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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) emerged as an efficient tool for treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia. The factors influencing NPPV failure still are elusive. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between semiquantitative chest computed tomography (CT) scoring and NPPV failure and mortality in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Nonintensive care setting. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 112 patients consecutively admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia. INTERVENTIONS: Usual care including various degrees of respiratory support. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The semiquantitative CT score was calculated at hospital admission. Subgroups were identified according to the ventilation strategy used (oxygen delivered by Venturi mask n = 53; NPPV-responder n = 38; NPPV-failure n = 21). The study's primary endpoint was the use of NPPV. The secondary endpoints were NPPV failure and in-hospital death, respectively. CT score progressively increased among groups (six v nine v 14, p < 0.05 among all). CT score was an independent predictor of all study endpoints (primary endpoint: 1.25 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.1-1.4], p = 0.001; NPPV failure: 1.41 [95% CI 1.18-1.69], p < 0.001; in-hospital mortality: 1.21 [95% CI 1.07-1.38], p = 0.003). According to receiver operator characteristics curve analysis, CT score was the most accurate variable for prediction of NPPV failure (area under the curve 0.862 with p < 0.001; p < 0.05 v other variables). CONCLUSIONS: The authors reported the common and effective use of NPPV in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. In the authors' population, a semiquantitative chest CT analysis at hospital admission accurately identified those patients responding poorly to NPPV.

2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 358, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The South America pinworm, Tuta absoluta, is a destructive pest of tomato that causes important losses worldwide. Breeding of resistant/tolerant tomato cultivars could be an effective strategy for T. absoluta management but, despite the economic importance of tomato, very limited information is available about its response to this treat. To elucidate the defense mechanisms to herbivore feeding a comparative analysis was performed between a tolerant and susceptible cultivated tomato at both morphological and transcriptome level to highlight constitutive leaf barriers, molecular and biochemical mechanisms to counter the effect of T. absoluta attack. RESULTS: The tolerant genotype showed an enhanced constitutive barrier possibly as result of the higher density of trichomes and increased inducible reactions upon mild infestation thanks to the activation/repression of key transcription factors regulating genes involved in cuticle formation and cell wall strength as well as of antinutritive enzymes, and genes involved in the production of chemical toxins and bioactive secondary metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings suggest that tomato resilience to the South America pinworm is achieved by a combined strategy between constitutive and induced defense system. A well-orchestrated modulation of plant transcription regulation could ensure a trade-off between defense needs and fitness costs. Our finding can be further exploited for developing T. absoluta tolerant cultivars, acting as important component of integrated pest management strategy for more sustainable production.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tricomas/genética , Tricomas/metabolismo , Tricomas/parasitologia
3.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(8): 1467-1476, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial involvement in the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia has been reported, though not fully characterized yet. The aim of the present study is to undertake a joint evaluation of hs-Troponin and natriuretic peptides (NP) in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: In this multicenter observational study, we analyzed data from n = 111 patients. Cardiac biomarkers subgroups were identified according to values beyond reference range. RESULTS: Increased hs-Troponin and NP were found in 38 and 56% of the cases, respectively. As compared to those with normal cardiac biomarkers, these patients were older, had higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and had more severe COVID-19 pneumonia by higher CRP and D-dimer and lower PaO2/FIO2. Two-dimensional echocardiography performed in a subset of patients (n = 24) showed significantly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with elevated NP (p = 0.02), whereas right ventricular systolic function (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion) was significantly reduced both in patients with high hs-Troponin and NP (p = 0.022 and p = 0.03, respectively). Both hs-Troponin and NP were higher in patients with in-hospital mortality (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). On multivariable analysis, independent associations were found of hs-Troponin with age, PaO2/FIO2 and D-dimer (B = 0.419, p = 0.001; B = - 0.212, p = 0.013; and B = 0.179, p = 0.037, respectively) and of NP with age and previous CVD (B = 0.480, p < 0.001; and B = 0.253, p = 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial involvement at admission is common in COVID-19 pneumonia. Independent associations of hs-Troponin with markers of disease severity and of NP with underlying CVD might point toward existing different mechanisms leading to their elevation in this setting.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Peptídeos Natriuréticos/análise , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia/sangue , Troponina/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19 , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos Natriuréticos/sangue , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Troponina/sangue
4.
Phytochem Anal ; 30(5): 556-563, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most devastating and harmful pests of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops causing up to 80-100% yield losses. A large arsenal of plant metabolites is induced by the leafminer feeding including defence compounds that could differ among varieties. OBJECTIVE: To compare the metabolomic changes of different genotypes of tomato (tolerant "T", susceptible "S" and "F1" hybrid obtained between T and S) after exposition to T. absoluta. METHODOLOGY: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy followed by multivariate data analysis were performed to analyse the metabolic profiles of control and infested samples on three different tomato genotypes. RESULTS: Signals related to GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) were relatively much higher in all infested samples compared to the non-infested plants used as control. Infested T genotype samples were the most abundant in organic acids, including fatty acids and acyl sugars, chlorogenic acid, neo-chlorogenic acid and feruloyl quinic acid, indicating a clear link between the exposure to leafminer. Results also showed an increase of trigonelline in all tomato varieties after exposition to T. absoluta. CONCLUSION: Metabolomics approach based on NMR spectroscopy followed by multivariate data analysis allowed for a detailed metabolite profile of plant defences, providing fundamental information for breeding programmes in plant crops.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metabolômica , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Genes de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Análise Multivariada
5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2738, 2018 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013066

RESUMO

By changing soil properties, plants can modify their growth environment. Although the soil microbiota is known to play a key role in the resulting plant-soil feedbacks, the proximal mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown. We found that benzoxazinoids, a class of defensive secondary metabolites that are released by roots of cereals such as wheat and maize, alter root-associated fungal and bacterial communities, decrease plant growth, increase jasmonate signaling and plant defenses, and suppress herbivore performance in the next plant generation. Complementation experiments demonstrate that the benzoxazinoid breakdown product 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2-one (MBOA), which accumulates in the soil during the conditioning phase, is both sufficient and necessary to trigger the observed phenotypic changes. Sterilization, fungal and bacterial profiling and complementation experiments reveal that MBOA acts indirectly by altering root-associated microbiota. Our results reveal a mechanism by which plants determine the composition of rhizosphere microbiota, plant performance and plant-herbivore interactions of the next generation.


Assuntos
Benzoxazóis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Zea mays/imunologia , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzoxazóis/metabolismo , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia , Zea mays/parasitologia
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 16: 53, 2016 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26920134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) is one of the most destructive necrotrophic pathogens affecting tomato crops, causing considerable field and greenhouse yield losses. Despite such major economic impact, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici resistance in tomato. RESULTS: A transcriptomic experiment was carried out in order to investigate the main mechanisms of FORL response in resistant and susceptible isogenic tomato lines. Microarray analysis at 15 DPI (days post inoculum) revealed a distinct gene expression pattern between the two genotypes in the inoculated vs non-inoculated conditions. A model of plant response both for compatible and incompatible reactions was proposed. In particular, in the incompatible interaction an activation of defense genes related to secondary metabolite production and tryptophan metabolism was observed. Moreover, maintenance of the cell osmotic potential after the FORL challenging was mediated by a dehydration-induced protein. As for the compatible interaction, activation of an oxidative burst mediated by peroxidases and a cytochrome monooxygenase induced cell degeneration and necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our work allowed comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of the tomato-FORL interaction. The result obtained emphasizes a different transcriptional reaction between the resistant and the susceptible genotype to the FORL challenge. Our findings could lead to the improvement in disease control strategies.


Assuntos
Fusarium/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma
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