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1.
Anesth Analg ; 132(4): 1138-1145, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidural block are often used for analgesia after open nephrectomy surgery. Subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block may be an alternative. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the continuous subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block is noninferior to epidural block for analgesia in patients having open partial nephrectomies. METHODS: Adults having open partial nephrectomies were randomly allocated to epidural or unilateral subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block. The joint primary outcomes were opioid consumption measured in morphine equivalents and pain measured on a numeric rating scale (0-10) from postanesthesia care unit (PACU) until 72 hours after surgery. The noninferiority deltas were 30% for opioid consumption and 1 point on a 0-10 scale for pain. Secondary outcomes included patient global assessment of pain management on the third postoperative day, the number of antiemetic medication doses through the third postoperative day, duration of PACU stay, and postoperative duration of hospitalization. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were randomized to anterior quadratus lumborum block and 29 to epidural analgesia. Neither pain scores nor opioid consumption in the quadratus lumborum patients were noninferior to epidural analgesia. At 72 hours, mean ± standard deviation pain scores in subcoastal anterior quadratus lumborum block and epidural group were 4.7 ± 1.8 and 4.1 ± 1.7, with an estimated difference in pain scores of 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-1.99; noninferiority P = .21). The median [Q1, Q3] opioid consumption was more than doubled in quadratus lumborum patients at 70 mg [43, 125] versus 30 mg [18, 75] in the epidural group with an estimated ratio of geometric means of 1.69 (95% CI, 0.66-4.33; noninferiority P = .80). Patient global assessment and duration of PACU and hospital stays did not differ significantly in the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to show that subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block are noninferior to epidural analgesia in terms of pain scores and opioid consumption for open partial nephrectomies. Effectiveness of novel blocks should be rigorously tested in specific surgical setting before widespread adoption.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural , Nefrectomia , Bloqueio Nervoso , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrectomia/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Ohio , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction is the most common postoperative major vascular complication. Perioperative anaemia may contribute to cardiac supply-demand mismatch, and therefore myocardial injury. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the lowest in-hospital postoperative haemoglobin concentration is associated with a composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality within the first 30 days after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients enrolled in the PeriOperative Ischemic Evaluation-2 (POISE-2) trial. We assessed the association between the lowest postoperative haemoglobin concentration during the initial hospitalisation and a composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction (Third Universal Definition) and all-cause mortality within 30 postoperative days, using a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: We analysed 7227 patients from POISE-2, of whom 7.8% developed myocardial infarction; 1.5% died within 30 days. The composite primary outcome of non-fatal myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality occurred in 8.9% patients overall, ranging from 16% in patients with postoperative haemoglobin concentrations <88 g L-1 to 4.1% in patients with postoperative haemoglobin >113 g L-1. After adjusting for baseline factors, in patients with a lowest postoperative haemoglobin concentration <110 g L-1, each 10 g L-1 reduction in the lowest postoperative haemoglobin concentration was associated with a 1.46 (95% confidence interval: 1.37-1.56; P<0.001) fold increase in the odds of the composite outcome. In contrast, there was no significant relationship amongst patients with lowest postoperative haemoglobin concentration >110 g L-1. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative anaemia may be a modifiable risk factor for non-fatal myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality.

3.
Anesth Analg ; 131(3): 822-829, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled pain after noncardiac surgery activates the sympathetic nervous system, which causes tachycardia, hypertension, and increased cardiac contractility-all of which may increase myocardial oxygen demand. We therefore determined whether time-weighted average pain scores over the initial 72 postoperative hours are associated with myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of adults with routine postoperative troponin monitoring after noncardiac surgery under general, regional, or combined anesthesia at tertiary level centers in Cleveland from January 2012 to December 2015. Time-weighted average pain scores were calculated from all the available pain scores, typically at 4-hour intervals, until a troponin elevation was detected. MINS was defined as peak troponin T concentrations exceeding 0.03 ng/mL within 72 hours after surgery. We used a generalized linear mixed model to assess the association between pain and MINS with 3 hospitals as clusters, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 2892 eligible patients, 4.5% had myocardial injury within 72 hours after surgery. Higher time-weighted average pain scores were associated with increased hazard of myocardial injury. The estimated hazard ratio for a 1-unit increase in pain score was 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.22; P = .013), adjusting for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, time-weighted average pain scores within 72 hours after surgery were significantly associated with myocardial injury.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/etiologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Dor Aguda/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina/sangue , Regulação para Cima
4.
Lancet ; 396(10245): 177-185, 2020 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation and delirium are common consequences of cardiac surgery. Dexmedetomidine has unique properties as sedative agent and might reduce the risk of each complication. This study coprimarily aimed to establish whether dexmedetomidine reduces the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation and the incidence of delirium. METHODS: A randomised, placebo-controlled trial was done at six academic hospitals in the USA. Patients who had had cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1, stratified by site, to dexmedetomidine or normal saline placebo. Randomisation was computer generated with random permuted block size 2 and 4, and allocation was concealed by a web-based system. Patients, caregivers, and evaluators were all masked to treatment. The study drug was prepared by the pharmacy or an otherwise uninvolved research associate so that investigators and clinicians were fully masked to allocation. Participants were given either dexmedetomidine infusion or saline placebo started before the surgical incision at a rate of 0·1 µg/kg per h then increased to 0·2 µg/kg per h at the end of bypass, and postoperatively increased to 0·4 µg/kg per h, which was maintained until 24 h. The coprimary outcomes were atrial fibrillation and delirium occurring between intensive care unit admission and the earlier of postoperative day 5 or hospital discharge. All analyses were intention-to-treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02004613 and is closed. FINDINGS: 798 patients of 3357 screened were enrolled from April 17, 2013, to Dec 6, 2018. The trial was stopped per protocol after the last designated interim analysis. Among 798 patients randomly assigned, 794 were analysed, with 400 assigned to dexmedetomidine and 398 assigned to placebo. The incidence of atrial fibrillation was 121 (30%) in 397 patients given dexmedetomidine and 134 (34%) in 395 patients given placebo, a difference that was not significant: relative risk 0·90 (97·8% CI 0·72, 1·15; p=0·34). The incidence of delirium was non-significantly increased from 12% in patients given placebo to 17% in those given dexmedetomidine: 1·48 (97·8% CI 0·99-2·23). Safety outcomes were clinically important bradycardia (requiring treatment) and hypotension, myocardial infarction, stroke, surgical site infection, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and death. 21 (5%) of 394 patients given dexmedetomidine and 8 (2%) of 396 patients given placebo, had a serious adverse event as determined by clinicians. 1 (<1%) of 391 patients given dexmedetomidine and 1 (<1%) of 387 patients given placebo died. INTERPRETATION: Dexmedetomidine infusion, initiated at anaesthetic induction and continued for 24 h, did not decrease postoperative atrial arrhythmias or delirium in patients recovering from cardiac surgery. Dexmedetomidine should not be infused to reduce atrial fibrillation or delirium in patients having cardiac surgery. FUNDING: Hospira Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Clin Anesth ; 63: 109758, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222668

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Moderate hypothermia (e.g., 34.5 °C) causes surgical site infections, but it remains unknown whether mild hypothermia (34.6 °C-35.9 °C) causes infection. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intraoperative time-weighted average core temperature and a composite of serious wound and systemic infections in adults having colorectal surgery over a range of near-normal temperatures. DESIGN: Retrospective, single center study. SETTING: The operating rooms of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation from January 2005 to December 2014. PATIENTS: Adult patients having colorectal surgery at least 1 h in length who received both general anesthesia and esophageal core temperature monitoring. INTERVENTION(S): Time weighted average intraoperative core temperature. MEASUREMENTS: Our primary outcome was a composite of serious infections obtained from a surgical registry and billing codes. Average intraoperative esophageal temperatures and the composite of serious 30-day complications were assessed with logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounding factors. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 7908 patients were included in the analysis. A 0.5 °C decrease in time-weighted average intraoperative core temperature ≤ 35.4 °C was associated with an increased odds of serious infection (OR = 1.38, P = .045); that is, hypothermia below 35.4 °C progressively worsened infection risk. Additionally, at higher core temperatures, the odds of serious infection increased slightly with each 0.5 °C increase in average temperature (OR = 1.10, P = .047). CONCLUSIONS: Below 35.5 °C, hypothermia was associated with increased risk of serious infectious complications. Why composite complications increased at higher temperatures remains unclear, but the highest temperatures may reflect febrile patients who had pre-existing infections. Avoiding time-weighted average core temperatures <35.5 °C appears prudent from an infection perspective, but higher temperatures may be needed to prevent other hypothermia-related complications.

6.
Anesth Analg ; 130(3): 636-643, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium is common in critically ill patients, with a reported incidence of 11%-43%, and is associated with significant morbidity and cost. Perioperative hypotension and consequent brain hypoperfusion may contribute. We, therefore, tested the hypotheses that intraoperative and postoperative hypotension are associated with critical care delirium. METHODS: We included 1083 postoperative patients who were admitted directly from an operating room to the surgical intensive care unit. Delirium was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit patients at 12-hour intervals. We used a confounder-adjusted Cox proportional hazard survival model to assess the association between the amount of intraoperative hypotension, which was measured as the time-weighted average of mean arterial pressure <65 mm Hg, and delirium while in critical care. Thereafter, we used a Cox model with the lowest mean arterial pressure on each intensive care day as a time-varying covariate to assess the relationship between critical care hypotension and delirium, adjusted for confounders and amount of intraoperative hypotension. RESULTS: Three hundred seventy-seven (35%) patients had delirium within the first 5 postoperative days in the surgical intensive care unit. Intraoperative hypotension was moderately associated with higher odds of postoperative delirium. The adjusted hazard ratio associated with 1 mm Hg increase in time-weighted average of mean arterial pressure <65 mm Hg was 1.11 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.20; P = .008). Postoperatively, a 10 mm Hg reduction in the lowest mean pressure on each day in the critical care unit was significantly associated with a higher hazard of delirium, with an adjusted hazard ratio 1.12 (95% CI, 1.04-1.20; P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Both intraoperative and postoperative hypotension are associated with delirium in postoperative critical care patients. The extent to which these relationships are causal remains unknown, but to the extent that they are, hypotension prevention may help reduce delirium and should be studied in prospective clinical trials.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Delírio/epidemiologia , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio/epidemiologia , Período Perioperatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Anesth Analg ; 130(4): 925-932, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute lung injury who received lower tidal volume (VT) ventilation had significantly fewer days with acute kidney injury (AKI) when compared to those receiving higher VTs. There is a paucity of studies on the relationship between intraoperative VTs and postoperative AKI in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. We therefore sought to assess the association of mean delivered intraoperative VT per kilogram based on predicted body weight (PBW) and postoperative AKI. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in a large tertiary multispecialty academic medical center. Adult patients who underwent noncardiac surgery between January 2005 and July 2016 under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation were included. A total of 41,224 patients were included in the study.The relationship between mean intraoperative VT per PBW and AKI was assessed using logistic regression, adjusting for prespecified potential confounding variables. The secondary outcomes were postoperative major pulmonary complications, myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS), and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The incidence of AKI was 10.9% in the study population. Postoperative renal replacement therapy was required in 0.1% of patients. Higher delivered mean intraoperative VT per PBW was significantly associated with increased odds of AKI. The estimated odds ratio for each 1 mL increase in VT per kilogram of PBW (1 unit) was 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.08; P = .001), after adjusting for potential confounding variables. A higher delivered mean intraoperative VT per PBW was significantly associated with increased odds of postoperative myocardial injury and was not significantly associated with major postoperative pulmonary complications or in-hospital mortality after noncardiac surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In adult patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, higher delivered mean intraoperative VTs per PBW are associated with an increased odds of developing AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Período Intraoperatório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestesia Geral , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Traumatismos Cardíacos/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Cardíacos/etiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Intubação Intratraqueal , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios
8.
Anesth Analg ; 130(4): 890-898, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on testosterone replacement therapy and cardiovascular outcomes are conflicting, with the Food and Drug Administration requiring prescription testosterone preparations to indicate a possible increased cardiovascular risk. Whether patients on testosterone replacement therapy undergoing cardiac surgery have an increased risk of postoperative in-hospital mortality and cardiovascular events remains unknown. We therefore sought to identify the impact of testosterone replacement on the incidence of a composite of postoperative in-hospital mortality and cardiovascular events in men undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: After institutional review board approval, data from male American Society of Anesthesiologists III/IV patients ≥40 years of age who underwent cardiac surgery between May 2005 and March 2017 at the Cleveland Clinic (Cleveland, OH) main campus were included. The primary exposure was preoperative testosterone use. The primary outcome was a collapsed composite of postoperative in-hospital mortality and cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and pulmonary embolism. The secondary outcome was a collapsed composite of minor cardiovascular events, including postoperative rhythm disturbance requiring permanent device, atrial fibrillation, and deep venous thrombosis. We compared patients who received testosterone and those who did not, using propensity score matching within surgical procedure matches. Moreover, as a sensitivity analysis, we used a multivariable logistic regression model to assess the association between testosterone replacement therapy and major or minor cardiovascular events adjusted for potential baseline and intraoperative confounders by including all eligible patients. RESULTS: Among 20,604 patients who met inclusion and exclusion criteria, 301 patients who used testosterone routinely within 1 month before the surgery were matched to 1505 of 20,303 patients who did not use testosterone. Among the matched cohort, 8 (2.7%) patients in the testosterone group and 45 (3.0%) in the nontestosterone group had ≥1 major cardiovascular adverse event after surgery. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.41-1.90; P = .756), comparing testosterone to nontestosterone patients. As for the secondary outcomes, 89 (30%) patients in the testosterone group and 525 (35%) patients in the nontestosterone group had ≥1 minor cardiovascular event. The odds of minor events were not significantly different, with an odds ratio of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.60-1.02; P = .074) comparing testosterone to nontestosterone patients. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative testosterone is not associated with a statistically significant increased incidence of a composite of postoperative in-hospital mortality and cardiovascular events after cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Anesth Analg ; 128(6): 1160-1166, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain is common and promotes opioid use. Surgical wounds are hypoxic because normal perfusion is impaired. Local wound ischemia and acidosis promote incisional pain. Some evidence suggests that improving oxygen supply to surgical wounds might reduce pain. We therefore tested the hypothesis that supplemental (80% inspired) intraoperative oxygen reduces postoperative pain and opioid consumption. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc analysis of a large, single-center alternating cohort trial allocating surgical patients having general anesthesia for colorectal surgery to either 30% or 80% intraoperative oxygen concentration in 2-week blocks for a total of 39 months. Irrespective of allocation, patients were given sufficient oxygen to maintain saturation ≥95%. Patients who had regional anesthesia or nerve blocks were excluded. The primary outcome was pain and opioid consumption during the initial 2 postoperative hours, analyzed jointly. The secondary outcome was pain and opioid consumption over the subsequent 24 postoperative hours. Subgroup analyses of the primary outcome were conducted for open versus laparoscopic procedures and for patients with versus without chronic pain. RESULTS: A total of 4702 cases were eligible for analysis: 2415 were assigned to 80% oxygen and 2287 to 30% oxygen. The groups were well balanced on potential confounding factors. Average pain scores and opioid consumption were similar between the groups (mean difference in pain scores, -0.01 [97.5% CI, -0.16 to 0.14; P = .45], median difference in opioid consumption, 0.0 [97.5% CI, 0 to 0] mg morphine equivalents; P = .82). There were also no significant differences in the secondary outcome or subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Supplemental intraoperative oxygen does not reduce acute postoperative pain or reduce opioid consumption.


Assuntos
Hiperóxia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Acidose , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Anestesia/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Cirurgia Colorretal/métodos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Medição da Dor , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Crit Care Med ; 47(7): 910-917, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hypotension thresholds that provoke renal injury, myocardial injury, and mortality in critical care patients remain unknown. We primarily sought to determine the relationship between hypotension and a composite of myocardial injury (troponin T ≥ 0.03 ng/mL without nonischemic cause) and death up to 7 postoperative days. Secondarily, we considered acute kidney injury (creatinine concentration ≥ 0.3 mg/dL or 1.5 times baseline). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Surgical ICU at an academic medical center. PATIENTS: Two-thousand eight-hundred thirty-three postoperative patients admitted to the surgical ICU. INTERVENTIONS: A Cox proportional hazard survival model was used to assess the association between lowest mean arterial pressure on each intensive care day, considered as a time-varying covariate, and outcomes. In sensitivity analyses hypotension defined as pressures less than 80 mm Hg and 70 mm Hg were also considered. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There was a strong nonlinear (quadratic) association between the lowest mean arterial pressure and the primary outcome of myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery or mortality, with estimated risk increasing at lower pressures. The risk of myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery or mortality was an estimated 23% higher at the 25th percentile (78 mm Hg) of lowest mean arterial pressure compared with at the median of 87 mm Hg, with adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of 1.23 (1.12-1.355; p < 0.001). Overall results were generally similar in sensitivity analyses based on every hour of mean arterial pressure less than 80 mm Hg and any mean arterial pressure less than 70 mm Hg. Post hoc analyses showed that the relationship between ICU hypotension and outcomes depended on the amount of intraoperative hypotension. The risk of acute kidney injury increased over a range of minimum daily pressures from 110 mm Hg to 50 mm Hg, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% CI, 1.18-1.37; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing amounts of hypotension (defined by lowest mean arterial pressures per day) were strongly associated with myocardial injury, mortality, and renal injury in postoperative critical care patients.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Cardíacos/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Traumatismos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 36(5): 320-326, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends routine intra-operative and early postoperative use of high inspired oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia). However, a high intra-operative inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) might result in an increased risk of postoperative respiratory complications. AIM: To test the hypothesis that intra-operative FiO2 of 80% compared with 30% inspired oxygen decreases the postoperative ratio of arterial saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2). Secondarily, to evaluate whether an intra-operative inspired FiO2 of 80% increases the incidence of pulmonary complications. DESIGN: Posthoc subanalysis of a large alternating cohort trial. SETTING: Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, United States, from 2013 to 2016. PATIENTS: Adults having colorectal surgery. Cases lasting less than 2 h, re-operations on the same hospitalisation, and cases with missing intra-operative or postoperative data were excluded. INTERVENTION: Maintaining intra-operative FiO2 at 30 or 80% and alternating this management every 2 weeks for a study period of 39 months. MAIN OUTCOME: Minimal SpO2/FiO2 ratio value in the postanaesthesia care unit. Secondary outcome was a composite of postoperative pulmonary complications throughout hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 5056 patients were included. Groups were well balanced on all demographic, baseline and procedural variables. Median time-weighted averages of intra-operative FiO2 in the 30 and 80% groups were 43% (IQR 38 to 54%, N=2486) and 81% (IQR 78 to 82%, N=2570), respectively. No difference was found in the lowest SpO2/FiO2 ratio (estimated median difference 0 [95% confidence interval: 0, 0], P = 0.91). The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications was 16.3 and 17.6% in the 30 and 80% FiO2 groups, respectively (relative risk 1.07 [95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.21], P = 0.25). CONCLUSION: Intra-operative hyperoxia did not change the postoperative SpO2/FiO2 ratio or the risk for pulmonary complications. Clinicians should not refrain from using hyperoxia for fear of provoking respiratory complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01777568.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Oxigênio , Adulto , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Metiltransferases , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo
12.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212704, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-quality chest compressions are imperative for Cardio-Pulmonary-Resuscitation (CPR). International CPR guidelines advocate, that chest compressions should not be interrupted for ventilation once a patient's trachea is intubated or a supraglottic-airway-device positioned. Supraglottic-airway-devices offer limited protection against pulmonary aspiration. Simultaneous chest compressions and positive pressure ventilation both increase intrathoracic pressure and potentially enhances the risk of pulmonary aspiration. The hypothesis was, that regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration is more common during continuous versus interrupted chest compressions in human cadavers ventilated with a laryngeal tube airway. METHODS: Twenty suitable cadavers were included, and were positioned supine, the stomach was emptied, 500 ml of methylene-blue-solution instilled and laryngeal tube inserted. Cadavers were randomly assigned to: 1) continuous chest compressions; or, 2) interrupted chest compressions for ventilation breaths. After 14 minutes of the initial designated CPR strategy, pulmonary aspiration was assessed with a flexible bronchoscope. The methylene-blue-solution was replaced by 500 ml barium-sulfate radiopaque suspension. 14 minutes of CPR with the second designated ventilation strategy was performed. Pulmonary aspiration was then assessed with a conventional chest X-ray. RESULTS: Two cadavers were excluded for technical reasons, leaving 18 cadavers for statistical analysis. Pulmonary aspiration was observed in 9 (50%) cadavers with continuous chest compressions, and 7 (39%) with interrupted chest compressions (P = 0.75). CONCLUSION: Our pilot study indicate, that incidence of pulmonary aspiration is generally high in patients undergoing CPR when a laryngeal tube is used for ventilation. Our study was not powered to identify potentially important differences in regurgitation or aspiration between ongoing vs. interrupted chest compression. Our results nonetheless suggest that interrupted chest compressions might better protect against pulmonary aspiration when a laryngeal tube is used for ventilation.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Máscaras Laríngeas/efeitos adversos , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/instrumentação , Distribuição Aleatória , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/etiologia
13.
Anesth Analg ; 128(3): 494-501, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29697506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuraxial anesthesia improves components of the Virchow's triad (hypercoagulability, venous stasis, and endothelial injury) which are key pathogenic contributors to venous thrombosis in surgical patients. However, whether neuraxial anesthesia reduces the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) remain unclear. We therefore tested the primary hypothesis that neuraxial anesthesia reduces the incidence of 30-day VTE in adults recovering from orthopedic surgery. Secondarily, we tested the hypotheses that neuraxial anesthesia reduces 30-day readmission, 30-day mortality, and the duration of postoperative hospitalization. METHODS: Inpatient orthopedic surgeries from American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2011-2015) in adults lasting more than 1 hour with either neuraxial or general anesthesia were included. Groups were matched 1:1 by propensity score matching for appropriate confounders. Logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of neuraxial anesthesia on 30-day VTE, 30-day mortality, and readmission, while Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to assess its effect on length of stay. RESULTS: Neuraxial anesthesia decreased odds of 30-day VTE (odds ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval, 0.78-0.95; P = .002) corresponding to number-needed-to-treat of 500. Although there was no difference in 30-day mortality, neuraxial anesthesia reduced 30-day readmission (odds ratio 0.90, 98.3% confidence interval, 0.85-0.95; P < .001) corresponding to number-needed-to-treat of 250 and had a shortened hospitalization (2.87 vs 3.11; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Neuraxial anesthesia appears to provide only weak VTE prophylaxis, but can be offered as an adjuvant to current thromboprophylaxis in high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Anestesia Epidural/tendências , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Idoso , Anestesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade
14.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 36(2): 105-113, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) is a major contributor to peri-operative morbidity and mortality with a reported incidence of about 8%. Tachycardia increases myocardial oxygen demand, and decreases oxygen supply, and is therefore a potential cause of MINS. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that there is an association between intra-operative area above a heart rate (HR) of 90 bpm and a composite of MINS and in-hospital all-cause mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective analyses. SETTING: Major tertiary care hospital, Cleveland, USA. PATIENTS: Adults having elective or nonelective noncardiac surgery and scheduled troponin monitoring during the first 3 postoperative days between 2010 and 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All-or-none composite of myocardial injury (MINS), defined by a peak postoperative generation 4 troponin T concentration at least 0.03 ng ml, and in-hospital all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Among 2652 eligible patients, 123 (4.6%) experienced MINS within 7 days after surgery and 6 (0.2%) died before discharge. Intra-operative area above HR more than 90 bpm was not associated with the all-or-none composite of MINS and in-hospital mortality, with an estimated odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.99 (0.97 to 1.01) per 1 h bpm increase in area above HR more than 90 bpm. Secondary outcomes were also unrelated to the composite, with estimated odds ratios (98.3% confidence interval) of 0.99 (0.98 to 1.00) for area above HR more than 80, 0.98 (0.92 to 1.04) for area above HR more than 100 bpm, and 0.96 (0.88 to 1.05) for maximum HR. CONCLUSION: There was no apparent association between various measures of tachycardia and a composite of MINS and death, a result that contradicts previously reported associations between other measures of intra-operative tachycardia and MINS/mortality.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Taquicardia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taquicardia/diagnóstico
15.
Anesth Analg ; 127(6): 1335-1341, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We tested the primary hypothesis that final intraoperative esophageal temperature is associated with increased odds of a composite of in-hospital all-cause mortality and myocardial injury within 7 days after noncardiac surgery. Secondary exposures were time-weighted average intraoperative temperature and area <37°C threshold. METHODS: Myocardial injury was defined by postoperative fourth-generation troponin T ≥0.03 ng/mL apparently due to cardiac ischemia. Data were extracted for inpatients who had noncardiac surgery with general anesthesia at the Cleveland Clinic between 2012 and 2015. All had esophageal temperature monitoring and routine postoperative troponin monitoring. We estimated the confounder-adjusted association between final intraoperative esophageal temperature and the collapsed composite with multivariable logistic regression. We similarly estimated associations with time-weighted average intraoperative temperature and area <37°C. RESULTS: Two thousand two hundred ten patients were included. Nearly all final esophageal temperatures were 36°C-37°C. Ninety-seven patients (4.4%) had myocardial injury, and 7 (0.3%) died before discharge. Final intraoperative core temperature was not associated with the collapsed composite: odds ratio, 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.24) per 1°C decrease. Similarly, neither of the secondary exposures was associated with the composite outcome. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe an association between mild perioperative hypothermia and mortality or myocardial injury in adults having noncardiac surgery. However, the range of final intraoperative temperatures was small and largely restricted to the normothermic range (36°C-37°C). Trials are needed to further assess the effect of temperature on myocardial injury.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Cardíacos/patologia , Hipotermia/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Temperatura Corporal , Esôfago/patologia , Esôfago/cirurgia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Razão de Chances , Período Perioperatório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Troponina T/sangue
16.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 43(7): 768-775, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the observation that select nicotine receptor agonists have analgesic effects, smokers report higher pain scores and more functional impairments than lifelong nonsmokers, attributable to exaggerated stress responses, receptor desensitization, and altered pharmacokinetics compounded by accelerated structural damage resulting from impaired bone healing, osteoporosis, and advancement of disk disease. We hypothesized that smoking diminishes the analgesic response to spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in patients with chronic spine-related pain conditions. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed at Cleveland Clinic by collecting and assessing data of 213 patients who had been implanted with SCS for spine-pain indications. History of tobacco smoking was subcategorized into 3 categories: past (former smoker), present (current smoker), or those who had never previously smoked (lifelong nonsmokers), and a multivariable linear regression was run to measure the correlation, if any, between smoking status and numerical rating scale pain score. In addition, opioid consumption at baseline and 12-month follow-up, expressed in milligram oral morphine equivalents, was collected and compared. RESULTS: Adjusted for differences, at 1-year follow-up, current smokers (n = 62) reported numerical rating scale pain score of 7.0, which is 1.93 (P < 0.001) and 1.32 (P = 0.001) points higher than those of lifelong nonsmokers (n = 77) and former smokers (n = 74), respectively. Opioid intake was 2.4 times higher (P = 0.004) in smokers than in lifelong nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS: Among our SCS-implanted sample, a positive correlation was observed between tobacco use and degree of pain reduction as early as 12 months postimplant; this was evident by the reported higher pain scores and opioid use in current smokers in comparison with former smokers and lifelong nonsmokers.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/terapia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Fumar Cigarros/tendências , Medição da Dor/tendências , Estimulação da Medula Espinal/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Dor nas Costas/diagnóstico , Dor nas Costas/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estimulação da Medula Espinal/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(3)2018 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a monoamine neurotransmitter, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or serotonin modulates mood, appetite, and sleep. Besides, 5-HT also has important peripheral functions. 5-HT receptor 2B (5-HT2BR) plays a key role in cardiovascular diseases, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension and cardiac valve disease. Percutaneous intervention has been used to restore blood flow in occlusive vascular disease. However, restenosis remains a significant problem. Herein, we investigated the role of 5-HT2BR in neointimal hyperplasia, a key pathological process in restenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of 5-HT2BR was upregulated in wire-injured mouse femoral arteries. In addition, BW723C86, a selective 5-HT2BR agonist, promoted the injury response during restenosis. 5-HT and BW723C86 stimulated migration and proliferation of rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Conversely, LY272015, a selective antagonist, attenuated the 5-HT-induced smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. In vitro study showed that the promigratory effects of 5-HT2BR were mediated through the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6K signaling in a ß-arrestin2-dependent manner. Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin or p70S6K mitigated 5-HT2BR-mediated smooth muscle cell migration. Mice with deficiency of 5-HT2BR showed significantly reduced neointimal formation in wire-injured arteries. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that activation of 5-HT2BR and ß-arrestin2-biased downstream signaling are key pathological processes in neointimal formation, and 5-HT2BR may be a potential target for the therapeutic intervention of vascular restenosis.


Assuntos
Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 5-HT2B de Serotonina/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT2 de Serotonina/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/tratamento farmacológico , beta-Arrestina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Artéria Femoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Femoral/enzimologia , Artéria Femoral/lesões , Artéria Femoral/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/enzimologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/lesões , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/enzimologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Neointima , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacologia , Ratos , Receptor 5-HT2B de Serotonina/genética , Receptor 5-HT2B de Serotonina/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/enzimologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/genética , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/patologia , beta-Arrestina 2/genética
18.
Anesth Analg ; 126(3): 833-838, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Core temperature can be accurately measured from the esophagus or nasopharynx during general anesthesia, but neither site is suitable for neuraxial anesthesia. We therefore determined the precision and accuracy of a novel wireless axillary thermometer, the iThermonitor, to determine its suitability for use during neuraxial anesthesia and in other patients who are not intubated. METHODS: We enrolled 80 adults having upper abdominal surgery with endotracheal intubation. Intraoperative core temperature was measured in distal esophagus and was estimated at the axilla with a wireless iThermonitor WT701 (Raiing Medical, Boston MA) at 5-minute intervals. Pairs of axillary and reference distal esophageal temperatures were compared and summarized using linear regression and repeated-measured Bland-Altman methods. We a priori determined that the iThermonitor would have clinically acceptable accuracy if most estimates were within ±0.5°C of the esophageal reference, and suitable precision if the limits of agreement were within ±0.5°C. RESULTS: There were 3339 sets of paired temperatures. Axillary and esophageal temperatures were similar, with a mean difference (esophageal minus axillary) of only 0.14°C ± 0.26°C (standard deviation). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement were reasonably narrow, with the estimated upper limit at 0.66°C and the lower limit at -0.38°C, thus ±0.52°C, indicating good agreement across the range of mean temperatures from 34.9°C to 38.1°C. The absolute difference was within 0.5°C in 91% of the measurements (95% confidence interval, 88%-93%). CONCLUSIONS: Axillary temperature, as recorded by the iThermonitor WT701, well represents core temperature in adults having noncardiac surgery and thus appears suitable for clinical use.


Assuntos
Axila/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Monitorização Intraoperatória/instrumentação , Termômetros , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Intraoperatória/normas , Termômetros/normas , Tecnologia sem Fio/normas
19.
Anesthesiology ; 128(5): 903-911, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of ambient temperature, with and without active warming, on intraoperative core temperature remains poorly characterized. The authors determined the effect of ambient temperature on core temperature changes with and without forced-air warming. METHODS: In this unblinded three-by-two factorial trial, 292 adults were randomized to ambient temperatures 19°, 21°, or 23°C, and to passive insulation or forced-air warming. The primary outcome was core temperature change between 1 and 3 h after induction. Linear mixed-effects models assessed the effects of ambient temperature, warming method, and their interaction. RESULTS: A 1°C increase in ambient temperature attenuated the negative slope of core temperature change 1 to 3 h after anesthesia induction by 0.03 (98.3% CI, 0.01 to 0.06) °Ccore/(h°Cambient) (P < 0.001), for patients who received passive insulation, but not for those warmed with forced-air (-0.01 [98.3% CI, -0.03 to 0.01] °Ccore/[h°Cambient]; P = 0.40). Final core temperature at the end of surgery increased 0.13°C (98.3% CI, 0.07 to 0.20; P < 0.01) per degree increase in ambient temperature with passive insulation, but was unaffected by ambient temperature during forced-air warming (0.02 [98.3% CI, -0.04 to 0.09] °Ccore/°Cambient; P = 0.40). After an average of 3.4 h of surgery, core temperature was 36.3° ± 0.5°C in each of the forced-air groups, and ranged from 35.6° to 36.1°C in passively insulated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Ambient intraoperative temperature has a negligible effect on core temperature when patients are warmed with forced air. The effect is larger when patients are passively insulated, but the magnitude remains small. Ambient temperature can thus be set to comfortable levels for staff in patients who are actively warmed.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Temperatura
20.
Anesthesiology ; 128(2): 317-327, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative contributions of intraoperative and postoperative hypotension to perioperative morbidity remain unclear. We determined the association between hypotension and a composite of 30-day myocardial infarction and death over three periods: (1) intraoperative, (2) remaining day of surgery, and (3) during the initial four postoperative days. METHODS: This was a substudy of POISE-2, a 10,010-patient factorial-randomized trial of aspirin and clonidine for prevention of myocardial infarction. Clinically important hypotension was defined as systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg requiring treatment. Minutes of hypotension was the exposure variable intraoperatively and for the remaining day of surgery, whereas hypotension status was treated as binary variable for postoperative days 1 to 4. We estimated the average relative effect of hypotension across components of the composite using a distinct effect generalized estimating model, adjusting for hypotension during earlier periods. RESULTS: Among 9,765 patients, 42% experienced hypotension, 590 (6.0%) had an infarction, and 116 (1.2%) died within 30 days of surgery. Intraoperatively, the estimated average relative effect across myocardial infarction and mortality was 1.08 (98.3% CI, 1.03, 1.12; P < 0.001) per 10-min increase in hypotension duration. For the remaining day of surgery, the odds ratio was 1.03 (98.3% CI, 1.01, 1.05; P < 0.001) per 10-min increase in hypotension duration. The average relative effect odds ratio was 2.83 (98.3% CI, 1.26, 6.35; P = 0.002) in patients with hypotension during the subsequent four days of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically important hypotension-a potentially modifiable exposure-was significantly associated with a composite of myocardial infarction and death during each of three perioperative periods, even after adjustment for previous hypotension.


Assuntos
Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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