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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791361

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B) is characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia due to PTH-resistance in the proximal renal tubules. Maternal pathogenic STX16/GNAS variants leading to maternal epigenetic GNAS changes impair expression of the stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit (Gsα) thereby causing autosomal dominant PHP1B (AD-PHP1B). In contrast, genetic defects responsible for sporadic PHP1B (sporPHP1B) remain mostly unknown. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether PHP1B encountered after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) causes GNAS re-methylation defects similar to those in sporPHP1B. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. RESULTS: Nine among thirty-six sporPHP1B patients investigated since 2000, all with LOM at the three maternal GNAS DMRs and gain-of-methylation (GOM) at the paternal NESP DMR, had been conceived through IVF or ICSI. Besides abnormal GNAS methylation, IVF/ICSI-PHP1B cases revealed no additional imprinting defects. Three of these PHP1B patients have dizygotic twins and four have IVF/ICSI-conceived siblings, all with normal GNAS methylation; two unaffected younger siblings were conceived naturally. CONCLUSION: Sporadic and IVF/ICSI-conceived PHP1B patients revealed indistinguishable epigenetic changes at all four GNAS DMRs thus suggesting a similar underlying disease mechanism. Given that re-methylation at the three maternal DMRs occurs during oogenesis, male factors are unlikely to cause LOM post-fertilization. Instead, at least some of the sporPHP1B variants could be caused by a defect(s) in an oocyte-expressed gene that is required for fertility and for re-establishing maternal GNAS methylation imprints. It remains uncertain, however, whether lack of GNAS re-methylation alone impairs oocyte maturation because of insufficient Gsα expression, thus necessitating Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) for conception.

2.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 421, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) or pseudo-hypoparathyroidism (pseudo-HypoPT) during pregnancy may cause maternal and fetal/neonatal complications. In this regard, only a few case reports or case series of pregnant or lactating women have been published. The purpose of this study was to describe clinical and biochemical course, pharmacological management, and potential adverse events during pregnancy and post-partum in pregnant women with HypoPT or pseudo-HypoPT. This was a retrospective, observational, multicenter, study involving nine Italian referral centers for endocrine diseases affiliated with the Italian Society of Endocrinology and involved in "Hypoparathyroidism Working Group". RESULTS: This study identified a cohort of 28 women (followed between 2005 and 2018) with HypoPT (n = 25, 84% postsurgical, 16% idiopathic/autoimmune) and pseudo-HypoPT (n = 3). In HypoPT women, the mean calcium carbonate dose tended to increase gradually from the first to third trimester (+ 12.6%) in pregnancy. This average increase in the third trimester was significantly greater compared to the pre-pregnancy period (p value = 0.03). However, analyzing the individual cases, in 44% the mean calcium dosage remained unchanged throughout gestation. Mean calcitriol doses tended to increase during pregnancy, with a statistically significant increase between the third trimester and the pre-pregnancy period (p value = 0.02). Nevertheless, analyzing the individual cases, in the third trimester most women with HypoPT (64%) maintained the same dosage of calcitriol compared to the first trimester. Both mean calcium carbonate and calcitriol doses tended to decrease from the third trimester to the post-partum six months. Most identified women (~ 70%) did not display maternal complications and (~ 90%) maintained mean serum albumin-corrected total calcium levels within the low-to-mid normal reference range (8.5 ± 0.8 mg/dl) during pregnancy. The main complications related to pregnancy period included: preterm birth (n = 3 HypoPT women), and history of miscarriages (n = 6 HypoPT women and n = 2 pseudo-HypoPT women). CONCLUSION: This study shows that mean serum albumin-corrected total calcium levels were carefully monitored during pregnancy and post-pregnancy, with limited evaluation of other biochemical parameters, such as serum phosphate, 24 h urinary calcium, 25-OH vitamin D, and creatinine clearance. To avoid complications in mothers affected by (HypoPT) or (pseudo-HypoPT) and offspring, intense biochemical, clinical and pharmacological monitoring during pregnancy and breastfeeding is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Hipoparatireoidismo , Nascimento Prematuro , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoparatireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Lactação , Gravidez
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439178

RESUMO

Cushing's Disease (CD) is a rare condition characterized by an overproduction of ACTH by an ACTH-secreting pituitary tumor, resulting in an excess of cortisol release by the adrenal glands. Somatic mutations in the deubiquitinases USP8 and USP48, and in BRAF genes, have been reported in a subset of patients affected by CD. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic profile of a cohort of 60 patients with ACTH-secreting tumors, searching for somatic mutations in USP8, USP48, and BRAF hotspot regions. Seven patients were found to carry USP8 somatic mutations in the well-characterized 14-3-3 protein binding motif (n = 5 P720R, n = 1 P720Q, n = 1 S718del); 2 patients were mutated in USP48 (M415I); no mutation was identified in BRAF. In addition, a novel USP8 variant, G664R, located in exon 14, upstream of the 14-3-3 protein binding motif, was identified in 1 patient. Functional characterization of USP8 G664R variant was performed in murine corticotroph tumor AtT-20 cells. Transient transfection with the USP8 G664R variant resulted in a significant increase of ACTH release and cell proliferation (+114.5 ± 53.6% and +28.3 ± 2.6% vs. empty vector transfected cells, p < 0.05, respectively). Notably, USP8 proteolytic cleavage was enhanced in AtT-20 cells transfected with G664R USP8 (1.86 ± 0.58-fold increase of N-terminal USP8 fragment, vs. WT USP8, p < 0.05). Surprisingly, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) experiments showed a significant reduction of PLA positive spots, indicating USP8/14-3-3 proteins colocalization, in G664R USP8 transfected cells with respect to WT USP8 transfected cells (-47.9 ± 6.6%, vs. WT USP8, p < 0.001). No significant difference in terms of ACTH secretion, cell proliferation and USP8 proteolytic cleavage, and 14-3-3 proteins interaction was observed between G664R USP8 and S718del USP8 transfected cells. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that, contrary to S718del USP8 but similarly to WT USP8 and other USP8 mutants, G664R USP8 displays an exclusive cytoplasmic localization. In conclusion, somatic mutations were found in USP8 (13.3% vs. 36.5% incidence of all published mutations) and USP48 (3.3% vs. 13.3% incidence) hotspot regions. A novel USP8 variant was identified in a CD patient, and in vitro functional studies in AtT-20 cells suggested that this somatic variant might be clinically relevant in ACTH-secreting tumor pathogenesis, expanding the characterization of USP8 functional domains.

4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 698963, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335473

RESUMO

Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are rare benign pseudotumoral bone lesions with potential aggressive behavior due to the extensive destruction of surrounding bone. Traditionally, these tumors were treated with open surgery, but there is more and more a shift to less invasive procedures. In particular, treatment for spinal ABCs is generally unsatisfactory due to the risk of morbidity, neurological impairment and recurrence, and there is a need for innovative therapies. Denosumab has been reported as a useful treatment in giant cell tumors of bone (GCTB), so its efficacy has been tested also in other fibro-osseus lesions affecting children and adolescents, such as spinal aneurysmal bone cysts. The pediatric literature is limited to case reports and small series, all of which highlight the efficacy of this treatment on lesions growth and associated bone pain. Some of these reports have already reported well known side effects associated with denosumab, such as hypocalcemia at the beginning of the treatment, and rebound hypercalcemia at the discontinuation. The latter seems to be more frequent in children and adolescents than in adults, probably due to the higher baseline bone turnover in children. In addition, the use of denosumab in young patients could affect both bone modeling and remodeling, even if the consequences on the growing skeleton have not been reported in detail. Here we describe the case of a spinal ABC diagnosed in an 8-year old young boy which was not accessible to surgery but responded favorably to denosumab. Our aim is to describe the rapid changes in mineral and bone homeostasis in this patient, that required advice from the experts of the European Reference Network (ERN) for rare bone and endocrine diseases.

5.
J Neurosurg Sci ; 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal surgery (ETNS) for pituitary adenomas (PAs), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage remains a life-threatening complication predisposing to major morbidity and mortality. In the current study we developed a supervised ML model able to predict the risk of intraoperative CSF leakage by comparing different machine learning (ML) methods and explaining the functioning and the rationale of the best performing algorithm. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 238 patients treated via E-TNS for PAs was selected. A customized pipeline of several ML models was programmed and trained; the best five models were tested on a hold-out test and the best classifier was then prospectively validated on a cohort of 35 recently treated patients. RESULTS: Intraoperative CSF leak occurred in 54 (22,6%) of 238 patients. The most important risk's predictors were: non secreting status, older age, x-, y- and z-axes diameters, ostedural invasiveness, volume, ICD and R-ratio. The random forest (RF) classifier outperformed other models, with an AUC of 0.84, high sensitivity (86%) and specificity (88%). Positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 88% and 80% respectively. F1 score was 0.84. Prospective validation confirmed outstanding performance metrics: AUC (0,81), sensitivity (83%), specificity (79%), negative predictive value (95%) and F1 score (0,75). CONCLUSIONS: The RF classifier showed the best performance across all models selected. RF models might predict surgical outcomes in heterogeneous multimorbid and fragile populations outperforming classical statistical analyses and other ML models (SVM, ANN etc.), improving patient management and reducing preventable morbidity and additional costs.

6.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 17(9): 560-571, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194011

RESUMO

The pharmacological treatment of pituitary tumours is based on the use of stable analogues of somatostatin and dopamine. The analogues bind to somatostatin receptor types 2 and 5 (SST2 and SST5) and dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2), respectively, and generate signal transduction cascades in cancerous pituitary cells that culminate in the inhibition of hormone secretion, cell growth and invasion. Drug resistance occurs in a subset of patients and can involve different steps at different stages, such as following receptor activation by the agonist or during the final biological responses. Although the expression of somatostatin and dopamine receptors in cancer cells is a prerequisite for these drugs to reach a biological effect, their presence does not guarantee the success of the therapy. Successful therapy also requires the proper functioning of the machinery of signal transduction and the finely tuned regulation of receptor desensitization, internalization and intracellular trafficking. The present Review provides an updated overview of the molecular factors underlying the pharmacological resistance of pituitary tumours. The Review discusses the experimental evidence that supports a role for receptors and intracellular proteins in the function of SSTs and DRD2 and their clinical importance.


Assuntos
Adenoma/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/fisiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/tratamento farmacológico , Adenoma/patologia , Animais , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/fisiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 687539, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305814

RESUMO

Background: Ectopic adrenocorticotropic syndrome (EAS) is a rare cause of endogenous ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, usually associated with severe hypercortisolism as well as comorbidities. Tumor detection is still a challenge and often requires several imaging procedures. In this report, we describe a case of an ectopic ACTH secretion with a misleading localization of the responsible tumor due to a concomitant rectal carcinoma. Case presentation: A 49-year-old man was referred to our Endocrinology Unit due to suspicion of Cushing's syndrome. His medical history included metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma, diagnosed 5 years ago and treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical resection. During follow-up, a thoracic computed tomography scan revealed two pulmonary nodules located in the superior and middle lobes of the right lung with a diameter of 5 and 10 mm, respectively. However, these nodules remained radiologically stable thereafter and were not considered relevant. All biochemical tests were suggestive of EAS (basal ACTH levels: 88.2 ng/L, nv 0-46; basal cortisol levels: 44.2 µg/dl, nv 4.8-19.5; negative response to CRH test and high dose dexamethasone suppression test) and radiological localization of the ectopic ACTH-secreting tumor was scheduled. The CT scan revealed a dimensional increase of the right superior lung nodule (from 5 to 12 mm). [68Ga]-DOTA-TOC PET/CT scan was negative, while [18F]-FDG-PET/CT showed a tracer accumulation in the superior nodule. After a multidisciplinary consultation, the patient underwent thoracic surgery that started with two atypical wedge resections of nodules. Frozen section analyses showed a neuroendocrine tumor on the right middle lobe nodule and a metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma on the superior lesion. Then, a right superior nodulectomy and a right middle lobectomy with mediastinal lymphadenectomy were performed. The final histopathological examination confirmed a typical carcinoid tumor, strongly positive for ACTH. A post-surgical follow-up showed a persistent remission of Cushing's syndrome. Conclusions: The present report describes a case of severe hypercortisolism due to EAS not detected by functional imaging methods, in which the localization of ACTH ectopic origin was puzzled by a concomitant metastatic rectal carcinoma. The multidisciplinary approach was crucial for the management of this rare disease.

8.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(2): 289-297, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081617

RESUMO

Objective: High insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and unsuppressed growth hormone (GH) levels after glucose load confirm the diagnosis of acromegaly. Management of patients with conflicting results could be challenging. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical and hormonal evolution over a long follow-up in patients with high IGF-1 but normal GH nadir (GHn < 0.4 µg/L according to the latest guidelines). Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: We enrolled 53 patients presenting high IGF-1 and GHn < 0.4 µg/L, assessed because of clinical suspicion of acromegaly or in other endocrinological contexts (e.g. pituitary incidentaloma). Clinical and hormonal data collected at the first and last visit were analyzed. Results: At the first evaluation, the mean age was 54.1 ± 15.4 years, 34/53 were females, median IGF-1 and GHn were +3.1 SDS and 0.06 µg/L, respectively. In the whole group, over a median time of 6 years, IGF-1 and GHn levels did not significantly change (IGF-1 mean of differences: -0.58, P = 0.15; GHn +0.03, P = 0.29). In patients with clinical features of acromegaly, the prevalence of acromegalic comorbidities was higher than in the others (median of 3 vs 1 comorbidities per patient, P = 0.005), especially malignancies (36% vs 6%, P = 0.03), and the clinical worsening overtime was more pronounced (4 vs 1 comorbidities at the last visit). Conclusions: In patients presenting high IGF-1 but GHn < 0.4 µg/L, a hormonal progression is improbable, likely excluding classical acromegaly in its early stage. However, despite persistently low GH nadir values, patients with acromegalic features present more acromegalic comorbidities whose rate increases over time. Close clinical surveillance of this group is advised.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Acromegalia/sangue , Acromegalia/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hormônios/sangue , Hormônios/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 28(8): 573-582, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086599

RESUMO

Cushing's disease (CD) is a rare endocrine disorder caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumor. Pasireotide is the only pituitary-targeted drug approved for adult patients. Nevertheless, many side effects are encountered and curative therapy is still challenging. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8) plays a crucial role in the modulation of corticotroph cells growth and ACTH secretion. Here, we explored the anticancer potential of the USP8 inhibitor RA-9 in USP8-WT human tumor corticotroph cells and murine AtT-20 cells. Our results showed that RA-9 causes cell proliferation decrease (-24.3 ± 5.2%, P < 0.01) and cell apoptosis increase (207.4 ± 75.3%, P < 0.05) in AtT-20 cells, as observed with pasireotide. Moreover, RA-9 reduced ACTH secretion in AtT-20 cells (-34.1 ± 19.5%, P < 0.01), as well as in AtT-20 cells transfected with USP8 mutants, and in one out of two primary cultures in vitro responsive to pasireotide (-40.3 ± 6%). An RA-9 mediated decrease of pERK1/2 levels was observed in AtT-20 cells (-52.3 ± 13.4%, P < 0.001), comparable to pasireotide, and in primary cultures, regardless of their in vitro responsiveness to pasireotide. Upregulation of p27 was detected upon RA-9 treatment only, both in AtT-20 cells (167.1 ± 36.7%, P < 0.05) and in one primary culture tested (168.4%), whilst pCREB level was similarly halved in AtT-20 cells by both RA-9 and pasireotide. Altogether, our data demonstrate that RA-9 is efficient in exerting cytotoxic effects and inhibitory actions on cell proliferation and hormone secretion by modulating the expression of pERK1/2, pCREB and p27. Inhibition of USP8 might represent a novel strategy to target both USP8-WT and USP8-mutated tumors in CD patients.

10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 689887, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108941

RESUMO

Introduction: Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) can be a complication of hypothalamus-pituitary surgery. The use of tolvaptan in this setting is not well established, hence the primary aim of this study was to assess the sodium correction rates attained with tolvaptan compared with standard treatments (fluid restriction and/or hypertonic saline). Furthermore, we compared the length of hospital stay in the two treatment groups and investigated the occurrence of overcorrection and side effects including osmotic demyelination syndrome. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 308 transsphenoidal surgical procedures performed between 2011 and 2019 at our hospital. We selected adult patients who developed post-operative SIAD and recorded sodium monitoring, treatment modalities and outcomes. Correction rates were adjusted based on pre-treatment sodium levels. Results: Twenty-nine patients (9.4%) developed post-operative SIAD. Tolvaptan was administered to 14 patients (median dose 15 mg). Standard treatments were employed in 14 subjects (fluid restriction n=11, hypertonic saline n=1, fluid restriction and hypertonic saline n=2). Tolvaptan yielded higher adjusted sodium correction rates (12.0 mmolL-1/24h and 13.4 mmolL-1/48h) than standard treatments (1.8 mmolL-1/24h, p<0.001, and 4.5 mmolL-1/48h, p=0.004, vs. tolvaptan). The correction rate exceeded 10 mmolL-1/24h or 18 mmolL-1/48h in 9/14 and 2/14 patients treated with tolvaptan, respectively, and in no patient who received standard treatments. No side effects including osmotic demyelination occurred. Tolvaptan was associated with a shorter hospital stay (11vs.15 days, p=0.01). Conclusions: Tolvaptan is more effective than fluid restriction (with or without hypertonic saline) and allows for a shortened hospital stay in patients with SIAD after transsphenoidal surgery. However, its dose and duration should be carefully tailored, and close monitoring is recommended to allow prompt detection of overcorrection.

11.
World Neurosurg ; 151: e880-e887, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the feasibility and reliability of our endoscopic trans-nasal technique for the repair of cribriform and sellar high-flow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. METHODS: A comparison between patients suffering from high-flow rhinorrhea and treated through a free grafting endoscopic technique or the "parachute" technique, our nasal packing proposal, was performed. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were included. The mean age was 52 years (range: 36-68 years). The etiology of the CSF leaks was iatrogenic in 16 cases (48.5%), traumatic in 5 cases (15.2%), spontaneous in 11 cases (33.3%), and related to anterior skull base tumors in 1 case (3%). The bone defect affected the sphenoidal sinus in 20 cases (60.6%), the cribriform plate of the ethmoid in 10 cases (30.3%), and both the sphenoid and ethmoid in 3 cases (9.1%). The mean size of bone defects was 8.5 ± 3.9 mm. The median follow-up was 28 (64) months. A CSF leak recurrence occurred in no cases treated with the parachute technique and in 3 cases that underwent conventional endoscopic treatments. The CSF leak recurrences were associated with 2 iatrogenic and 1 post-traumatic fistula. All the CSF leak recurrences underwent the parachute technique, not showing second recurrences. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the parachute technique is simple, safe, and effective. We recommend it as an alternative treatment to vascular flaps for the treatment of high-flow and recurrent fistulas.


Assuntos
Rinorreia de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/cirurgia , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/métodos , Neuroendoscopia/métodos , Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 531: 111311, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989717

RESUMO

Parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is primarily regulated by extracellular calcium changes, controls calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Different diseases are derived from PTH deficiency (hypoparathyroidism), excess (hyperparathyroidism) and resistance (pseudohypoparathyroidism, PHP). Pseudohypoparathyroidism was historically classified into subtypes according to the presence or not of inherited PTH resistance associated or not with features of Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy and deep and progressive ectopic ossifications. The growing knowledge on the PTH/PTHrP signaling pathway showed that molecular defects affecting different members of this pathway determined distinct, yet clinically related disorders, leading to the proposal of a new nomenclature and classification encompassing all disorders, collectively termed inactivating PTH/PTHrP signaling disorders (iPPSD).

13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(8): e3005-e3020, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780542

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a group of disorders characterized by hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels as a result of end-organ resistance to PTH. OBJECTIVE: To describe a cohort of 26 patients with PHP followed in a single tertiary center. METHODS: Clinical, biochemical, radiological, and genetic analysis of the GNAS gene in 26 patients recruited since 2002. RESULTS: Ten patients harbored a GNAS mutation, 15 epigenetic abnormalities at the GNAS locus, and 1 did not show genetic or epigenetic abnormalities. According to clinical, biochemical, and genetic features, patients were classified as PHP1A, PHP1B, and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism. Patients with PHP1A had an earlier diagnosis and more cases with family history, Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) features, hormonal resistance, and hypertension. Obesity was a common feature. No difference in biochemical values was present among PHP1A and PHP1B. Intracerebral calcification occurred in 72% of patients with no difference among PHP1A and PHP1B subgroups. No significant difference was observed between patients with and without intracerebral calcification for the time-weighted average values of total serum calcium, phosphate, calcium-phosphate product, and PTH fold increase. A borderline association between cerebral calcification and age at the time of diagnosis (P = .04) was found in the whole cohort of patients. No renal calcifications were found in the overall cohort. CONCLUSION: Patients with PHP1A more frequently have AHO features as well as hypertension than patients with PHP1B. Patients with PHP presented a high rate of intracerebral calcification with no significant difference between subgroups. No increased risk of renal calcifications was also found in the entire cohort.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Calcinose/genética , Cromograninas/genética , Subunidades alfa Gs de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Nefropatias/genética , Mutação , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/patologia , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Nefropatias/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/patologia , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neuroendocrinology ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524974

RESUMO

Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) are the most common intracranial neoplasms. Although generally benign, they can show a clinically aggressive course, with local invasion, recurrences and resistance to medical treatment. No universally accepted biomarkers of aggressiveness are available yet, and predicting clinical behavior of PitNETs remains a challenge. In rare cases the presence of germline mutations in specific genes predisposes to PitNETs formation, as part of syndromic diseases or familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA), and associates to more aggressive, invasive and drug resistant tumors. The vast majority of cases is represented by sporadic PitNETs. Somatic mutations in the  subunit of stimulatory G protein gene (gsp) and in the ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) gene have been recognized as pathogenetic factors in sporadic GH- and ACTH-secreting PitNETs, respectively, without an association with a worse clinical phenotype. Other molecular factors have been found to significantly affect PitNETs drug responsiveness and invasive behavior. These molecules are cytoskeleton and/or scaffold proteins whose alterations prevent proper functioning of the somatostatin and dopamine receptors, targets of medical therapy, or promote the ability of tumor cells to invade surrounding tissues. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of the genetic and molecular alterations that can contribute to determine PitNETs clinical behavior. Understanding subcellular mechanisms underlying pituitary tumorigenesis and PitNETs clinical phenotype will hopefully lead to identification of new potential therapeutic targets and new markers predicting the behavior and the response to therapeutic treatments of PitNETs.

16.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 524: 111159, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428965

RESUMO

Somatostatin receptor type 5 (SST5) represents the main pharmacological target in the treatment of adrenocorticotroph hormone (ACTH)-secreting tumors. However, molecular predictors of responsiveness to pasireotide require further investigation. The cytoskeleton protein filamin A (FLNA) modulates the responsiveness to somatostatin analogs (SSA) treatment in other types of pituitary tumors by regulating somatostatin receptor type 2 (SST2)/dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2) expression and activity. Here, we aimed to test the involvement of FLNA in the modulation of SST5 response to SSA in human and murine tumor corticotrophs. Western blot analysis of human corticotropinomas showed that FLNA and SST5 correlate. Both in human primary cultures and AtT-20 cells, FLNA genetic silencing caused a decrease of receptor expression level. Moreover, pasireotide-mediated SST5 downregulation observed in AtT-20 control cells was no further detected in FLNA silenced cells. In AtT-20 cells, in situ PLA experiments revealed an increased number of SST5-FLNA complexes following pasireotide incubation. Finally, FLNA knock down abolished pasireotide-induced SST5 actions on hormone secretion, cell proliferation and apoptosis. In conclusion, FLNA is implicated in SST5 expression modulation and signaling.


Assuntos
Corticotrofos/metabolismo , Filaminas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/metabolismo , Receptores de Somatostatina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Inativação Gênica , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica , Somatostatina/metabolismo
17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(3): e1354-e1361, 2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107576

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a global health emergency, and infected patients with chronic diseases often present with a severe impairment. Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is supposed to be associated with an increased infection risk, which could trigger an adrenal crisis. OBJECTIVE: Our primary aim was to evaluate the incidence of COVID-19 symptoms and complications in AI patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a retrospective case-control study. All patients were on active follow-up and lived in Lombardy, Italy, one of the most affected areas. PATIENTS: We enrolled 279 patients with primary and secondary AI and 112 controls (patients with benign pituitary lesions without hormonal alterations). All AI patients had been previously trained to modify their replacement therapy on stress doses. INTERVENTION: By administering a standardized questionnaire by phone, we collected data on COVID-19 suggestive symptoms and consequences. RESULTS: In February through April 2020, the prevalence of symptomatic patients (complaining at least 1 symptom of viral infection) was similar between the 2 groups (24% in AI and 22.3% in controls, P = 0.79). Highly suggestive COVID-19 symptoms (at least 2 including fever and/or cough) also occurred equally in AI and controls (12.5% in both groups). No patient required hospitalization and no adrenal crisis was reported. Few nasopharyngeal swabs were performed (n = 12), as indicated by sanitary regulations, limiting conclusions on the exact infection rate (2 positive results in AI and none in controls, P = 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: AI patients who are adequately treated and trained seem to display the same incidence of COVID-19-suggestive symptoms and disease severity as controls.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Adrenal/complicações , Insuficiência Adrenal/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Adrenal/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Hipopituitarismo/complicações , Hipopituitarismo/diagnóstico , Hipopituitarismo/epidemiologia , Hipopituitarismo/terapia , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Neuroendocrinology ; 111(8): 775-785, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980840

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acromegaly is commonly complicated by arthropathy and skeletal fragility with high risk of vertebral fractures (VFs). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess whether VFs may be associated with sagittal spine deformities, arthropathy, impaired quality of life (QoL), pain, and disability. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with acromegaly (median age: 55 years, 20 males) and 38 matched control subjects were evaluated by a low-dose sagittal and coronal planes, X-ray imaging system (EOS®-2D/3D) for morphometric VFs, radiological signs of spine arthropathy, and spine deformities (Cobb thoracic index ≥40°, pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis ≥10°, pelvic tilt >20°, and sagittal vertical axis ≥4 cm) determining sagittal spine imbalance. Acromegalic patients were also evaluated by questionnaires for QoL (Acromegaly QoL Questionnaire [AcroQoL] and Short Form-36 [SF-36]) and pain and disability (Western Ontario and McMaster University [WOMAC]). RESULTS: Acromegalic patients showed higher prevalence of thoracic hyperkyphosis (i.e., Cobb thoracic index ≥40°; p = 0.04) and pelvic tilt >20° (p = 0.02) than control subjects. VFs were found in 34.2% of acromegalic patients (p = 0.003 vs. control subjects), in relationship with higher prevalence of hyperkyphosis (p = 0.03), pelvic tilt >20° (p = 0.04), sagittal vertical axis ≥4 cm (p = 0.03), and moderate/severe subchondral degeneration (p = 0.01). Moreover, patients with VFs had lower AcroQoL general health (p = 0.007) and SF-36 general health (p = 0.002) scores and higher WOMAC pain (p = 0.003) and global (p = 0.009) scores than patients who did not fracture. CONCLUSIONS: In acromegaly, VFs may be associated with spine deformities and sagittal imbalance, spine arthropathy, impaired QoL, and disability.

19.
Endocrine ; 72(3): 611-618, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179219

RESUMO

Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), the first known post-receptorial hormone resistance, derives from a partial deficiency of the α subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα), a key component of the PTH/PTHrP signaling pathway. Since its first description, different studies unveiled, beside the molecular basis for PHP, the existence of different subtypes and of diseases in differential diagnosis associated with genetic alterations in other genes of the PTH/PTHrP pathway. The clinical and molecular overlap among PHP subtypes and with different but related disorders make both differential diagnosis and genetic counseling challenging. Recently, a proposal to group all these conditions under the novel term "inactivating PTH/PTHrP signaling disorders (iPPSD)" was promoted and, soon afterwards, the first international consensus statement on the diagnosis and management of these disorders has been published. This review will focus on the major and minor features characterizing PHP/iPPSDs as a group and on the specificities as well as the overlap associated with the most frequent subtypes.


Assuntos
Disostoses , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas , Disostoses/diagnóstico , Disostoses/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual , Ossificação Heterotópica , Osteocondrodisplasias , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/diagnóstico , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/genética , Dermatopatias Genéticas
20.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(2): 311-320, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270042

RESUMO

Objective: Pseudohypoparathyroidism and related disorders belong to a group of heterogeneous rare diseases that share an impaired signaling downstream of Gsα-protein-coupled receptors. Affected patients may present with various combination of symptoms including resistance to PTH and/or to other hormones, ectopic ossifications, brachydactyly type E, early onset obesity, short stature and cognitive difficulties. Several years ago we proposed a novel nomenclature under the term of inactivating PTH/PTHrP signaling disorders (iPPSD). It is now of utmost importance to validate these criteria and/or improve the basis of this new classification. Design: Retrospective study of a large international series of 459 probands and 85 relatives molecularly characterized. Methods: Information on major and minor criteria associated with iPPSD and genetic results were retrieved from patient files. We compared the presence of each criteria according to the iPPSD subtype, age and gender of the patients. Results: More than 98% of the probands met the proposed criteria for iPPSD classification. Noteworthy, most patients (85%) presented a combination of symptoms rather than a single sign suggestive of iPPSD and the overlap among the different genetic forms of iPPSD was confirmed. The clinical and molecular characterization of relatives identified familial history as an additional important criterion predictive of the disease. Conclusions: The phenotypic analysis of this large cohort confirmed the utility of the major and minor criteria and their combination to diagnose iPPSD. This report shows the importance of having simple and easily recognizable signs to diagnose with confidence these rare disorders and supports a better management of patients.


Assuntos
Proteína Relacionada ao Hormônio Paratireóideo/fisiologia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/fisiologia , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/classificação , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/diagnóstico , Terminologia como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Disostoses/classificação , Disostoses/genética , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/classificação , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Mutação , Ossificação Heterotópica/classificação , Ossificação Heterotópica/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/classificação , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Hormônio Paratireóideo/genética , Proteína Relacionada ao Hormônio Paratireóideo/genética , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/epidemiologia , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/genética , Doenças Raras , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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