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1.
Drug Discov Today ; 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344040

RESUMO

To maintain orphan drug status at the time of market authorization, orphan medicinal products (OMPs) need to be assessed for all criteria, including significant benefit, by the Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products (COMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Subsequently, health technology assessment (HTA) organizations evaluate the same OMPs in their relative effectiveness assessments (REAs). This review investigates the similarities and differences between the two frameworks for six HTA organizations, including the European Network for HTA. We discuss differences between both assessment frameworks within five domains (clinical evidence used, patient population, intervention, comparators, and outcome measures) for all drugs. Five illustrative cases studies were selected for a qualitative review.

2.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236959

RESUMO

Assessments of clinical evidence vary between regulators and health technology assessment bodies, but precise differences remain unclear. To compare uncertainties raised on the clinical evidence of approved drugs, we analyzed assessments of regulators and health technology assessment (HTA) bodies in the United States and Europe. We found that US and European regulators report uncertainties related to safety for almost all drugs (85-94%), whereas HTA bodies reported these less (53-59%). By contrast, HTA bodies raised uncertainties related to effects against relevant comparators for almost all drugs (88-100%), whereas this was infrequently addressed by regulators (12-32%). Regulators as well as HTA bodies reported uncertainties related to the patient population for 60-95% of drugs. The patterns of regulator-HTA misalignment were comparable between the United States and Europe. Our results indicate that increased coordination between these complementary organizations is necessary to facilitate the collection of necessary evidence in an efficient and timely manner.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324233

RESUMO

AIMS: Studies on adherence and persistence with non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) treatment have relied on data from the early years of NOAC availability. We aimed to study long-term adherence and persistence with NOACs and their association with stroke risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: From the Stockholm Healthcare database, we included 21 028 atrial fibrillation patients claiming a first NOAC prescription from July 2011 until October 2018, with more than 1000 patients having more than 5 years of follow-up (median: 2.0, interquartile range: 1.0-3.2). Persistence rates, defined as continuing to claim NOAC prescriptions within a 90-day gap, decreased to 70% at the end of follow-up. However, 85% of the patients were treated at the end of the study due to reinitiations. Adherence, calculated as medication possession rate (MPR) in 3 and 6-month intervals among persistent users, remained stable at 90%, with 75% of patients having an MPR >95% throughout the study period. Using a case-control design, we calculated associations of persistence and adherence with stroke risk, adjusting for potential confounders. The outcome was a composite of ischaemic or unspecified stroke and transient ischaemic attack. Non-persistence and poor adherence were both associated with increased stroke risk [non-persistence adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49-2.82, 1% reduction MPR aOR: 1.03; CI: 1.01-1.05]. There was no association between non-persistence or poor adherence and the falsification endpoints; fractions and respiratory infections, indicating no 'healthy-adherer' effect. CONCLUSION: Persistence rates decreased slowly over time, but persistent patients had high adherence rates. Both non-persistence and poor adherence were associated with an increased stroke risk.

4.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034790

RESUMO

AIMS: There is a trend for more flexibility in timing of evidence generation in relation to marketing authorization, including the option to complete phase III trials after authorization or not at all. This paper investigated the relation between phase II and III clinical trial efficacy in oncology. METHODS: All oncology drugs approved by the European Medicines Agency (2007-2016) were included. Phase II and phase III trials were matched based on indication and treatment and patient characteristics. Reported objective response rates (ORR), median progression-free survival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS) were analysed through weighted mixed-effects regression with previous treatment, treatment regimen, blinding, randomization, marketing authorization type and cancer type as covariates. RESULTS: A total of 81 phase II-III matches were identified including 252 trials. Mean (standard deviation) weighted difference (phase III minus II) was -4.2% (17.4) for ORR, 2.1 (6.7) months for PFS and -0.3 (5.1) months for OS, indicating very small average differences between phases. Differences varied substantially between individual indications: from -46.6% to 47.3% for ORR, from -5.3 to 35.9 months for PFS and from -13.3 to 10.8 months for OS. All covariates except blinding were associated with differences in effect sizes for at least 1 outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of marked average differences between phases may encourage decision-makers to regard the quality of design and total body of evidence instead of differentiating between phases of clinical development. The large variability emphasizes that replication of study findings remains essential to confirm efficacy of oncology drugs and discern variables associated with demonstrated effects.

5.
Value Health ; 23(1): 10-16, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health technology assessment (HTA) plays an important role in reimbursement decision-making in many countries, but recommendations vary widely throughout jurisdictions, even for the same drug. This variation may be due to differences in the weighing of evidence or differences in the processes or procedures, which are known as HTA practices. OBJECTIVE: To provide insight into the effects of differences in practices on interpretation of intercountry differences in HTA recommendations for conditionally approved drugs. METHODS: HTA recommendations for conditionally approved drugs (N = 27) up until June 2017 from England/Wales, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Scotland were included. Recommendations and practice characteristics were extracted from these five jurisdictions and this data was validated. The effect of nonsubmissions, resubmissions, and reassessments; cost-effectiveness assessments; and price negotiations on changes in the percentage of negative recommendations and the interpretation of intercountry differences in HTA outcomes were analyzed using Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: The inclusion of cost-effectiveness assessments led to significant increases in the proportion of negative recommendations in England/Wales (from 4% to 50%, P<.01) and Scotland (from 21% to 71%, P<.01). The subsequent inclusion of price negotiations led to significant reductions in the proportion of negative recommendations in England/Wales (from 50% to 14%, P<.01), France (from 31% to 3%, P=.012), and Germany (from 34% to 0%, P<.01). Results indicated that the inclusion of nonsubmissions and resubmissions might affect Scottish negative HTA recommendations (from 7% to 21%), but this effect was not significant. No significant effects were observed in the Netherlands, possibly owing to sample size. CONCLUSION: Variations in HTA practices between international jurisdictions can have a substantial and significant impact on conclusions about recommendations by HTA bodies, as exemplified in this cohort of conditionally approved products. Studies comparing international HTA recommendations should carefully consider possible practice variations between jurisdictions.

6.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 107(1): 287-294, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506933

RESUMO

We aimed to quantify the effects of antidepressant (AD) use in oral anticoagulant (OAC)-treated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using the Stockholm Healthcare database, we analyzed AF patients initiated with an OAC. Outcomes were severe bleeds and strokes and were analyzed using Cox models. We included 17,210 patients claiming warfarin and 13,385 claiming a non-vitamin K OAC. The number of patients that claimed an AD during follow-up was 4,303. Concomitant OAC and AD use was associated with increased rates of severe bleeds (4.7 vs. 2.7 per 100 person-years) compared with OAC treatment alone (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.42, confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.80), but not significantly associated with increased stroke rates (3.5 vs. 2.1 per 100 person-years, aHR 1.23, CI: 0.93-1.62). No significant differences in risks were observed between different OAC classes or different AD classes. In conclusion, concomitant use of an OAC and an AD is associated with an increased bleeding risk.

7.
Palliat Med ; 34(4): 493-503, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many countries, the consumption of opioid medicines is too low to meet population needs. Discussions within the Access To Opioid Medication in Europe project indicated that there may be significant differences in the perception of barriers for their adequate use, depending on the stakeholders. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the perception of barriers and their impact concerning opioid medicines, comparing policy makers, healthcare professionals working in the field of pain management, palliative care or harm reduction and other stakeholders. DESIGN: Data were collected using a questionnaire partially constructed from existing surveys, reviewed for content validity by four experts and pilot-tested in Latvia. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Participants of the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe national conferences were invited to complete the questionnaire. Stakeholder groups were compared using non-parametric rank-sum tests. RESULTS: In total, 199 participants (54%) in seven countries completed the questionnaire. Most frequently rated major barriers included lack of financial resources and inadequate knowledge, skills and training among policy makers (55%-66%). Overall, policy makers perceived issues less often as major barriers or having major impact (29% barrier, 32% impact) compared to other stakeholders (36%-42% barrier, 39%-51% impact). Significant differences were seen on several aspects. For example, excessive regulation or bureaucracy for prescribing was rated as having major impact by 55%-57% of healthcare professionals in contrast to only 20% of the policy makers (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Multiple barriers may play an important role, partly depending on the perspective of the stakeholder involved. Hence, when addressing perceived barriers, it is important to include all relevant stakeholder groups. Only then, effective and widely supported solutions can be implemented.

8.
Transfus Med Rev ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761652

RESUMO

Blood products of human origin are essential treatment options for several diseases, for example, hemophilia. We studied the alignment of national essential medicines lists (NEMLs) of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with the World Health Organization (WHO) Model List for the selection of blood products of human origin. The most recent versions of NEMLs from all LMICs were studied for the inclusion of blood products of human origin (blood and blood components, plasma products, and immunoglobulins). Data obtained from 105 NEMLs were compared to the 2017 WHO Model List. The median number of blood products of human origin on the NEMLs was 4 (range: 0-10). Immunoglobulins were most frequently included (73%). Blood and blood components were the least selected products (15%). The uptake of plasma products was around 50%. Nine countries did not have any blood products of human origin on their NEMLs. Some NEMLs included blood products not listed on the WHO Model List (albumin, hepatitis A immunoglobulin, and cryoprecipitate). We observed variation in selection according to WHO region, income level, and year of NEML update. Alignment of NEMLs with the WHO Model List varied greatly for different groups of blood products, ranging from good uptake for immunoglobulins, reasonable uptake for plasma products, to poor uptake for blood and blood components. This heterogeneity in selection and inclusion of blood products of human origin on NEMLs may be partly explained as being due to specific country characteristics, but some of it may not be explained. Policy makers need to rely on evidence in making decisions about which blood products to select, include, and remove on their NEMLs.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665368

RESUMO

AIMS: To analyze 90-day mortality in AF patients after a stroke or a severe bleed and assess associations with the type of antithrombotic treatment at the event. METHODS AND RESULTS: From the Stockholm Healthcare database, we selected 6 017 patients with a known history of AF who were diagnosed with ischemic stroke, 3 006 with intracranial hemorrhage, and 4 291 with a severe gastrointestinal bleed (GIB). The 90-day mortality rates were 25.1% after ischemic stroke, 31.6% after intracranial hemorrhage, and 16.2% after severe GIB. We used Cox regression and propensity score matched analyses to test the association between antithrombotic treatment at the event and 90-day mortality. After intracranial hemorrhage, there was a significantly higher mortality rate in warfarin compared to NOAC treated patients (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.36 CI: 1.04 - 1.78). After an ischemic stroke and a severe GIB, patients receiving antiplatelets or no antithrombotic treatment had significantly higher mortality rates compared to patients on NOACs, but there was no difference comparing warfarin to NOACs (aHR 0.84 CI: 0.63 - 1.12 after ischemic stroke, aHR 0.91 CI: 0.66 - 1.25 after severe GIB). Propensity score matched analysis yielded similar results. CONCLUSION: Mortality rates were high in AF patients suffering from an ischemic stroke, an intracranial hemorrhage, or a severe GIB. NOAC treatment was associated with a lower 90 day mortality after intracranial hemorrhage than warfarin.

10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 536, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are moving towards enforcing prescription-only access to antibiotics. This systematic literature review aims to assess the interventions used to enforce existing legislation prohibiting over-the-counter (OTC) sales of antibiotics in LMICs, their impact and examine the methods chosen for impact measurement including their strengths and weaknesses. METHODS: Both PubMed and Embase were systematically searched for studies reporting on impact measurement in moving towards prescription only access to antibiotics in LMICs. The PRISMA methodological review framework was used to ensure systematic data collection and analysis of literature. Narrative data synthesis was used due to heterogeneity of study designs. RESULTS: In total, 15 studies were included that assessed policy impact in 10 different countries. Strategies employed to enforce regulations prohibiting OTC sales of systemic antibiotics included retention of prescriptions for antibiotics by pharmacies, government inspections, engaging pharmacists in the design of interventions, media campaigns for the general public and educational activities for health care workers. A variety of outcomes was used to assess the policy impact; changes in antimicrobial resistance rates, changes in levels of antibiotic use, changes in trends of antibiotic use, changes in OTC supply of antibiotics, and changes in reported practices and knowledge of pharmacists, medicine sellers and the general public. Differences in methodological approaches and outcome assessment made it difficult to compare the effectiveness of law enforcement activities. Most effective appeared to be multifaceted approaches that involved all stakeholders. Monitoring of the impact on total sales of antibiotics by means of an interrupted time series (ITS) analysis and analysis of pharmacies selling antibiotics OTC using mystery clients were the methodologically strongest designs used. CONCLUSIONS: The published literature describing activities to enforce prescription-only access to antibiotics in LMICs is sparse and offers limited guidance. Most likely to be effective are comprehensive multifaceted interventions targeting all stakeholders with regular reinforcement of messages. Policy evaluation should be planned as part of implementation to assess the impact and effectiveness of intervention strategies and to identify targets for further activities. Robust study designs such as ITS analyses and mystery client surveys should be used to monitor policy impact.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Aplicação da Lei , Legislação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 445, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a nucleotide analogue recommended in international HIV treatment guidelines. Purpose of this study was to estimate the long term effects of TDF on renal profile in a cohort of HIV patients in Ghana. Three hundred (300) consecutive HIV-positive patients who initiated TDF-based antiretroviral treatment in 2008 at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital were sampled. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation at baseline and renal impairment was defined as CrCl values of 30.0-49.9 mL/min (moderate renal impairment) and < 30 mL/min (severe renal impairment) as per institutional guidelines for renal function test. RESULTS: Median follow up time was 2.9 years (IQR 2.3-3.4 years). At study endpoint, 63 participants (21.0% [95% CI 6.5-26.1]) recorded CrCl rate below 50 mL/min indicating incident renal impairment, made up of 18.3% moderate renal impairment and 2.3% severe renal impairment. Factors associated with incidence of renal impairment were increasing age, decrease in creatinine clearance rate at baseline, WHO HIV stage III/IV and participants with BMI of < 18.5 kg/m2. Patients with identified renal impairment risk factors at ART initiation should be targeted and monitored effectively to prevent renal injury.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal/diagnóstico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Rim/virologia , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal/fisiopatologia , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos
12.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 68, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The valuation of medicines as health needs vary depending on the stakeholders involved (users, prescribers, managers, etc.) and their expectations. These factors modulate the role of medicines as a health need and influence access to medicines, and could be useful to explain the rising of Judicialization of access to medicines. AIM: To conduct a comparative analysis of the causes and consequences of judicialization of access to medicines in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Chile from the perspective of medicines as health needs. METHODS: A qualitative, cross-country study was carried out in these 4 countries. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 representatives of the different stakeholders involved in the judicialization of access to medicines, including Executive branch, Judiciary, health system managers, patient organizations. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis used a framework approach based on the theoretical model for medicines as health needs. FINDINGS: Representatives from Argentina, Brazil and Colombia considered judicialization of access to medicines as a widespread phenomenon in their respective countries. Meanwhile in Chile, the respondents highlighted that most lawsuits related to the right to health were filed against private insurers because of unjustified increases in the insurance premiums. The comparative analysis showed that judicialization of access to medicines emerged in the four countries regardless of the constitutional protection or the health system population coverage. Among the causes were mentioned difficulties in guaranteeing access to covered medicines and the influence of pharmaceutical marketing on needs assessment and prescription behaviours. The interviewees highlighted the pressure to health system managers to fulfil their responsibilities as a positive impact of litigation. In contrast, the funding of medicines without evidence of efficacy or safety was considered a negative impact. Only in Brazil, judicialization has had impact on R&D policies. In Colombia, litigation also encouraged the recognition of the right to health as a fundamental right and the development of policies for controlling medicines prices. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that applying the adopted theoretical model creates the possibility of identifying critical points to guide policy makers to improve the health systems performances and to control lawsuits for access to medicines.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Legislação de Medicamentos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 105(2): 426-435, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969839

RESUMO

When medicines are granted a Conditional Marketing Authorisation (CMA) in Europe, specific obligations are requested to obtain comprehensive data on benefits and risks. We performed a retrospective cohort study to characterize obligations, examine changes to their description and due dates after initial authorization, determine timing of data submission relative to due dates, and identify drug-related, procedure-related, and obligation-related factors associated with change. We identified 69 obligations for 26 medicines conditionally authorized between 2006 and 2016. We found 39 changes to 27 obligations (39% of obligations), of which four substantially changed the obligation. For 55% of obligations, data submission was delayed. Eleven factors were associated with change, including the use of CMA as a rescue option. The results are potentially indicative of a continuous search by regulators to reduce uncertainties. Submission delays impact public health negatively by prolonging exposure of patients to unknown risks, particularly when the level of uncertainty is high.


Assuntos
Aprovação de Drogas/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Estudos de Coortes , Rotulagem de Medicamentos , União Europeia , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 105(3): 684-691, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300938

RESUMO

This study assessed whether five Health Technology Assessment (HTA) bodies in Europe were more negative about drugs with a Conditional Marketing Authorization (CMA) that are approved without controlled studies compared to CMA drugs that are approved based on controlled studies. The HTA recommendations were categorized into positive, restricted, and negative. A total of 92 HTA recommendations were available for 27 drugs. Thirty of 62 (48%) and 17 of 30 (57%) of the recommendations were negative for drugs with and without controlled studies, respectively. Overall, only 12 (13%) recommendations were positive. In all jurisdictions, recommendations between drugs with and drugs without controlled data were comparable, which suggests that the presence of controlled data is not decisive in HTA evaluations. The small proportion of unrestricted positive recommendations highlights difficulties with recommending the drugs in this cohort, which may be caused by scientific uncertainty or other factors. Earlier collaboration between stakeholders is advised in order to improve patient access.


Assuntos
Aprovação de Drogas/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/normas
16.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 85(4): 715-721, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593087

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate post-marketing label changes in dosing information of biologicals. METHODS: Biologicals authorized between 2007 and 2014 by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) were included and followed up from marketing authorization until 31 December 2016 or date of withdrawal of the marketing authorization. The primary outcome of the study was defined as label change in dosing information for the initially approved indication. Incidence of changes, type of change and mean time to change were assessed. As a secondary outcome, label changes in dosing information for extended indications were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 71 biologicals were included. Dosing information in the label changed for the initial indication during follow-up for eight products (11%). In one of the eight products the change concerned an increase in dose. Also, a change in dosing frequency was identified in three products, for one product a recommendation was added that therapy could be initiated with or without a loading dose, and for one product the minimum dose was removed and a maximum dose was added. For the remaining product the dose was decreased due to safety issues. For 30 products (42%) the indication was extended at least once. No changes in dosing information were observed for the extended indications (n = 59) during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that in 11% of the biologicals, the dosing for the initial indication in the label was changed. In contrast to small molecules, the dose was rarely reduced for safety reasons.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1384, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is a major challenge for pharmacovigilance in Africa. This study sets out to assess the level of awareness of Ghanaian patients about ADRs and ADR-reporting and explores how different patients in Ghana recognize an ADR and the steps they take when they experience an ADR. METHODS: This was a two-part study consisting of a survey to quantify the awareness of Ghanaian patients on ADRs and ADR-reporting, and in-depth interviews to explore how patients recognize an ADR and the steps they take thereafter. Participants were selected from 28 health care facilities (HCF) in rural and urban areas in 4 out of the 10 administrative regions of Ghana. Chi-square tests were used to examine associations between demographic variables and i) awareness of ADRs and ADR-reporting, ii) ADR experience and iii) awareness of the Ghana Food and Drug Authority (Ghana-FDA) and its patient reporting system (PRS). Only participants that indicated they experienced an ADR were included for the in-depth interviews. Data was investigated for participants' awareness of ADRs, ADR reporting and steps taken when they experience ADRs. RESULTS: Of the total 572 participants enrolled in the study, 14% indicated they were unaware of ADRs and were excluded. Of the remaining 491 participants, 38% had experienced an ADR, of which 67% reported the ADR, 68% of them reported it to a doctor. Only 3% of the 491 participants were aware of the Ghana-FDA's PRS. The interview phase consisted of 33 patients who had experienced an ADR. Three key findings from the interview phase were; most participants recognized an ADR themselves, the symptoms of the ADR were the most mentioned reason for reporting and participants experienced a wide variety of obstacles in ADR-reporting. CONCLUSIONS: Most Ghanaian patients appear unaware of or unable/unwilling to use formal national channels for ADR reporting like the Ghana-FDA PRS. Motivation for ADR reporting appeared mainly personal and not communal. These findings warrant further attention in order to increase patient reporting of ADRs.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pacientes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacovigilância , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 1243, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429791

RESUMO

Background: Drug shortages are a potential threat to public health. Reliable data on drug shortages is limited. The objective was to examine the extent and nature of potential drug shortages signaled by authorities and pharmacy practice in the Netherlands Materials and Methods: The primary working systems of Dutch authorities (Medicines Evaluation Board and Health and Youth Care Inspectorate) and the archives of pharmacy practice (Royal Dutch Pharmacists Association) from 2012 to 2015 were searched for number, characteristics, overlap, and date of signals on potential drug shortages. Also, the product characteristics of the potential drug shortages were analyzed from the two different sources Results: Authorities detected 2.6 times more signals on potential shortages than pharmacy practice. Only 438 (8%) out of 5,731 potential drug shortages were detected by both authorities and pharmacy practice. Signals were detected later by authorities than by pharmacy practice, especially on potential permanent shortages (median difference -180 days (IQR: -4 to -405 days)). Authorities detected by majority (72%) signals related to permanent shortages with relative overrepresentation of rectal products and anti-infectives for systemic use. In contrast, pharmacy practice detected by majority (71%) signals related to temporary shortages with relative overrepresentation of ocular and cutaneous products, anti-infectives for systemic use, products for sensory organs and dermatologicals. Conclusions: Authorities and pharmacy practice detected different signals on potential drug shortages with little overlap. Combining data from both authorities and pharmacy practice seems to be necessary in order to gain a more complete overview and maximum insight in potential drug shortages at a national level. Moreover, the finding that authorities were informed later than pharmacy practice causes concerns in terms of opportunities for authorities to assist pharmacy practice to find solutions for shortages.

19.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1322, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: European legislation prohibits direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines, but allows drug manufacturers to provide information to the public on health and diseases. Our aim was to measure the frequency of disease awareness campaigns in Latvian media and assess their compliance with international and European standards. METHODS: Materials on health/disease and treatments were collected between April and September 2015 from 12 newspapers and magazines and six online portals. Disease awareness campaigns were assessed using a previously developed instrument based on the WHO Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug promotion and European standards (EU law and pharmaceutical industry self-regulatory guidelines). Collected materials were used to examine the information provided on medical conditions and their diagnosis and treatment. The inter-rater reliability was calculated. RESULTS: We collected 263 materials from print (n = 149) and online media (n = 114); 94 were news items and 169 were disease-awareness advertisements. Cancer, cardiovascular problems, allergies and respiratory diseases were common topics. Of the 157 campaigns assessed, non-compliance was identified in 149 cases (inter-rater reliability 90%), mainly due to misleading or incomplete information, lack of balance and the absence of a listed author/sponsor. Six disease awareness campaigns directly mentioned a pharmaceutical product by brand name and other four included the logo or name of a manufacturer, referred to a condition and indirectly mentioned a treatment, all in contravention with European law. CONCLUSIONS: The compliance of disease awareness campaigns in Latvian media with international and European standards is low. This raises concerns about the nature of information being conveyed. Through lack of balance, missing sponsorship information, and misleading or incomplete information, these campaigns could contribute to inaccurate self-diagnosis and generate demand among those who might not need medical treatment.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/ética , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Estudos Transversais , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Farmacêutica , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Internet , Letônia , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
20.
Stroke ; 49(9): 2122-2128, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354995

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of improved antithrombotic treatment in atrial fibrillation after the introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants on the incidence of stroke and bleeding in a real-life total population, including both primary and secondary care. Methods- All resident and alive patients with a recorded diagnosis for atrial fibrillation during the preceding 5 years in the Stockholm County Healthcare database (Vårdanalysdatabasen) were followed for clinical outcomes during 2012 (n=41 008) and 2017 (n=49 510). Results- Pharmacy claims for oral anticoagulants increased from 51.6% to 73.8% (78.7% among those with CHA2DS2-VASc ≥2). Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant claims increased from 0.4% to 34.4%. Ischemic stroke incidence rates decreased from 2.01 per 100 person-years in 2012 to 1.17 in 2017 (incidence rate ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.52-0.65). The largest increases in oral anticoagulants use and decreases in ischemic strokes were seen in patients aged ≥80 years who had the highest risk of stroke and bleeding. The incidence rates for major bleeding (2.59) remained unchanged (incidence rate ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.92-1.09) even in those with a high bleeding risk. Poisson regression showed that 10% of the absolute ischemic stroke reduction was associated with increased oral anticoagulants treatment, whereas 27% was related to a generally decreased risk for all stroke. Conclusions- Increased oral anticoagulants use contributed to a marked reduction of ischemic strokes without increasing bleeding rates between 2012 and 2017. The largest stroke reduction was seen in elderly patients with the highest risks for stroke and bleeding. These findings strongly support the adoption of current guideline recommendations for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation in both primary and secondary care.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
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