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1.
Age Ageing ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to healthy lifestyles/behaviours promotes healthy ageing. However, little is known about whether age, sex and/or race/ethnicity moderate associations of lifestyle/behavioural factors with relative telomere length (RTL), a potential biomarker of ageing. METHODS: We included 749 midlife to older non-Hispanic White (n = 254), Black (n = 248) and Hispanic (n = 247) US participants [mean (standard deviation) age = 69.3 (7.2) years; women: 50.5%]. We extracted genomic DNA from peripheral leucocytes. RTL was assayed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Multivariable regression was used to examine associations between lifestyle/behavioural exposures (i.e. physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking and depression) with RTL. RESULTS: Increasing chronological age was associated with shorter RTL (P < 0.01). Higher physical activity was associated with longer RTL (P-trend = 0.03); daily versus never/rare alcohol consumption and 30+ versus <5 smoking pack-year were associated with shorter RTLs (P-trend = 0.02). Associations varied significantly by sex and race/ethnicity. The association between physical activity and longer RTL appeared strongest among non-Hispanic Whites (P-interaction = 0.01). Compared to men, women had stronger associations between heavy smoking and shorter RTLs (P-interaction = 0.03). Light/moderate alcohol consumption (monthly/weekly) was associated with longer RTL among non-Hispanic Whites, while daily consumption was related to shorter RTLs among Blacks and Hispanics (P-interactions < 0.01). Associations of daily alcohol and heavy smoking with shorter RTLs were particularly apparent among Black women. CONCLUSION: We observed novel variations by sex and race/ethnicity in associations between lifestyle/behavioural factors and RTL. Further work is needed to replicate these findings and to address potential public health implications for modifying strategies by sex or across racial/ethnic groups to optimise lifestyles/behaviours for healthy ageing.

3.
Contemp Clin Trials ; : 106176, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on disease progression and post-exposure prophylaxis for COVID-19 infection. We hypothesize that high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation will reduce risk of hospitalization/death among those with recently diagnosed COVID-19 infection and will reduce risk of COVID-19 infection among their close household contacts. METHODS: We report the rationale and design of a planned pragmatic, cluster randomized, double-blinded trial (N = 2700 in total nationwide), with 1500 newly diagnosed individuals with COVID-19 infection, together with up to one close household contact each (~1200 contacts), randomized to either vitamin D3 (loading dose, then 3200 IU/day) or placebo in a 1:1 ratio and a household cluster design. The study duration is 4 weeks. The primary outcome for newly diagnosed individuals is the occurrence of hospitalization and/or mortality. Key secondary outcomes include symptom severity scores among cases and changes in the infection (seroconversion) status for their close household contacts. Changes in vitamin D 25(OH)D levels will be assessed and their relation to study outcomes will be explored. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed pragmatic trial will allow parallel testing of vitamin D3 supplementation for early treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis of COVID-19. The household cluster design provides a cost-efficient approach to testing an intervention for reducing rates of hospitalization and/or mortality in newly diagnosed cases and preventing infection among their close household contacts.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16534, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024201

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for > 13 cancer sites, although it is unknown whether there is a common mechanism across sites. Evidence suggests a role for impaired branched-chain amino acid (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, valine) metabolism in obesity, insulin resistance, and immunity; thus, we hypothesized circulating BCAAs may be associated with incident obesity-related cancers. We analyzed participants in the prospective Women's Health Study without a history of cancer at baseline blood collection (N = 26,711, mean age = 54.6 years [SD = 7.1]). BCAAs were quantified via NMR spectroscopy, log-transformed, and standardized. We used Cox proportional regression models adjusted for age, race, smoking, diet, alcohol, physical activity, menopausal hormone use, Body Mass Index (BMI), diabetes, and other risk factors. The endpoint was a composite of obesity-related cancers, defined per the International Agency for Research on Cancer 2016 report, over a median 24 years follow-up. Baseline BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 compared with BMI 18.5-25.0 kg/m2 was associated with 23% greater risk of obesity-related cancers (n = 2751 events; multivariable HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11-1.37). However, BCAAs were not associated with obesity-related cancers (multivariable HR per SD = 1.01 [0.97-1.05]). Results for individual BCAA metabolites suggested a modest association for leucine with obesity-related cancers (1.04 [1.00-1.08]), and no association for isoleucine or valine (0.99 [0.95-1.03] and 1.00 [0.96-1.04], respectively). Exploratory analyses of BCAAs with individual sites included positive associations between leucine and postmenopausal breast cancer, and isoleucine with pancreatic cancer. Total circulating BCAAs were unrelated to obesity-related cancer incidence although an association was observed for leucine with incident obesity-related cancer.

5.
BMJ ; 371: m3464, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether irregular or long menstrual cycles throughout the life course are associated with all cause and cause specific premature mortality (age <70 years). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study II (1993-2017). PARTICIPANTS: 79 505 premenopausal women without a history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes and who reported the usual length and regularity of their menstrual cycles at ages 14-17 years, 18-22 years, and 29-46 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all cause and cause specific premature mortality (death before age 70 years) were estimated from multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During 24 years of follow-up, 1975 premature deaths were documented, including 894 from cancer and 172 from cardiovascular disease. Women who reported always having irregular menstrual cycles experienced higher mortality rates during follow-up than women who reported very regular cycles in the same age ranges. The crude mortality rate per 1000 person years of follow-up for women reporting very regular cycles and women reporting always irregular cycles were 1.05 and 1.23 for cycle characteristics at ages 14-17 years, 1.00 and 1.37 for cycle characteristics at ages 18-22 years, and 1.00 and 1.68 for cycle characteristics at ages 29-46 years. The corresponding multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for premature death during follow-up were 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.37), 1.37 (1.09 to 1.73), and 1.39 (1.14 to 1.70), respectively. Similarly, women who reported that their usual cycle length was 40 days or more at ages 18-22 years and 29-46 years were more likely to die prematurely than women who reported a usual cycle length of 26-31 days in the same age ranges (1.34, 1.06 to 1.69; and 1.40, 1.17 to 1.68, respectively). These relations were strongest for deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The higher mortality associated with long and irregular menstrual cycles was slightly stronger among current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Irregular and long menstrual cycles in adolescence and adulthood are associated with a greater risk of premature mortality (age <70 years). This relation is slightly stronger among women who smoke.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether pre-diagnostic lipid levels are associated with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk. Methods: We conducted a matched case-control study nested in five large prospective US cohorts (the Nurses' Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, the Multiethnic Cohort Study, and the Women's Health Initiative), and identified 275 individuals who developed ALS during follow-up and had provided blood samples before disease diagnosis. For each ALS case, we randomly selected two controls who were alive at the time of the case diagnosis and matched on cohort, birth year (±1 year), sex, race/ethnicity, fasting status, and time of blood draw. We measured total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) levels in the plasma samples, and used conditional logistic regression to estimate associations between lipid levels and ALS risk. Results: Higher levels of HDL-C were associated with higher ALS risk in an analysis adjusted for the matching factors (risk ratio [RR] Q4 vs. Q1: 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-2.69, p trend: 0.007). The estimate remained similar in a multivariable analysis additionally adjusted for body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, plasma urate levels, and use of cholesterol-lowering drugs (RR Q4 vs. Q1: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.07-2.73, p trend: 0.02). Plasma levels of TC, LDL-C, and TG were not associated with ALS risk. Conclusions: Higher pre-diagnostic HDL-C levels, but not levels of other lipids, were associated with a higher risk of ALS.

7.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1435-1443, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981366

RESUMO

Few studies have evaluated hypertension incidence in relation to walking, which is a common physical activity among adults. We examined the association between walking and hypertension incidence in 83 435 postmenopausal women who at baseline were aged 50 to 79 years, without known hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, or stroke, and reported the ability to walk at least one block without assistance. Walking volume (metabolic equivalent hours per week) and speed (miles per hour) were assessed by questionnaire. Incident physician-diagnosed hypertension treated with medication was ascertained through annual questionnaires. During a mean 11-year follow-up, 38 230 hypertension cases were identified. After adjustment for covariates including nonwalking activities, a significant inverse association with hypertension was observed across categories of baseline walking volume (0 [referent], >0-3.5, 3.6-7.5, and >7.5 metabolic equivalent hours per week), hazard ratio: 1.00 (referent), 0.98, 0.95, 0.89; trend P<0.001. Faster walking speeds (<2, 2-3, 3-4, and >4 miles per hour) also were associated with lower hypertension risk, hazard ratio: 1.00 (referent), 1.07, 0.95, 0.86, 0.79; trend P<0.001. Further adjustment for walking duration (h/wk) had little impact on the association for walking speed (hazard ratio: 1.00 [referent], 1.08, 0.96, 0.86, 0.77; trend P<0.001). Significant inverse associations for walking volume and speed persisted after additional control for baseline blood pressure. Results for time-varying walking were comparable to those for baseline exposures. This study showed that walking at guideline-recommended volumes (>7.5 metabolic equivalent hours per week) and at faster speeds (≥2 miles per hour) is associated with lower hypertension risk in postmenopausal women. Walking should be encouraged as part of hypertension prevention in older adults.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether proinflammatory and hyperinsulinemic diets are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively followed 74,767 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2016), 90,786 women from the Nurses' Health Study II (1989-2017), and 39,442 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2016). Using repeated measures of food-frequency questionnaires, we calculated empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) and empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) scores, which are food-based indices that characterize dietary inflammatory or insulinemic potential based on circulating biomarkers of inflammation or C-peptide. Diagnoses of type 2 diabetes were confirmed by validated supplementary questionnaires. RESULTS: We documented 19,666 incident type 2 diabetes cases over 4.9 million person-years of follow-up. In the pooled multivariable-adjusted analyses, individuals in the highest EDIP or EDIH quintile had 3.11 times (95% CI 2.96-3.27) and 3.40 times (95% CI 3.23-3.58) higher type 2 diabetes risk, respectively, compared with those in the lowest quintile. Additional adjustment for BMI attenuated the associations (hazard ratio 1.95 [95% CI 1.85-2.05] for EDIP and hazard ratio 1.87 [95% CI 1.78-1.98] for EDIH), suggesting adiposity partly mediates the observed associations. Moreover, individuals in both highest EDIP and EDIH quintiles had 2.34 times higher type 2 diabetes risk (95% CI 2.17-2.52), compared with those in both lowest quintiles, after adjustment for BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Higher dietary inflammatory and insulinemic potential were associated with increased type 2 diabetes incidence. Findings suggest that inflammation and hyperinsulinemia are potential mechanisms linking dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes development.

9.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 96: 106127, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912819
10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936228

RESUMO

Importance: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) may have unique risk factors in women. Most women have a history of pregnancy; common adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) appear to be associated with ASCVD, but prior studies have limitations. Objective: To assess whether APOs are associated with increased ASCVD risk independently of traditional risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: The APO history among participants in the Women's Health Initiative, a large multiethnic cohort of postmenopausal women, was assessed. The associations of 5 self-reported APOs (gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, low birth weight [ie, birth weight less than 2.49 kg], high birth weight [ie, birth weight greater than 4.08 kg], and preterm delivery by 3 weeks or more) with ASCVD were analyzed, adjusting for traditional ASCVD risk factors. Data were collected and analyzed in 2017. Exposures: APOs (gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, low birth weight, high birth weight, and preterm delivery). Main Outcomes and Measures: Adjudicated ASCVD. Results: A total of 48 113 Women's Health Initiative participants responded to the survey; the median (interquartile range) age at time of enrollment was 60.0 (55.0-64.0) years. A total of 13 482 participants (28.8%) reported 1 or more APOs. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was more frequent in women who reported an APO compared with those without APOs (1028 of 13 482 [7.6%] vs 1758 of 30 522 [5.8%]). Each APO, analyzed separately, was significantly associated with ASCVD, and gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, low birth weight, and preterm delivery remained significant after adjustment for traditional ASCVD risk factors. When all APOs were analyzed together, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.15-1.40) and low birth weight (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00-1.26) remained independently associated with ASCVD. All findings were materially unchanged by additional adjustment for parity, body mass index, and socioeconomic factors. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large multiethnic cohort of women, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and low birth weight were independently associated with ASCVD after adjustment for risk factors and other APOs.

11.
JAMA ; 324(5): 471-480, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749491

RESUMO

Importance: Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been associated with higher risk for depression later in life, but there have been few long-term, high-dose large-scale trials. Objective: To test the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on late-life depression risk and mood scores. Design, Setting, and Participants: There were 18 353 men and women aged 50 years or older in the VITAL-DEP (Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial-Depression Endpoint Prevention) ancillary study to VITAL, a randomized clinical trial of cardiovascular disease and cancer prevention among 25 871 adults in the US. There were 16 657 at risk for incident depression (ie, no depression history) and 1696 at risk for recurrent depression (ie, depression history but no treatment for depression within the past 2 years). Randomization occurred from November 2011 through March 2014; randomized treatment ended on December 31, 2017, and this was the final date of follow-up. Intervention: Randomized assignment in a 2 × 2 factorial design to vitamin D3 (2000 IU/d of cholecalciferol) and fish oil or placebo; 9181 were randomized to vitamin D3 and 9172 were randomized to matching placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were the risk of depression or clinically relevant depressive symptoms (total of incident and recurrent cases) and the mean difference in mood scores (8-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale [PHQ-8]; score range, 0 points [least symptoms] to 24 points [most symptoms]; the minimal clinically important difference for change in scores was 0.5 points). Results: Among the 18 353 randomized participants (mean age, 67.5 [SD, 7.1] years; 49.2% women), the median treatment duration was 5.3 years and 90.5% completed the trial (93.5% among those alive at the end of the trial). Risk of depression or clinically relevant depressive symptoms was not significantly different between the vitamin D3 group (609 depression or clinically relevant depressive symptom events; 12.9/1000 person-years) and the placebo group (625 depression or clinically relevant depressive symptom events; 13.3/1000 person-years) (hazard ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.87 to 1.09]; P = .62); there were no significant differences between groups in depression incidence or recurrence. No significant differences were observed between treatment groups for change in mood scores over time; mean change in PHQ-8 score was not significantly different from zero (mean difference for change in mood scores, 0.01 points [95% CI, -0.04 to 0.05 points]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults aged 50 years or older without clinically relevant depressive symptoms at baseline, treatment with vitamin D3 compared with placebo did not result in a statistically significant difference in the incidence and recurrence of depression or clinically relevant depressive symptoms or for change in mood scores over a median follow-up of 5.3 years. These findings do not support the use of vitamin D3 in adults to prevent depression. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT01169259 and NCT01696435.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitaminas/farmacologia
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(8): e2013448, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797174

RESUMO

Importance: Describing potential mortality risk reduction associated with weight loss between early adulthood and midlife is important for informing primary and secondary prevention efforts for obesity. Objective: To examine the risk of all-cause mortality among adults who lost weight between early adulthood and midlife compared with adults who were persistently obese over the same period. Design, Setting, and Participants: Combined repeated cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) and continuous waves collected in 2-year cycles between 1999 and 2014. The data analysis was conducted from February 10, 2019, to April 20, 2020. Individuals aged 40 to 74 years at the time of survey (baseline) were included in the analyses (n = 24 205). Exposures: Weight history was assessed by self-reported weight at age 25 years, at 10 years before baseline (midlife: mean age, 44 years; interquartile range, 37-55), and measured weight at baseline. Body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) at each time was categorized as normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (≥30.0). Weight change patterns were assessed from age 25 years (early adulthood) to 10 years before baseline (midlife). Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident all-cause mortality using linked data from the National Death Index. Results: Of the 24 205 participants, 11 617 were women (49.0%) and 11 567 were non-Hispanic White (76.9%). The mean (SD) BMI was 29.0 (6.1) at baseline. During a mean (SD) follow-up of 10.7 (7.2) years, 5846 deaths occurred. Weight loss from obese to overweight was associated with a 54% (hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.27-0.77) reduction in mortality risk compared with individuals with stable obesity between early adulthood and midlife. An estimated 3.2% (95% CI, 1.6%-4.9%) of early deaths could have been avoided if those who maintained an obese BMI instead lost weight to an overweight BMI by midlife. Overall, an estimated 12.4% (95% CI, 8.1%-16.5%) of early deaths may be attributable to having weight in excess of the normal BMI range at any point between early and mid-adulthood. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, weight loss from obesity to overweight between early adulthood through midlife appeared to be associated with a mortality risk reduction compared with persistent obesity. These findings support the importance of population-based approaches to preventing weight gain across the life course and a need for greater emphasis on treating obesity early in life.

13.
Contemp Clin Trials ; : 106124, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858228

RESUMO

DO-HEALTH is a multi-center clinical trial among 2157 community-dwelling European men and women age 70 and older. The 2x2x2 randomized-control factorial design trial tested the individual and additive benefit, as well as the cost-effectiveness, of 3 interventions: vitamin D 2000 IU/day, omega-3 fatty acids 1000 mg/day (EPA + DHA, ratio 1:2), and a 30-minute 3 times/week home exercise (strength versus flexibility). Each treatment tested has shown considerable prior promise from mechanistic studies, small clinical trials, or large cohort studies, in the prevention of common age-related chronic diseases, but definitive data are missing. DO-HEALTH will test these interventions in relation to 6 primary endpoints (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, non-vertebral fractures, Short Physical Performance Battery score, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and risk of infections), plus several secondary endpoints explored in ancillary studies (i.e. rate of any falls and injurious falls, joint pain, oral health, quality of life, and incident frailty). As the 3 interventions have distinct mechanisms of action for each of the 6 primary endpoints, a maximum benefit is expected for their additive benefit as a "multi-modal" intervention. The trial duration is 3 years with in-person contacts with all participants at 4 clinical visits and by quarterly phone calls. Baseline and follow-up blood samples were collected in all participants to measure changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and poly-unsaturated fatty acid concentrations. Our objective was to test interventions that are expected to promote healthy aging and longer life expectancy and that can be easily and safely implemented by older community-dwelling adults.

14.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859999

RESUMO

Recent animal and small clinical studies have suggested depression is related to altered lipid and amino acid profiles. However, this has not been examined in a population-based sample, particularly in women. We identified multiple metabolites associated with depression as potential candidates from prior studies. Cross-sectional data from three independent samples of postmenopausal women were analyzed, including women from the Women's Health Initiative-Observational Study (WHI-OS, n = 926), the WHI-Hormone Trials (WHI-HT; n = 1,325), and the Nurses' Health Study II Mind-Body Study (NHSII-MBS; n = 218). Positive depression status was defined as having any of the following: elevated depressive symptoms, antidepressant use, or depression history. Plasma metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (21 phosphatidylcholines (PCs), 7 lysophosphatidylethanolamines, 5 ceramides, 3 branched chain amino acids, and 9 neurotransmitters). Associations between depression status and metabolites were evaluated using multivariable linear regression; results were pooled by random-effects meta-analysis with multiple testing adjustment using the false discovery rate (FDR). Prevalence rates of positive depression status were 24.4% (WHI-OS), 25.7% (WHI-HT), and 44.7% (NHSII-MBS). After multivariable adjustment, positive depression status was associated with higher levels of glutamate and PC 36 : 1/38 : 3, and lower levels of tryptophan and GABA-to-glutamate and GABA-to-glutamine ratio (FDR-p < 0.05). Positive associations with LPE 18 : 0/18 : 1 and inverse associations with valine and serotonin were also observed, although these associations did not survive FDR adjustment. Associations of positive depression status with several candidate metabolites including PC 36 : 1/38 : 3 and amino acids involved in neurotransmission suggest potential depression-related metabolic alterations in postmenopausal women, with possible implications for later chronic disease.

15.
Menopause ; 27(9): 1097-1098, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852466
16.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laboratory and animal studies suggest an inverse association between chocolate consumption and the risk of cancer. Epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent evidence. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of chocolate candy consumption with incident, invasive total, breast, colorectal, and lung cancers in a large cohort of postmenopausal American women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with a mean 14.8-year follow-up. Chocolate candy intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Invasive cancer events were assessed by physician adjudication. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: The Women's Health Initiative Study enrolled 161,808 postmenopausal women at 40 clinical centers nationwide between 1993 and 1998. Of these women, 114,281 with plausible food frequency or biometric data and no missing data on chocolate candy exposure were selected for analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cancer risk in quartiles of chocolate candy consumption with the first quartile as referent. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: There were 16,164 documented incident invasive cancers, representing an incidence rate of 17.0 per 100 participants and 12.3 per 1000 person years during follow-up among participants without any preexisting cancers or missing outcome data. There were no statistically significant associations for total invasive cancer (P-linear = .47, P-curvature = .14), or invasive breast cancer (P-linear = .77, P-curvature = .26). For colorectal cancer P-linear was .02, P-curvature was .03, and compared with women eating a 1 oz (28.4 g) chocolate candy serving <1 time per month, the hazard ratio for ≥1.5 times/wk was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.35). This result may be attributable to the excess adiposity associated with frequent chocolate candy consumption. CONCLUSIONS: In the Women's Health Initiative, there was no significant association between chocolate candy consumption and invasive total or breast cancer. There was a modest 18% higher risk of invasive colorectal cancer for women who ate chocolate candy at least 1.5 times/wk. These results require confirmation.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785256

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) is a putative biomarker of oxidative stress and biological aging. Modifiable factors, including physical activity (PA), avoidance of heavy alcohol use and smoking, and maintaining good mental health, may reduce oxidative stress and promote healthy aging. Yet, limited data exist regarding how these factors are associated with mtDNAcn or whether age, sex or race/ethnicity moderate associations. In this cross-sectional study, we selected 391 adults (183 non-Hispanic White, 110 Black and 98 Hispanic; mean = 67 years) from the VITAL-DEP (VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL-Depression Endpoint Prevention) ancillary to the VITAL trial. We estimated associations between lifestyle and behavioral factors (PA, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and depression) and log-transformed mtDNAcn using multivariable linear regression models. MtDNAcn was not correlated with chronological age; women had ~17% higher mtDNAcn compared to men. There were no significant associations between PA measures (frequency, amount or intensity) or alcohol consumption with mtDNAcn. Cigarette smoking (per 5 pack-years) was significantly associated with mtDNAcn (percent difference = -2.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) = -5.4%, -0.4%)); a large contrast was observed among heavy vs. non-smokers (≥30 vs. 0 pack-years): percent difference = -28.5% (95% CI = -44.2%, -8.3%). The estimate of mtDNAcn was suggestively different for past vs. no depression history (percent difference = -15.1% 95% CI = -30.8%, 4.1%), but this difference was not statistically significant. The association between smoking and log-mtDNAcn varied by sex and race/ethnicity; it was stronger in men and Black participants. While chance findings cannot be excluded, results from this study support associations of smoking, but not chronological age, with mtDNAcn and suggest nuanced considerations of mtDNAcn as indicative of varying oxidative stress states vs. biological aging itself.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/genética , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 183(1): 217-226, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607639

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It has been hypothesized that selenium (Se) can prevent cancer, and that Se deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. However, findings from epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess the association between Se intake and risk of breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). METHODS: This study included 145,033 postmenopausal women 50-79 years who completed baseline questionnaires between October 1993 and December 1998, which addressed dietary and supplemental Se intake and breast cancer risk factors. The association between baseline Se intake and incident breast cancer was examined in Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 15.5 years, 9487 cases of invasive breast cancer were identified. Total Se (highest versus lowest quartile: HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.92-1.09, Ptrend = 0.66), dietary Se (highest versus lowest quartile: HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.89-1.08, Ptrend = 0.61), and supplemental Se (yes versus no: HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.95-1.03) were not associated with breast cancer incidence. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that Se intake is not associated with incident breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the United States. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings by using biomarkers such as toenail Se to reduce the potential for misclassification of Se status.

19.
BMJ ; 370: m2206, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between the intake of total and individual whole grain foods and the risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort studies. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study (1984-2014), Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2017), and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2016), United States. PARTICIPANTS: 158 259 women and 36 525 men who did not have type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reports of incident type 2 diabetes by participants identified through follow-up questionnaires and confirmed by a validated supplementary questionnaire. RESULTS: During 4 618 796 person years of follow-up, 18 629 participants with type 2 diabetes were identified. Total whole grain consumption was categorized into five equal groups of servings a day for the three cohorts. After adjusting for lifestyle and dietary risk factors for diabetes, participants in the highest category for total whole grain consumption had a 29% (95% confidence interval 26% to 33%) lower rate of type 2 diabetes compared with those in the lowest category. For individual whole grain foods, pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for type 2 diabetes in participants consuming one or more servings a day compared with those consuming less than one serving a month were 0.81 (0.77 to 0.86) for whole grain cold breakfast cereal, 0.79 (0.75 to 0.83) for dark bread, and 1.08 (1.00 to 1.17) for popcorn. For other individual whole grains with lower average intake levels, comparing consumption of two or more servings a week with less than one serving a month, the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.79 (0.75 to 0.83) for oatmeal, 0.88 (0.82 to 0.94) for brown rice, 0.85 (0.80 to 0.90) for added bran, and 0.88 (0.78 to 0.98) for wheat germ. Spline regression showed a non-linear dose-response association between total whole grain intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes where the rate reduction slightly plateaued at more than two servings a day (P<0.001 for curvature). For whole grain cold breakfast cereal and dark bread, the rate reduction plateaued at about 0.5 servings a day. For consumption of popcorn, a J shaped association was found where the rate of type 2 diabetes was not significantly raised until consumption exceeded about one serving a day. The association between higher total whole grain intake and lower risk of type 2 diabetes was stronger in individuals who were lean than in those who were overweight or obese (P=0.003 for interaction), and the associations did not vary significantly across levels of physical activity, family history of diabetes, or smoking status. CONCLUSION: Higher consumption of total whole grains and several commonly eaten whole grain foods, including whole grain breakfast cereal, oatmeal, dark bread, brown rice, added bran, and wheat germ, was significantly associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. These findings provide further support for the current recommendations of increasing whole grain consumption as part of a healthy diet for the prevention of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável , Grãos Integrais , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Menopause ; 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701661
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