 and distance to road were consistently associated with higher risk of AF. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7683.

2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(9): 97009, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Episodic memory decline varies by age and underlying neuropathology. Whether ambient air pollution contributes to the heterogeneity of episodic memory decline in older populations remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: We estimated associations between air pollution exposures and episodic memory decline according to pollutant, exposure time window, age, and latent class subgroups defined by episodic memory trajectories. METHODS: Participants were from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study-Epidemiology of Cognitive Health Outcomes. Older women (n=2,056; 74-92 years of age) completed annual (2008-2018) episodic memory assessments using the telephone-based California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). We estimated 3-y average fine particulate matter [PM with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5)] and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposures at baseline and 10 y earlier (recent and remote exposures, respectively), using regionalized national universal kriging. Separate latent class mixed models were used to estimate associations between interquartile range increases in exposures and CVLT trajectories in women ≤80 and >80 years of age, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: Two latent classes were identified for women ≤80 years of age (n=828), "slow-decliners" {slope=-0.12/y [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.23, -0.01] and "fast-decliners" [slope=-1.79/y (95% CI: -2.08, -1.50)]}. In the slow-decliner class, but not the fast-decliner class, PM2.5 exposures were associated with a greater decline in CVLT scores over time, with a stronger association for recent vs. remote exposures [-0.16/y (95% CI: -2.08, -0.03) per 2.88 µg/m3 and -0.11/y (95% CI: -0.22, 0.01) per 3.27 µg/m3, respectively]. Among women ≥80 years of age (n=1,128), the largest latent class comprised "steady-decliners" [slope=-1.35/y (95% CI: -1.53, -1.17)], whereas the second class, "cognitively resilient", had no decline in CVLT on average. PM2.5 was not associated with episodic memory decline in either class. A 6.25-ppb increase in recent NO2 was associated with nonsignificant acceleration of episodic memory decline in the ≤80-y-old fast-decliner class [-0.21/y (95% CI: -0.45, 0.04)], and in the >80-y-old cognitively resilient class [-0.10/y (95% CI: -0.24, 0.03)] and steady-decliner class [-0.11/y (95% CI: -0.27, 0.05)]. Associations with recent NO2 exposure in women >80 years of age were stronger and statistically significant when 267 women with incident probable dementia were excluded [e.g., -0.12/y (95% CI: -0.22, -0.02) for the cognitively resilient class]. In contrast with changes in CVLT over time, there were no associations between exposures and CVLT scores during follow-up in any subgroup. DISCUSSION: In a community-dwelling U.S. population of older women, associations between late-life exposure to ambient air pollution and episodic memory decline varied by age-related cognitive trajectories, exposure time windows, and pollutants. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7668.

3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of adiposity improve risk prediction for cardiometabolic diseases over traditional surrogates, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in older women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed up to 9744 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years participating in the Women's Health Initiative who underwent a DXA scan and were free of cardiovascular disease and diabetes at baseline (October 1993 to December 1998) and followed through September 2015. Baseline BMI, WC, WHR, and DXA-derived percent total-body and trunk fat (%TrF) were incorporated into multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the risk of incident diabetes, atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs), heart failure, and death. Concordance probability estimates assessed the relative discriminatory value between pairs of adiposity measures. RESULTS: A total of 1327 diabetes cases, 1266 atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) cases, 292 heart failure cases, and 1811 deaths from any cause accrued during a median follow-up of up to 17.2 years. The largest hazard ratio observed per 1 standard deviation increase of an adiposity measure was for %TrF and diabetes (1.77; 95% CI, 1.66-1.88) followed by %TrF and broadly defined ASCVD (1.22; 95% CI, 1.15-1.30). These hazard ratios remained significant for both diabetes (1.47; 95% CI, 1.37-1.57) and ASCVD (1.22; 95% CI, 1.14-1.31) even after adjusting for the best traditional surrogate measure of adiposity, WC. Percentage of trunk fat was also the only adiposity measure to demonstrate statistically significant improved concordance probability estimates over BMI, WC, and WHR for diabetes and ASCVD (all P<0.05). CONCLUSION: DXA-derived estimates of abdominal adiposity in postmenopausal women may allow for substantially improved risk prediction of diabetes over standard clinical risk models. Larger DXA studies with complete lipid biomarker profiles and clinical trials are needed before firm conclusions can be made.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(12): 1197-1207, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence has linked sleep behaviors with the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. The various sleep behaviors are typically correlated; however, most of the previous studies only focused on the individual sleep behavior, without considering the overall sleep patterns. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the associations between a healthy sleep pattern with the risks of cardiac arrhythmias. METHODS: A total of 403,187 participants from UK Biobank were included. A healthy sleep pattern was defined by chronotype, sleep duration, insomnia, snoring, and daytime sleepiness. Weighted genetic risk score for atrial fibrillation was calculated. RESULTS: The healthy sleep pattern was significantly associated with lower risks of atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) (HR comparing extreme categories: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.64-0.80) and bradyarrhythmia (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.54-0.77), but not ventricular arrhythmias, after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and genetic risk factors. Compared with individuals with a healthy sleep score of 0-1 (poor sleep group), those with a healthy sleep score of 5 had a 29% and 35% lower risk of developing AF and bradyarrhythmia, respectively. Additionally, the genetic predisposition to AF significantly modified the association of the healthy sleep pattern with the risk of AF (P interaction = 0.017). The inverse association of the healthy sleep pattern with the risk of AF was stronger among those with a lower genetic risk of AF. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that a healthy sleep pattern is associated with lower risks of AF and bradyarrhythmia, independent of traditional risk factors, and the association with AF is modified by genetic susceptibility.

5.
Nutr Diabetes ; 11(1): 29, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is evidence of black-white differences in vitamin D status and cardiometabolic health. This study aimed to further evaluate the joint associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and parathyroid hormone (PTH) with risks of diabetes and related cardiometabolic comorbidities among white and black women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We cross-sectionally and prospectively analyzed data from 1850 black and 3000 white postmenopausal women without cardiovascular disease or dialysis at baseline from the Women's Health Initiative-Observational Study. Weighted Cox proportional hazards analyses and weighted logistic regression models were used to examine the joint associations of 25(OH)D and PTH with incident diabetes and prevalence of other diabetes-related cardiometabolic comorbidities (including CKD, hypertension, or obesity). RESULTS: We identified 3322 cases of obesity (n = 1629), hypertension (n = 2759), or CKD (n = 318) at baseline and 453 incident cases of diabetes during 11 years of follow-up. Cross-sectionally, lower 25(OH)D and higher PTH were independently associated with higher prevalence of hypertension [odds ratio (OR) = 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.87 and OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.39-1.73] among white women only. When stratified by diabetes status, compared to women with 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L and PTH ≤6.89 pmol/L (65 pg/mL), women who did not have diabetes with vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) and PTH excess (>6.89 pmol/L) had higher prevalence of CKD, hypertension, or obesity (OR = 4.23; 95% CI: 2.90-6.18) than women who had diabetes (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 0.96-3.71). Prospectively, lower 25(OH)D was associated with lower diabetes incidence [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.62-0.86] in white women. Jointly, compared to the group with 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L and PTH ≤6.89 pmol/L, white women with 25(OH)D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) had elevated risk for diabetes, regardless of PTH levels. CONCLUSIONS: Low 25(OH)D and high PTH were jointly associated with increased risk of diabetes among white women only. Their joint associations with high prevalence of CKD, hypertension, and obesity were more pronounced among women without diabetes.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether racial/ethnic disparities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk may be explained by ambient fine particles (PM2.5) has not been studied. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, population-based study on a cohort of Black (n=481) and White (n=6004) older women (aged 65-79) without dementia at enrollment (1995-98). Cox models accounting for competing risk were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for racial/ethnic disparities in AD (1996-2010) defined by DSM-IV and the association with time-varying annual average PM2.5 (1999-2010) estimated by spatiotemporal model. RESULTS: Over an average follow-up of 8.3 (±3.5) years with 158 incident cases (21 in Black women), the racial disparities in AD risk (range of adjusted HRBlack women = 1.85-2.41) observed in various models could not be explained by geographic region, age, socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors, cardiovascular risk factors, and hormone therapy assignment. Estimated PM2.5 exposure was higher in Black (14.38±2.21 µg/m 3) than in White (12.55±2.76 µg/m 3) women, and further adjustment for the association between PM2.5 and AD (adjusted HRPM2.5 = 1.18-1.28) slightly reduced the racial disparities by 2-6% (HRBlack women = 1.81-2.26). The observed association between PM2.5 and AD risk was ~2 times greater in Black (HRPM2.5 = 2.10-2.60) than in White (HRPM2.5 = 1.07-1.15) women (range of interaction Ps: <.01 to .01). We found similar results after further adjusting for social engagement (social strain; social support; social activity; living alone), stressful life events, WHI clinic sites, and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: PM2.5 may contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in AD risk and its associated increase in AD risk was stronger amongst Black women.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic age acceleration (AgeAccel), which indicates faster biological aging relative to chronological age, has been associated with lower cognitive function. However, the association of AgeAccel with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia is not well-understood. We examined associations of four AgeAccel measures with incident MCI and dementia. METHODS: This prospective analysis included 578 older women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study selected for a case-cohort study of coronary heart disease (CHD). Women were free of CHD and cognitive impairment at baseline. Associations of AgeAccel measures (intrinsic AgeAccel [IEAA], extrinsic AgeAccel [EEAA], AgeAccelPheno, and AgeAccelGrim) with risks for incident adjudicated diagnoses of MCI and dementia overall and stratified by incident CHD status were evaluated. RESULTS: IEAA was not significantly associated with MCI (HR 1.23; 95% CI 0.99-1.53), dementia (HR 1.10; 95% CI 0.88-1.38), or cognitive impairment (HR 1.18; 95% CI 0.99-1.40). In stratified analysis by incident CHD status, there was a 39% (HR 1.39; 95% CI 1.07-1.81) significantly higher risk of MCI for every 5-year increase in IEAA among women who developed CHD during follow-up. Other AgeAccel measures were not significantly associated with MCI or dementia. CONCLUSION: IEAA was not significantly associated with cognitive impairment overall but was associated with impairment among women who developed CHD. Larger studies designed to examine associations of AgeAccel with cognitive impairment are needed, including exploration of whether associations are stronger in the setting of underlying vascular pathologies.

8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415308

RESUMO

We conducted cohort- and race-specific epigenome-wide association analyses of mtDNA copy number (mtDNA CN) measured in whole blood from participants of African and European origins in five cohorts (n = 6182, mean age 57-67 years, 65% women). In the meta-analysis of all the participants, we discovered 21 mtDNA CN-associated CpG sites (p < 1 x 10-7), with a 0.7 to 3.0 standard deviation increase (3 CpGs) or decrease (18 CpGs) in mtDNA CN corresponding to a 1% increase in DNA methylation. Several significant CpGs have been reported to be associated with at least two risk factors (e.g. chronological age or smoking) for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Five genes (PRDM16, NR1H3, XRCC3, POLK, and PDSS2), which harbor nine significant CpGs, are known to be involved in mitochondrial biosynthesis and functions. For example, NR1H3 encodes a transcription factor that is differentially expressed during an adipose tissue transition. The methylation level of cg09548275 in NR1H3 was negatively associated with mtDNA CN (effect size = -1.71, p = 4 x 10-8) and positively associated with the NR1H3 expression level (effect size = 0.43, p = 0.0003), which indicates that the methylation level in NR1H3 may underlie the relationship between mtDNA CN, the NR1H3 transcription factor, and energy expenditure. In summary, the study results suggest that mtDNA CN variation in whole blood is associated with DNA methylation levels in genes that are involved in a wide range of mitochondrial activities. These findings will help reveal molecular mechanisms between mtDNA CN and CVD.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthropometric measures, including obesity, are important risk factors for breast and endometrial cancers in postmenopausal women. It is unknown whether these risk factors are associated with androgen metabolism, another risk factor for these cancers. METHODS: Using baseline data from 1,765 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis examining associations between anthropometric measures (current body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], height, and recalled BMI at age 18) and serum androgen metabolites. Twelve androgens/androgen metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric means of androgen/androgen metabolite concentrations were estimated using linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders and stratified by hormone therapy (HT) use. RESULTS: Regardless of HT use, higher current BMI (>30 vs. <25 kg/m2) was associated with higher serum concentrations of DHEAS, 5α-reduced glucuronide metabolites (ADT-G, 3α-diol-3G, 3α-diol-17G), and DHEAS:DHEA ratio (all p-trend<0.02). BMI was also positively associated with unconjugated estrone:androstenedione and unconjugated estradiol:testosterone ratios among never/former HT users (all p-trend<0.001) but not in current users (p-int<0.001). WHR was positively associated with adrenal androgens and 5α-reduced glucuronide metabolites in obese women only (BMI>30 kg/m2; all p-trend<0.01). BMI at age 18 was inversely associated with adrenal androgens (DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, testosterone) and 5α-reduced glucuronide metabolites in never/former HT users (all p-trend<0.06). Height was not associated with androgen metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Current BMI is associated with androgen metabolism among postmenopausal women. IMPACT: This study contributes to our understanding of the link between obesity and cancer risk in postmenopausal women.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413117

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated whether network analysis revealed clusters of coregulated metabolites associated with prevalent type 2 diabetes (T2D) among Puerto Rican adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure fasting plasma metabolites (>600) among participants aged 40-75 years in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS; discovery) and San Juan Overweight Adult Longitudinal Study (SOALS; replication), with (n=357; n=77) and without (n=322; n=934) T2D, respectively. Among BPRHS participants, we used unsupervised partial correlation network-based methods to identify and calculate metabolite cluster scores. Logistic regression was used to assess cross-sectional associations between metabolite clusters and prevalent T2D at the baseline blood draw in the BPRHS, and significant associations were replicated in SOALS. Inverse-variance weighted random-effect meta-analysis was used to combine cohort-specific estimates. RESULTS: Six metabolite clusters were significantly associated with prevalent T2D in the BPRHS and replicated in SOALS (false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05). In a meta-analysis of the two cohorts, the OR and 95% CI (per 1 SD increase in cluster score) for prevalent T2D were as follows for clusters characterized primarily by glucose transport (0.21 (0.16 to 0.30); FDR <0.0001), sphingolipids (0.40 (0.29 to 0.53); FDR <0.0001), acyl cholines (0.35 (0.22 to 0.56); FDR <0.0001), sugar metabolism (2.28 (1.68 to 3.09); FDR <0.0001), branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (2.22 (1.60 to 3.08); FDR <0.0001), and fatty acid biosynthesis (1.54 (1.29 to 1.85); FDR <0.0001). Three additional clusters characterized by amino acid metabolism, cell membrane components, and aromatic amino acid metabolism displayed significant associations with prevalent T2D in the BPRHS, but these associations were not replicated in SOALS. CONCLUSIONS: Among Puerto Rican adults, we identified several known and novel metabolite clusters that associated with prevalent T2D.

11.
Diabetologia ; 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390365

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Menstrual cycle dysfunction has been associated with many endocrine-related diseases, but evidence linking menstrual cycle dysfunction with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is scant. The current study investigated the association of pre-pregnancy menstrual cycle regularity and length during adolescence, early adulthood and mid-adulthood with the subsequent risk of GDM. METHODS: Between 1993 and 2009, we followed 10,906 premenopausal women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II who reported menstrual cycle characteristics during adolescence (age 14-17 years), early adulthood (age 18-22 years) and mid-adulthood (age 29-46 years). Incident GDM was ascertained from a self-reported questionnaire regarding physician diagnosis. Log-binomial models with generalised estimating equations were used to estimate the RRs and 95% CI for the associations between menstrual cycle characteristics and GDM. RESULTS: We documented 578 incident cases of GDM among 14,418 pregnancies over a 16 year follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, women reporting always having irregular menstrual cycles during mid-adulthood had a 65% (95% CI 21, 125%) higher risk of GDM than women reporting very regular cycles. GDM risk was also greater among women reporting that their cycles were usually ≥32 days during mid-adulthood, compared with women reporting cycles between 26 and 31 days (RR 1.42 [95% CI 1.15, 1.75]). The risk of GDM was greater for women whose cycles changed from regular early in their reproductive years to irregular or from <32 days to ≥32 days during mid-adulthood, compared with women whose cycles remained <32 days or regular, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Women whose cycles were long or irregular during mid-adulthood, but not in adolescence or young adulthood, were at higher risk of GDM.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e021515, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346245

RESUMO

Background The plant-based Dietary Portfolio combines established cholesterol-lowering foods (plant protein, nuts, viscous fiber, and phytosterols), plus monounsaturated fat, and has been shown to improve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. No studies have evaluated the relation of the Dietary Portfolio with incident CVD events. Methods and Results We followed 123 330 postmenopausal women initially free of CVD in the Women's Health Initiative from 1993 through 2017. We used Cox proportional-hazard models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CI of the association of adherence to a Portfolio Diet score with CVD outcomes. Primary outcomes were total CVD, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Secondary outcomes were heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Over a mean follow-up of 15.3 years, 13 365 total CVD, 5640 coronary heart disease, 4440 strokes, 1907 heart failure, and 929 atrial fibrillation events occurred. After multiple adjustments, adherence to the Portfolio Diet score was associated with lower risk of total CVD (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.94), coronary heart disease (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95), and heart failure (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99), comparing the highest to lowest quartile of adherence. There was no association with stroke (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.87-1.08) or atrial fibrillation (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.87-1.38). These results remained statistically significant after several sensitivity analyses. Conclusions In this prospective cohort of postmenopausal women in the United States, higher adherence to the Portfolio Diet was associated with a reduction in incident cardiovascular and coronary events, as well as heart failure. These findings warrant further investigation in other populations.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(7): 666-678, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding lignan consumption in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk remains limited and mixed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to prospectively examine associations between lignan intake and CHD risk in U.S. men and women. METHODS: We prospectively followed 214,108 men and women in 3 cohorts who did not have cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Diet was repeatedly assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire every 2-4 years since baseline. RESULTS: During 5,517,225 person-years of follow-up, we documented 10,244 CHD cases, including 6,283 nonfatal myocardial infarction and 3,961 fatal CHD cases. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, comparing extreme quintiles, the pooled hazard ratios of CHD were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.79-0.92) for total lignans, 0.76 (95% CI: 0.71-0.82) for matairesinol, 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81-0.93) for secoisolariciresinol, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.95) for pinoresinol, and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.95) for lariciresinol (all P values for trend ≤0.003). Nonlinear relationships were found for total lignan, matairesinol, and secoisolariciresinol: the risk reduction plateaued at intakes above approximately 300 µg/d, 10 µg/d, and 100 µg/d, respectively (P < 0.01 for all nonlinearity). The inverse associations for total lignan intake appeared to be more apparent among participants with higher total fiber intake (P = 0.04 for interaction). In addition, lignan intake was more strongly associated with plasma concentrations of enterolactone when fiber intake was higher. CONCLUSIONS: Increased long-term intake of lignans was associated with a significantly lower risk of total CHD in both men and women. Possible synergistic effects may exist between lignan and fiber intake in relation to CHD risk reduction, possibly through enhancing the production of enterolignans.

14.
Menopause ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Using data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS), to determine the role of estrogen formulation, dose, route of delivery, and its combination with different progestogens on the risk for hypertension in the WHI-OS. METHODS: After excluding women with diagnosed hypertension, receiving antihypertensive medication, presenting with elevated blood pressure ( ≥ 140/90), and those not taking menopausal hormone therapy at baseline, 19,986 women remained eligible for the analyses. Using hierarchal modeling, proportional hazard rate calculation, and linear and logistic regression analyses, we evaluated incident treated hypertension and mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure changes at 3 years. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, history of treated diabetes, history of prescription medicines for high cholesterol, alcohol intake, hysterectomy, and bilateral oophorectomy. RESULTS: At 3 years, and compared with conjugated estrogens (CEE) with or without a progestin, the odds for newly treated hypertension were lower in women who used transdermal estradiol (0.85, 95% CI, 0.73-1.00) or oral estrone sulphate dominant preparations (0.83, 0.72-0.96). The odds of incident treated hypertension after 3 years did not vary according to dose of estrogen. The mean measured systolic blood pressure was minimally lower with transdermal estradiol (-1.20, 95% CI, -1.97 to -0.44) mm Hg and other oral Estrone dominant preparations (-0.83, 95% CI, -1.51 to -0.16) mm Hg at 3 years. For a given estrogen type, the magnitudes of the hazard ratio were similar for estrogen-alone compared with estrogen plus a progestogen. For women 10 or more years past menopause when they entered, the HR for incident self-reported treated hypertension was 1.26 (95% CI, 1.09-1.46) with higher dose CEE compared with 0.625 mg CEE. It was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.68-1.13) when given to women who were < 10 years after menopause when they entered the WHI-OS. CONCLUSION: The risk of treated hypertension differed by formulation, dose, and years since menopause.Video Summary:http://links.lww.com/MENO/A795.

15.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(7): 1758-1769, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the joint associations of amounts of alcohol consumed and drinking habits with the risks of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 316,627 healthy current drinkers, with baseline measurements between March 13, 2006, and October 1, 2010, were included in this study. We newly created a drinking habit score (DHS) according to regular drinking (frequency of alcohol intake ≥3 times/wk) and whether consuming alcohol with meals (yes). RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, we documented 8652 incident cases of all-cause death, including 1702 cases of cardiovascular disease death, 4960 cases of cancer death, and 1990 cases of other-cause death. After adjustment confounders and amount of alcohol consumed, higher DHS was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, cancer mortality, or other-cause mortality (Ptrend<.001, Ptrend=.03, Ptrend<.001, and Ptrend<.001, respectively). We observed that the amount of alcohol consumed have different relationships with the risks of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality among participants with distinct drinking habits, grouped by DHS. For example, in the joint analyses, a J-shaped association between the amount of alcohol consumed and all-cause mortality was observed in participants with unfavorable DHS (Pquadratictrend=.02) while the association appeared to be U-shaped in participants with favorable DHS (Pquadratictrend=.003), with lower risks in those consuming greater than or equal to 50 g/wk and less than 300 g/wk. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that alcohol consumption levels have different relationships with the risk of mortality among current drinkers, depending on their drinking habits.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Etanol , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Causas de Morte , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Correlação de Dados , Etanol/metabolismo , Etanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hormese , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003330, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, and valine) correlate with insulin resistance and poor glucose control, which may in part explain associations between type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, the relationships of BCAAs with other cardiometabolic pathways, including inflammation and dyslipidemia, are unclear. We hypothesized that plasma BCAAs would correlate with multiple pathways of cardiometabolic dysfunction. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 19 472 participants (mean age=54.9 years, SD=7.2 years) in the Women's Health Study without a history of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer. We quantified the concentrations of individual biomarkers of inflammation and lipids, across quartiles of BCAAs, adjusting for age, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and other established cardiovascular disease risk factors at blood draw. RESULTS: Women in the highest versus lowest quartiles of plasma BCAAs had higher inflammatory markers including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (multivariable-adjusted means: 1.96 versus 1.43 mg/L), fibrinogen (367 versus 362 mg/dL), soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (361 versus 353 ng/mL), and glycoprotein acetylation (407 versus 371 µmol/L; P trend=0.0002 for fibrinogen; P<0.0001 for others). Similarly for lipids, women with higher BCAAs had lower HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; 49.0 versus 55.0 mg/dL), and higher triglycerides (143 versus 114 mg/dL), LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; 133 versus 124 mg/dL), and lipoprotein insulin resistance score (52.6 versus 37.3; all: P<0.0001). Similar associations with these biomarkers were observed in isoleucine, leucine, and valine, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Higher circulating BCAA concentrations are associated with adverse profiles of biomarkers of inflammation and dyslipidemia independent of established cardiovascular disease risk factors, and thus, may reflect poorer cardiometabolic health through multiple pathways. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00000479.

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(1): 42-52, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), defined as clonally expanded leukemogenic sequence variations (particularly in DNMT3A, TET2, ASXL1, and JAK2) in asymptomatic individuals, is associated with cardiovascular events, including recurrent heart failure (HF). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate whether CHIP is associated with incident HF. METHODS: CHIP status was obtained from whole exome or genome sequencing of blood DNA in participants without prevalent HF or hematological malignancy from 5 cohorts. Cox proportional hazards models were performed within each cohort, adjusting for demographic and clinical risk factors, followed by fixed-effect meta-analyses. Large CHIP clones (defined as variant allele frequency >10%), HF with or without baseline coronary heart disease, and left ventricular ejection fraction were evaluated in secondary analyses. RESULTS: Of 56,597 individuals (59% women, mean age 58 years at baseline), 3,406 (6%) had CHIP, and 4,694 developed HF (8.3%) over up to 20 years of follow-up. CHIP was prospectively associated with a 25% increased risk of HF in meta-analysis (hazard ratio: 1.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.38) with consistent associations across cohorts. ASXL1, TET2, and JAK2 sequence variations were each associated with an increased risk of HF, whereas DNMT3A sequence variations were not associated with HF. Secondary analyses suggested large CHIP was associated with a greater risk of HF (hazard ratio: 1.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-1.44), and the associations for CHIP on HF with and without prior coronary heart disease were homogenous. ASXL1 sequence variations were associated with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: CHIP, particularly sequence variations in ASXL1, TET2, and JAK2, represents a new risk factor for HF.


Assuntos
Hematopoiese Clonal/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Correlação de Dados , Demografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
18.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003288, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ChREBP (carbohydrate responsive element binding protein) is a transcription factor that responds to sugar consumption. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and genetic variants in the CHREBP locus have separately been linked to HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that SSB consumption would modify the association between genetic variants in the CHREBP locus and dyslipidemia. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium (N=63 599) and the UK Biobank (N=59 220) were used to quantify associations of SSB consumption, genetic variants, and their interaction on HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations using linear regression models. A total of 1606 single nucleotide polymorphisms within or near CHREBP were considered. SSB consumption was estimated from validated questionnaires, and participants were grouped by their estimated intake. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis, rs71556729 was significantly associated with higher HDL-C concentrations only among the highest SSB consumers (ß, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.16-3.07] mg/dL per allele; P<0.0001), but not significantly among the lowest SSB consumers (P=0.81; PDiff <0.0001). Similar results were observed for 2 additional variants (rs35709627 and rs71556736). For triglyceride, rs55673514 was positively associated with triglyceride concentrations only among the highest SSB consumers (ß, 0.06 [95% CI, 0.02-0.09] ln-mg/dL per allele, P=0.001) but not the lowest SSB consumers (P=0.84; PDiff=0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Our results identified genetic variants in the CHREBP locus that may protect against SSB-associated reductions in HDL-C and other variants that may exacerbate SSB-associated increases in triglyceride concentrations. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00005133, NCT00005121, NCT00005487, and NCT00000479.

19.
Cancer ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The IBIS/Tyrer-Cuzick model is used clinically to guide breast cancer screening and prevention, but was developed primarily in non-Hispanic White women. Little is known about its long-term performance in a racially/ethnically diverse population. METHODS: The Women's Health Initiative study enrolled postmenopausal women from 1993-1998. Women were included who were aged <80 years at enrollment with no prior breast cancer or mastectomy and with data required for IBIS/Tyrer-Cuzick calculation (weight; height; ages at menarche, first birth, and menopause; menopausal hormone therapy use; and family history of breast or ovarian cancer). Calibration was assessed by the ratio of observed breast cancer cases to the number expected by the IBIS/Tyrer-Cuzick model (O/E; calculated as the sum of cumulative hazards). Differential discrimination was tested for by self-reported race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaskan Native) using Cox regression. Exploratory analyses, including simulation of a protective single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs140068132 at 6q25, were performed. RESULTS: During follow-up (median 18.9 years, maximum 23.4 years), 6783 breast cancer cases occurred among 90,967 women. IBIS/Tyrer-Cuzick was well calibrated overall (O/E ratio = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.97) and in most racial/ethnic groups, but overestimated risk for Hispanic women (O/E ratio = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.90). Discrimination did not differ by race/ethnicity. Exploratory simulation of the protective SNP suggested improved IBIS/Tyrer-Cuzick calibration for Hispanic women (O/E ratio = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: The IBIS/Tyrer-Cuzick model is well calibrated for several racial/ethnic groups over 2 decades of follow-up. Studies that incorporate genetic and other risk factors, particularly among Hispanic women, are essential to improve breast cancer-risk prediction.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...