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1.
Foods ; 11(21)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360081

RESUMO

The influence of surface substance production on the freeze-drying survival of Lactobacillus casei and methods to control the surface substances during fermentation were studied. The bacteria were treated with hypertonicity combined with ultrasound, and the survival rate was determined. The optimal conditions for removing surface substance without harming the bacteria were 81 w/18 min. The surface substances provided a protective effect on the lyophilization of the bacteria without protectants. However, in the presence of protectants, excessive surface substances reduced the protective effect of the optimum protectant alginate to 39.69 ± 1.27%. Finally, the amount of surface substances and lyophilized survival rate of collected bacteria were determined by adding EDTA during fermentation and regulating fermentation conditions, such as the carbon source, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and pH. The highest survival rate was 85.79 ± 3.29%, which was achieved when the amount of surface substances was (2.82 ± 0.55) × 10-11 mg/CFU. Therefore, the production of surface substances by the bacteria could be reduced by modifying the fermentation stage, which has significance in the improvement of the lyophilization survival rate of L. casei and the number of live bacteria per unit mass of L. casei in the lyophilized preparation.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362285

RESUMO

Amino acids, which are important compatible solutes, play a significant role in probiotic lyophilization. However, studies on the functions of Bifidobacterium during freeze-drying are limited. Therefore, in this study, we compared the freeze-drying survival rate of Bifidobacterium longum CCFM 1029 cultivated in different media containing different kinds of compatible solutes. We found that the addition of 21 g/L proline to the culture media substantially improved the freeze-drying survival rate of B. longum CCFM 1029 from 18.61 ± 0.42% to 38.74 ± 1.58%. Interestingly, this change has only been observed when the osmotic pressure of the external culture environment is increased. Under these conditions, we found that proline accumulation in this strain increased significantly. This change also helped the strain to maintain its membrane integrity and the activity of some key enzymes during freeze-drying. Overall, these results show that the addition of proline can help the strain resist a tough environment during lyophilization. The findings of this study provide preliminary data for producers of probiotics who wish to achieve higher freeze-drying survival rates during industrial production.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum , Probióticos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Prolina/metabolismo , Liofilização , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362307

RESUMO

Postbiotics are rich in a variety of bioactive components, which may have beneficial effects in inhibiting hepatic lipid accumulation. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of postbiotics (POST) prepared from Lactobacillus paracasei on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our results showed that when mice ingested a high-fat diet (HFD) and POST simultaneously, weight gain was slowed, epididymal white fat hypertrophy and insulin resistance were suppressed, serum biochemical indicators related to blood lipid metabolism were improved, and hepatic steatosis and liver inflammation decreased. Bacterial sequencing showed that POST modulated the gut microbiota in HFD mice, increasing the relative abundance of Akkermansia and reducing the relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group, Ruminiclostridium and Bilophila. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed significant correlations between lipid metabolism parameters and gut microbes. Functional prediction results showed that the regulation of gut microbiota was associated with the improvement of metabolic status. The metabolomic analysis of the liver revealed that POST-regulated liver metabolic pathways, such as glycerophospholipid and ether lipid metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, some parts of amino acid metabolism, and other metabolic pathways. In addition, POST regulated the gene expression in hepatocytes at the mRNA level, thereby regulating lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that POST plays a protective role against NAFLD and may exert its efficacy by modulating the gut microbiota and liver metabolism, and these findings may be applied to related functional foods.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus paracasei , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Camundongos , Animais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
4.
Curr Res Food Sci ; 5: 2178-2189, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36387600

RESUMO

Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) promote the proliferation of Bifidobacterium, especially Bifidobacterium pseudolongum in C57BL/6J mice. However, the response of intestinal microbes to FOS is influenced by host genotypes. Therefore, we compared the intestinal microbiota of four commonly used mice before and after FOS intervention, including C57BL/6J, BALB/c, Institute Cancer Research (ICR), and Kunming (KM) mice. The intestinal microbiota of the four genotypes exhibited similarities in composition but differences in relative abundance. Bifidobacterium was significantly increased to different degrees in the four genotypes of mice after FOS intervention, and Akkermansia and Bacteroides were also significantly increased in BALB/c and KM mice. Lactobacillus and Alistipes levels were unchanged or decreased. Within the genus Bifidobacterium, B. pseudolongum was the dominant species in the four genotypes of mice and proliferated significantly after FOS intervention, with dramatic proliferation in C57BL/6J mice (9.49%). Furthermore, eight strains of B. pseudolongum were screened from the feces of mice with four genotypes, and there was a great difference in the ability and manner of utilizing FOS among the strains. The strains from C57BL/6J mice exhibited the strongest utilization of 1-kestose (GF2), whereas other strains could utilize both GF2 and nistose (GF3) weakly. The gut microbial analysis of mice with different genotypes complemented our previous studies. The results provided the background strains of the different mouse genotypes and suggested a correlation between the utilization ability and the response of the strains to FOS. Further studies on the utilization ability of strains and competition in the intestine will contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of the intestinal microbial response to diet.

5.
Microorganisms ; 10(10)2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296261

RESUMO

The cell membrane of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum is a key structure for cell survival. In this study, we aimed to improve the lyophilization resistance of L. plantarum by regulating the cell membrane structure. Unsaturated fatty acids or cell membrane-regulating substances were added during culturing to determine their effect on the composition of cell membrane fatty acids and the survival rate of the cells after freeze-drying. The results showed that Tween 80, ß-carotene and melatonin increased the lyophilization survival rate of L. plantarum by 9.44, 14.53, and 18.34%, respectively. After adding a lyophilization protective agent at a concentration of 21.49% at a 1:1 ratio, a combination of Tween 80, melatonin, and ß-carotene was added to regulate the cell membrane, which increased the lyophilization survival rate by 32.08-86.05%. This study proposes new research directions and ideas for improving the survival rate of probiotics for industrial production.

6.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235833

RESUMO

As a traditional Chinese medicine, licorice is often used in functional foods for its health benefits. However, the role of gut microbiota in the efficacy of licorice has not yet been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that the involvement of intestinal flora may be a key link in licorice ethanol extract (LEE)-induced health benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LEE improves hepatic lipid accumulation in obese mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and whether the gut microbiota plays a key role in LEE treatment. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD for liver fat accumulation and then treated with LEE. The same experiments were later performed using pseudo-sterile mice to verify the importance of gut flora. Supplementation with LEE improved the obesity profile, lipid profile and liver fat accumulation in HFD mice. In addition, LEE treatment improved intestinal flora dysbiosis caused by HFD in mice, as evidenced by a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and an increase in the abundance of known anti-obesity-related bacteria. However, LEE failed to exhibit a therapeutic effect in pseudo-sterile mice. The results of the cellular assay showed that glycyrrhetic acid (GA), the main conversion product of glycyrrhizin (GL), was more effective in reducing fat accumulation and intracellular TG content in hepatocytes compared to GL. In conclusion, our data suggest that LEE attenuates obesity and hepatic fat accumulation in HFD mice, which may be associated with modulating the composition of gut microbiota and the conversion of LLE by the intestinal flora.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ácido Glicirretínico , Glycyrrhiza , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/microbiologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Ácido Glicirretínico/farmacologia , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
7.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-17, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128763

RESUMO

Aging, a natural and inevitable physiological process, is the primary risk factor for all age-related diseases; it severely threatens the health of individuals and places a heavy burden on the public health-care system. Thus, strategies to extend the lifespan and prevent and treat age-related diseases have been gaining increasing scientific interest. Anthocyanins (ACNs) are a subclass of flavonoids widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Growing evidence suggests that ACNs delay aging and relieve age-related diseases. However, owing to the low bioavailability of ACNs, their gut metabolites have been proposed to play a critical role in mediating health benefits. In this review, we introduce the biological fate of ACNs after consumption and highlight ACNs metabolites (phenolic acids) from intestinal microorganisms. Additionally, ACNs and gut metabolites exhibit outstanding anti-aging ability in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and mouse models, probably associated with increasing antioxidation, anti-inflammation, protein homeostasis, antiglycation, mitochondrial function, and inhibition of insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS). ACNs and gut metabolites have great application prospects as functional foods and drugs to delay aging and manage age-related diseases. Further investigation should focus on the interaction between ACNs and gut microbiota, including clarifying the complex metabolic pathway and maximizing the health effects of ACNs.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056292

RESUMO

In recent years, acute liver injury (ALI) has received wide-range attention in the world due to its relatively high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to explore the hepatoprotective effect of Lactobacillus paracasei CCFM1222 against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mice and further elaborate its mechanism of action from the perspective of intestinal microbiomics and metabolomics. The results displayed that L. paracasei CCFM1222 pretreatment significantly decreased the serum ALT, and AST levels, inhibited the releases of hepatic TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 levels, and activated the SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities in LPS-treated mice. The cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) levels were increased in LPS-treated mice with L. paracasei CCFM1222 pretreatment. In addition, L. paracasei CCFM1222 pretreatment remarkably shifted the intestinal microbiota composition, including the higher abundance of Faecalibaculum, Bifidobacterium, and lower abundance of the Prevotellaceae NK3B31 group, which is positively associated with the cecal propionic, butyric, valeric, isobutyric, and isovaleric acids. The metabolomics based on UPLC-QTOF/MS revealed that L. paracasei CCFM1222 pretreatment significantly regulated the composition of feces metabolites in LPS-treated mice, especially the potential biomarker-related butanoate metabolism, vitamin B6 metabolism, D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, caffeine metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, arginine, and proline metabolism. Moreover, L. paracasei CCFM1222 pretreatment remarkably regulated the expression of gene-associated ALI (including Tlr4, Myd88, Nf-kß, iNOS, Cox2, Iκ-Bα, Nrf2, and Sirt-1). In conclusion, these results suggest the possibility that L. paracasei CCFM1222 supplementation has beneficial effects on preventing the occurrence and development of ALI by inhibiting the inflammatory responses and altering intestinal microbiota composition and their metabolites.

9.
Microorganisms ; 10(7)2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus paracasei CCFM1223, a probiotic previously isolated from the healthy people's intestine, exerts the beneficial influence of preventing the development of inflammation. METHODS: The aim of this research was to explore the beneficial effects of L. paracasei CCFM1223 to prevent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury (ALI) and elaborate on its hepatoprotective mechanisms. RESULTS: L. paracasei CCFM1223 pretreatment remarkably decreased the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in mice with LPS treatment and remarkably recovered LPS-induced the changes in inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-17, IL-10, and LPS) and antioxidative enzymes activities (total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT)). Metagenomic analysis showed that L. paracasei CCFM1223 pretreatment remarkably increased the relative abundance of Catabacter compared with the LPS group but remarkably reduced the relative abundance of [Eubacterium] xylanophilumgroup, ASF356, LachnospiraceaeNK4A136group, and Lachnoclostridium, which is closely associated with the inflammation cytokines and antioxidative enzymes. Furthermore, L. paracasei CCFM1223 pretreatment remarkably increased the colonic, serum, and hepatic IL-22 levels in ALI mice. In addition, L. paracasei CCFM1223 pretreatment remarkably down-regulated the hepatic Tlr4 and Nf-kß transcriptions and significantly up-regulated the hepatic Tlr9, Tak1, Iκ-Bα, and Nrf2 transcriptions in ALI mice. CONCLUSIONS: L. paracasei CCFM1223 has a hepatoprotective function in ameliorating LPS-induced ALI by regulating the "gut-liver" axis.

10.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889786

RESUMO

Inosine is a type of purine nucleoside, which is considered to a physiological energy source, and exerts a widely range of anti-inflammatory efficacy. The TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway is essential for preventing host oxidative stresses and inflammation, and represents a promising target for host-directed strategies to improve some forms of disease-related inflammation. In the present study, the results showed that inosine pre-intervention significantly suppressed the pulmonary elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and restored the pulmonary catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities (p < 0.05) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. Simultaneously, inosine pre-intervention shifted the composition of the intestinal microbiota by decreasing the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes, elevating the relative abundance of Tenericutes and Deferribacteres. Moreover, inosine pretreatment affected the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway in the pulmonary inflammatory response, and then regulated the expression of pulmonary iNOS, COX2, Nrf2, HO-1, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 levels. These findings suggest that oral administration of inosine pretreatment attenuates LPS-induced pulmonary inflammatory response by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway, and ameliorates intestinal microbiota disorder.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Inosina , NF-kappa B , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Inflamação , Inosina/uso terapêutico , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Nutrients ; 14(12)2022 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35745163

RESUMO

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been found to have decreased immune function. Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element that is beneficial for human health, which has a significant stimulating effect on immune function. We compared the effects of different Se forms on the alleviation of colitis in DSS-induced mice. Moreover, we also aimed to determine whether Se-enriched Lactobacillus paracasei CCFM 1089 could be used as a new organic Se supplement. Different Se supplements (Se-enriched L. paracasei CCFM 1089, Se-enriched yeast and sodium selenite) were given to Se-deficient mice suffering from colitis. Se-enriched L. paracasei CCFM 1089, which is based on selenocysteine (SeCys), had similar effects in terms of reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting pro-inflammatory factors to Se-enriched yeast; however, selenase activity in the Se-enriched L. paracasei CCFM 1089-treated mice was higher than that in other treatment groups. In addition, Se-enriched L. paracasei CCFM 1089 could better protect the intestinal mucosa, which increased the expression of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) in mice. Thus Se-enriched L. paracasei CCFM 1089 was shown to alleviate IBD, suggesting that it has potential as a good organic Se supplement.


Assuntos
Colite , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Selênio , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso , Selênio/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Selenito de Sódio/farmacologia
12.
Foods ; 11(11)2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681301

RESUMO

Colitis has become a major health concern worldwide. The objective of the present study was to determine the probiotic influence of different strains of B. pseudolongum (Bp7 and Bp8) on alleviating colitis and to explore its possible potential mechanisms. Our results displayed that Bp7 and Bp8 intervention effectively reduced dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-caused body weight loss and the release of several pro-inflammatory factors (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (T-AOC, SOD, and GSH) and the concentrations of tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-1, and ZO-1). Moreover, Bp7 and Bp8 intervention drastically down-regulated the expression of colonic MyD88, NF-κB, iNOS and COX2 and drastically elevated the expression of colonic STAT3, Nrf2, and PPARγ. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results revealed that the cecal levels of isobutyric, butyric, and isovaleric acids were drastically increased in colitis mice intervened with Bp7 and Bp8. Moreover, 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that Bp7 and Bp8 intervention modulated the intestinal microbiota structure, particularly by enhancing the proportion of Eubacterium coprostanoligenes group, Marvinbryantia, Enterorhabdus, Faecalibaculum, Coriobacteriaceae UCG 002, Alistipes, and Bifidobacterium, which are relevant to the levels of cecal isobutyric acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid, and inflammatory cytokines. Collectively, these findings suggest that Bp7 and Bp8 intervention alleviates the intestinal barrier function, possibly by blocking the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, maintaining the intestinal physical barrier integrity, activating the PPARγ/STAT3 pathway, and modulating intestinal microbiota composition. Our study also suggested that B. pseudolongum is a promising probiotic for colitis treatment.

13.
J Am Nutr Assoc ; : 1-10, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512770

RESUMO

Objective Early childhood caries (ECC) is closely related to the disorders of oral microbiota. Probiotics antagonize pathogenic bacteria and regulate the composition of the microbiota. We aimed to investigate the effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CCFM8724 on Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and oral microbiota of patients.Methods Children with ECC aged 3‒6 years were randomly divided into probiotic and placebo groups in the double-blind controlled trial. The intervention and washout periods were 28 days and 14 days, respectively. On days 1 and 28, dental plaques were collected. The effects of L. plantarum CCFM8724 on the oral microbiota of patients were investigated by sequencing the V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA. On days 1, 14, 28 and 42, qPCR was used to investigate the effect of L. plantarum CCFM8724 on the amounts of S. mutans and C. albicans in the saliva of children with ECC.Results L. plantarum CCFM8724 significantly reduced the amounts of S. mutans and C. albicans in saliva of children with ECC (p < 0.01). After consumption of L. plantarum CCFM8724, the abundance of Firmicutes, Granulicatella and Gemella increased, whereas the abundance of Proteobacteria, Neisseria, Bifidobacterium and Catonella decreased. Conclusion: Our results emphasize that probiotics could play a beneficial role in the prevention and treatment of ECC in children from an oral microecological perspective.

14.
Foods ; 11(9)2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563910

RESUMO

Understanding the association between food composition and intestinal microbiota in the context of individual health is a critical problem in personalized nutrition. The objective of the present research was to elucidate the influence of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ST-III and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on the intestinal microbiota structure. We found that L. plantarum ST-III and FOS interventions remarkably enhanced the levels of cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially acetic, butyric, and valeric acids. Moreover, L. plantarum ST-III and/or FOS intervention obviously altered the intestinal microbiota structure. At the genus level, L. plantarum ST-III and/or FOS intervention remarkably elevated the proportion of Sutterella, Pediococcus, Proteus, Parabacteroides, Prevotella and Desulfovibrio. Correlation analysis further uncovered that the specific compositional features of intestinal microbiota were strongly related to the concentration of cecal SCFAs. Our results offered scientific evidence to understanding the association between food composition and intestinal microbiota.

15.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-18, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389274

RESUMO

Glucosinolates and their metabolites from Brassicaceae plants have received widespread attention due to their anti-inflammatory effects. Glucosinolates occurs an "enterohepatic circulation" in the body, and the glucosinolates metabolism mainly happens in the intestine. Glucosinolates can be converted into isothiocyanates by intestinal bacteria, which are active substances with remarkable anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity and neuroprotective properties. This biotransformation can greatly improve the bioactivities of glucosinolates. However, multiple factors in the environment can affect the biotransformation to isothiocyanates, including acidic pH, ferrous ions and thiocyanate-forming protein. The derivatives of glucosinolates under those conditions are usually nitriles and thiocyanates, which may impair the potential health benefits. In addition, isothiocyanates are extremely unstable because of an active sulfhydryl group, which limits their applications. This review mainly summarizes the classification, synthesis, absorption, metabolism, physiological functions and potential application strategies of glucosinolates and their metabolites.

16.
Foods ; 11(5)2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267319

RESUMO

Capsaicin (CAP) is an ingredient of peppers that has biological activities at low doses but causes gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort at high doses. However, the GI effects of high doses of CAP and the evaluation criteria to determine this remain unknown. To elucidate the dose-related effects of CAP on GI health, CAP was administered to mice at 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg doses. The results showed that 40 mg/kg CAP did not negatively affect GI tissues, while 60 and 80 mg/kg CAP damaged GI tissues and caused significant inflammation in the jejunum, ileum, and colon. The levels of serum substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were CAP-dose-dependent, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) content significantly increased in the 80 mg/kg group. Correlation analysis revealed that the underlying mechanisms might be related to the regulation of gut microbiota, especially Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, and Butyricimonas. These results suggest that oral administration of 60 and 80 mg/kg CAP in mice causes intestinal inflammation and high levels of serum neuropeptides and cecal SCFAs, which may be related to alterations in gut microbiota.

17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(12): 5301-5311, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are a kind of prebiotic. Previous studies concerning the effect of FOS on intestinal microbiota have focused on Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. However, the presence of other FOS-utilizing bacteria makes it necessary to investigate the quantitative changes in these bacterial species in the intestine after FOS intake. In this study, the composition of cecal and fecal microbiota was analyzed using MiSeq sequencing, and the abundance of FOS-utilizing bacteria was detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction after the oral administration of FOS. RESULTS: Species-specific primers for FOS-utilizing bacteria were designed with superior amplification efficiency for quantification. After FOS intervention, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum in feces increased to 17.37% and the abundance reached 2.28 × 1010 CFU g-1 . The abundance of Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium breve did not change significantly. Whereas the abundance of Ligilactobacillus murinus decreased, that of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Lacticaseibacillus paracasei, and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus remained at approximately 104 CFU g-1 . CONCLUSION: Species-specific primers for FOS-utilizing bacteria were successfully developed, and we confirmed that FOS significantly increased the relative abundance and the abundance of B. pseudolongum in mice, while decreasing the proportion of Lactobacillus. The detection of these species using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed the same results. Further investigations are needed to reveal the response of the intestinal microbiota to different FOS compositions. These techniques will contribute to future studies about the composition and dynamics of the intestinal microflora. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oligossacarídeos , Animais , Bactérias , Primers do DNA , Fezes/microbiologia , Camundongos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-23, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35142569

RESUMO

Foods rich in ellagic tannins are first hydrolyzed into ellagic acid in the stomach and small intestine, and then converted into urolithins with high bioavailability by the intestinal flora. Urolithin has beneficially biological effects, it can induce adipocyte browning, improve cholesterol metabolism, inhibit graft tumor growth, relieve inflammation, and downregulate neuronal amyloid protein formation via the ß3-AR/PKA/p38MAPK, ERK/AMPKα/SREBP1, PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways, and TLR4, AHR receptors. But differences have been reported in urolithin production capacity among different individuals. Thus, it is of great significance to explore the biological functions of urolithin, screen the strains responsible for biotransformation of urolithin, and explore the corresponding functional genes. Tannin acyl hydrolase can hydrolyze tannins into ellagic acid, and the genera Gordonibacter and Ellagibacter can metabolize ellagic acid into urolithins. Therefore, application of "single bacterium", "single bacterium + enzyme", and "microflora" can achieve biotransformation of urolithin A. In this review, the source and metabolic pathway of ellagic tannins, and the mechanisms of the biological function of a metabolite, urolithin A, are discussed. The current strategies of biotransformation to obtain urolithin A are expounded to provide ideas for further studies on the relationship between urolithin and human health.

19.
Nutrients ; 14(4)2022 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215433

RESUMO

Zn is an essential trace element required for maintaining normal growth and development. Zn deficiency can cause growth retardation and reproductive system dysplasia, while Zn supplementation for treating Zn deficiency requires the use of high-quality Zn preparations. In this study, Bifidobacterium longum CCFM1195 was screened for its high Zn enrichment capacity, and the effects of different Zn supplementation regimens and doses on the growth and development of rats after Zn supplementation were investigated by supplementing Zn-deficient rat pups with different doses of various Zn supplements (ZnO, CCFM1195 + ZnO, and Zn-enriched CCFM1195). It was shown that the bioavailability of Zn was positively correlated with indicators of recovery after Zn supplementation, with Zn-enriched CCFM1195 having the best effect, followed by CCFM1195 + ZnO, while ZnO had the worst effect. Significant differences were also observed between the gut microbiota of control, model, and Zn-supplemented rats. Overall, administration of Zn-enriched CCFM1195 was more effective than the other approaches in restoring physical indicators of Zn deficiency after Zn supplementation, and this advantage was more significant at low-dose Zn supplementation.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ratos , Reprodução , Zinco/farmacologia
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(6): 2413-2423, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have been identified as important prebiotics. Previous studies have found that they can significantly promote the proliferation of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum in the mouse intestine. However, it is still unclear which other bacteria in the mouse intestine can utilize FOS, and the differences in the ability to utilize FOS. In this study, the bacteria capable of utilizing FOS were isolated from mice feces and their ability to utilize FOS was compared. Draft genome sequencing was also applied to explain the differences in FOS utilization at the gene levels. RESULTS: A total of 15 species were isolated from mouse feces and 13 species were able to utilize fructofuranosylnystose (GF2). Eleven species could utilize nistose (GF3), but not Enterococcus hirae and Lactobacillus reuteri. In contrast, 1-kestose (GF4) was hardly utilized. The enzyme activity determination and draft genome sequencing-based analyses revealed that all isolated species used the phosphotransferase system or permease system to transport FOS into the cells before hydrolysis by ß-fructofuranosidase. Although ß-fructofuranosidase exists in all strains, there are big differences in the corresponding coding genes between bifidobacteria and non-bifidobacteria. CONCLUSION: Compared with the other isolates, Bifidobacterium species exhibited higher enzyme activity and shorter generation time, leading to a stronger ability to utilize FOS. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium , Oligossacarídeos , Animais , Bactérias , Bifidobacterium/genética , Intestinos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Prebióticos
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