Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 206
Filtrar
1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Loss of transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) signaling increases error-prone alternative end-joining (alt-EJ) DNA repair. We previously translated this mechanistic relationship as TGFß and alt-EJ gene expression signatures, which are anti-correlated across cancer types. A score, ßAlt, representing anti-correlation predicts patient outcome in response to genotoxic therapy. Here we sought to verify this biology in live specimens and additional datasets. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Human head and neck squamous cell (HNSC) carcinoma explants were treated in vitro to test whether the signatures report TGFß signaling, indicated by SMAD2 phosphorylation, and unrepaired DNA damage, indicated by persistent 53BP1 foci after irradiation or olaparib. A custom NanoString assay was implemented to analyze the signatures' expression in explants. Each signature gene was then weighted by its association with functional responses to define a modified score, ßAltw, that was retested for association with response to genotoxic therapies in independent datasets. RESULTS: Most genes in each signature were positively correlated with the expected biological response in tumor explants. Anticorrelation of TGFß and alt-EJ signatures measured by Nanostring was confirmed in explants. ßAltw was significantly (P<0.001) better than ßAlt in predicting overall survival in response to genotoxic therapy in TCGA pancancer patients and in independent HNSC and ovarian cancer patient datasets. CONCLUSION: Association of the TGFß and alt-EJ signatures with their biological response validates TGFß competency as a key mediator of DNA repair that can be readily assayed by gene expression. The predictive value of ßAltw supports its development to assist in clinical decision-making.

2.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(10): 11194-11208, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786051

RESUMO

Cullin 4A (Cul4A) reportedly has oncogenic roles in several cancer types by regulating tumor suppressors through the ubiquitination and proteolysis of the tumor suppressor. In addition, Cul4A is associated with chemosensitivity to chemotherapy drugs. This study investigated the association between Cul4A and lung cancer cell chemosensitivity to paclitaxel, particularly with respect to the role of the p33 inhibitor of the growth 1 (p33ING1b) tumor suppressor. The results showed that the Cul4A knockdown upregulated the p33ING1b expression in lung cancer cells and increased the lung cancer cell and mice tumor xenograft chemosensitivity to paclitaxel. The Cul4A knockdown also inhibited the growth and increased the apoptosis in the tumor xenografts treated with paclitaxel. Notably, the p33ING1b overexpression increased the lung cancer cell chemosensitivity to paclitaxel, but the p33ING1b knockdown reduced the chemosensitivity. A further analysis demonstrated that Cul4A regulates the expression of p33ING1b through protein-protein interactions, ubiquitination, and protein degradation. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that Cul4A mediates the chemosensitivity of lung cancer cells to paclitaxel by regulating p33ING1b. These findings may offer novel insights into future therapeutic strategies for lung cancer that target Cul4A.

3.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1324, 2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819611

RESUMO

The gut microbiome produces vitamins, nutrients, and neurotransmitters, and helps to modulate the host immune system-and also plays a major role in the metabolism of many exogenous compounds, including drugs and chemical toxicants. However, the extent to which specific microbial species or communities modulate hazard upon exposure to chemicals remains largely opaque. Focusing on the effects of collateral dietary exposure to the widely used herbicide atrazine, we applied integrated omics and phenotypic screening to assess the role of the gut microbiome in modulating host resilience in Drosophila melanogaster. Transcriptional and metabolic responses to these compounds are sex-specific and depend strongly on the presence of the commensal microbiome. Sequencing the genomes of all abundant microbes in the fly gut revealed an enzymatic pathway responsible for atrazine detoxification unique to Acetobacter tropicalis. We find that Acetobacter tropicalis alone, in gnotobiotic animals, is sufficient to rescue increased atrazine toxicity to wild-type, conventionally reared levels. This work points toward the derivation of biotic strategies to improve host resilience to environmental chemical exposures, and illustrates the power of integrative omics to identify pathways responsible for adverse health outcomes.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(42)2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649996

RESUMO

Infusing CRISPR/donor-loaded adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV/CRISPR) could enable in vivo hepatic gene editing to remedy hemophilia B (HB) with inherited deficiency of clotting factor IX (FIX). Yet, current regimens focus on correcting HB with simple mutations in the coding region of the F9, overlooking those carrying complicated mutations involving the regulatory region. Moreover, a possible adverse effect of treatment-related inflammation remains unaddressed. Here we report that a single DNA cutting-mediated long-range replacement restored the FIX-encoding function of a mutant F9 (mF9) carrying both regulatory and coding defects in a severe mouse HB model, wherein incorporation of a synthetic Alb enhancer/promoter-mimic (P2) ensured FIX elevation to clinically meaningful levels. Through single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of liver tissues, we revealed that a subclinical hepatic inflammation post-AAV/CRISPR administration regulated the vulnerability of the edited mF9-harboring host cells to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and the P2 activity in a hepatocytic subset-dependent manner via modulating specific sets of liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs). Collectively, our study establishes an AAV/CRISPR-mediated gene-editing protocol applicable to complicated monogenetic disorders, underscoring the potentiality of improving therapeutic benefits through managing inflammation.

5.
World J Pediatr ; 17(6): 643-652, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716893

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To improve compliance with voiding diaries in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE), a new modified 3-day weekend frequency-volume chart (FVC) was designed, and the compliance and validity of this modified FVC was evaluated by comparing with the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) recommended voiding diary. METHODS: A total of 1200 patients with PMNE were enrolled in the study from 13 centers in China and were randomly assigned to record this modified FVC or the ICCS-recommended voiding diary. The primary outcome measure was the compliance, assessed by comparing the completing index and the quality score of diaries between two groups. The secondary outcome measure was the validity, evaluated by comparing the constituent of subtypes, micturition parameters and response rate to desmopressin. RESULTS: Among the 1200 participants enrolled in the study, 447 patients completed the ICCS-recommended voiding diary and 469 completed the modified diary. The diurnal completing index and the quality score of the modified FVC group were better than those of the ICCS group. In addition, there was no significant difference between these two groups in the subtype classification, or in the response rate to desmopressin. CONCLUSIONS: The modified FVC could be applied to obtain the voiding characteristics of children with PMNE as the ICCS-recommended voiding diary does and offers a reasonable and better choice for children with PMNE from the unselected population in the future.

6.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685578

RESUMO

Secreted angiopoietin/angiopoietin-like (ANGPT/ANGPTL) proteins are involved in many biological processes. However, the role of these proteins in human breast cancers (BCs) remains largely unclear. Here, we conducted integrated omics analyses to evaluate the clinical impact of ANGPT/ANGPTL proteins and to elucidate their biological functions. In BCs, we identified rare mutations in ANGPT/ANGPTL genes, frequent gains of ANGPT1, ANGPT4, and ANGPTL1, and frequent losses of ANGPT2, ANGPTL5, and ANGPTL7, but observed that ANGPTL1, 2, and 4 were robustly downregulated in multiple datasets. The expression levels of ANGPTL1, 5, and 8 were positively correlated with overall survival (OS), while the expression levels of ANGPTL4 were negatively correlated with OS. Additionally, the expression levels of ANGPTL1 and 7 were positively correlated with distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), while the expression levels of ANGPT2 and ANGPTL4 were negatively correlated with DMFS. The prognostic impacts of ANGPT/ANGPTL genes depended on the molecular subtypes and on clinical factors. We discovered that various ANGPT/ANGPTL genes were co-expressed with various genes involved in different pathways. Finally, with the exception of ANGPTL3, the remaining genes showed significant correlations with cancer-associated fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and microenvironment score, whereas only ANGPTL6 was significantly correlated with immune score. Our findings provide strong evidence for the distinct clinical impact and biological function of ANGPT/ANGPTL proteins, but the question of whether some of them could be potential therapeutic targets still needs further investigation in BCs.

9.
Oncol Lett ; 22(4): 712, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457067

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the main causes of cancer-associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the role of the gene encoding formin homology 2 domain containing 1 (FHOD1) protein in GC development. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were firstly analyzed, and immunohistochemistry was conducted on GC tissues. The results demonstrated that FHOD1 expression in GC tissues was significantly increased compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Furthermore, the expression level of FHOD1 was negatively associated with the overall survival of patients with GC. For the functional studies, lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA against FHOD1 and FHOD1-overexpression vectors were constructed to knockdown and overexpress the expression level of FHOD1 in human GC cell lines, respectively. The results indicated that FHOD1 knockdown inhibited the proliferation, colony formation and migratory and invasive abilities of GC cells. Conversely, overexpression of FHOD1 in GC cells promoted soft-agar colony formation and migratory and invasive abilities. In addition, it was demonstrated that genes of which expression levels were correlated with FHOD1 were enriched in the Gene Ontology term of 'extracellular matrix (ECM) structural constituent', suggesting that FHOD1 may serve an important role in the regulation of ECM. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that FHOD1 may exert an oncogenic role in cultured GC cells and be inversely associated with the overall survival of patients with GC.

10.
Microbiologyopen ; 10(3): e1198, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180593

RESUMO

The gut microbiome composition is influenced by many factors including environmental exposures. Here, we investigated the effect of thirdhand cigarette smoke (THS) and exposure age on gut microbiome diversity. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to THS at human exposure relevant levels for three weeks during three different life stages: postnatal (0-3 weeks of age), pubescent (4-7 weeks of age), and adult (9-12 weeks of age), respectively. Cecal microbiome profiles were assessed at 17 weeks of age by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that age at THS exposure strongly influenced the cecal microbiome composition. Although postnatal THS exposure significantly influenced the microbial composition, pubescent and adulthood exposures only had minor effects. The microbiome of postnatally THS-exposed mice significantly increased several degradation pathways that regulate glycolysis and pyruvate decarboxylation, and significantly decreased coenzyme A biosynthesis and pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside salvage. Our results indicate that mouse postnatal development is particularly susceptible to persistent THS exposure effects on the gut microbiome.

11.
World J Pediatr ; 17(3): 242-252, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Huaiqihuang (HQH) granule is a traditional Chinese herbal complex that has been used as an adjuvant treatment in clinics for the primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) for many years. However, the effectiveness and safety of HQH have not been systematically discussed. This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of HQH in paediatric patients with PNS. METHODS: The following databases were searched from inception to Mar 2019: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, Wanfang Database, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database and the Chinese biomedical literature service system. All the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) eligible for inclusion were included. The primary outcomes were relapse, infection, remission and adverse events. The secondary outcomes included serum immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgG or IgM), T-lymphocyte subtype (CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ , CD4+ /CD8+), IL-10, TNF-α, TNF-γ, total cholesterol and time of proteinuria turning negative. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs (885 patients) were identified. Treatment with HQH reduced the chance of relapse [relative risk (RR): 0.47; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.66; P < 0.001] and infections (RR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.62; P < 0.001). No significant difference was found in adverse events. HQH also increased the serum levels of IgA [weighted mean difference (WMD): 0.40; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.60; P < 0.001] and IgG (WMD: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.38-1.78; P < 0.001), as well as CD4+ [standard mean difference (SMD): 0.90; 95% CI: 0.12-1.68; P = 0.02], CD3+ (WMD: 4.04; 95% CI: 3.27-4.82; P < 0.001), and the CD4+/CD8+ratio (WMD: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.21-0.41; P < 0.001), but decreased the level of CD8+ cells (WMD: -3.39; 95% CI: -5.73-1.05; P = 0.004). No statistically significant difference was found in IgM (WMD: 0.05; 95% CI: -0.13, 0.24; P = 0.57). CONCLUSIONS: HQH could reduce the rate of relapse and the frequency of infection in children with PNS. No apparent adverse effects were found. Moreover, the beneficial influence of HQH may act through immunomodulation. Additional multi-center, large-sample, high-quality studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness and safety of HQH.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13285, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168244

RESUMO

Growing evidence indicates that thirdhand smoke (THS) exposure induces many adverse health effects. However, it is unclear how THS exposure affects behavior and how host genetic background modulates phenotypic changes. Here we used the Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse population-based model to assess behavioral alterations immediately after THS exposure from 4 to 9 weeks of age. We first measured anxiety-like behavior in six strains using light/dark box combined with a custom multivariate mouse tracking system. We developed an anxiety risk scoring system based on anxiety-related traits and then evaluated the THS impact on them. THS exposure significantly decreased anxiety risk in CC019 (P = 0.002) and CC051 (P = 0.009), but increased anxiety risk in CC036 (P < 0.001), while the other three strains did not show significant changes in anxiety-related traits. Such differences were driven by female mice for the six measures of anxiety-like behavior. Memory potential was measured in the same cohort of mice using the passive avoidance assay. Both THS-exposed male and female CC019 mice displayed significant memory loss compared to controls while no significant changes were found in the other five strains. This study provides strong evidence that THS exposure leads to strain-dependent changes in anxiety-like behavior and memory, suggesting that host genetic variations play a critical role in individual susceptibility to THS-induced effects.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Ansiedade/genética , Camundongos de Cruzamento Colaborativo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
13.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(8): 1053-1063, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851706

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children. Thirdhand smoke (THS) is the residual tobacco contamination that remains after the smoke clears. We investigated the effects of THS exposure in utero and during early life in a transgenic Cdkn2a knockout mouse model that is vulnerable to the development of leukemia/lymphoma. Female mice, and their offspring, were exposed from the first day of pregnancy to weaning. Plasma cytokines, body weight and hematologic parameters were measured in the offspring. To investigate THS exposure effects on the development of leukemia/lymphoma, bone marrow (BM) was collected from control and THS-exposed mice and transplanted into BM-ablated recipient mice, which were followed for tumor development for 1 year. We found that in utero and early-life THS exposure caused significant changes in plasma cytokine concentrations and in immune cell populations; changes appeared more pronounced in male mice. Spleen (SP) and BM B-cell populations were significantly lower in THS-exposed mice. We furthermore observed that THS exposure increased the leukemia/lymphoma-free survival in BM transplantation recipient mice, potentially caused by THS-induced B-cell toxicity. A trend towards increased solid tumors in irradiated mice reconstituted with THS-exposed BM stimulates the hypothesis that the immunosuppressive effects of in utero and early-life THS exposure might contribute to carcinogenesis by lowering the host defense to other toxic exposures. Our study adds to expanding evidence that THS exposure alters the immune system and that in utero and early-life developmental periods represent vulnerable windows of susceptibility for these effects.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia/etiologia , Linfoma/etiologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Leucemia/imunologia , Linfoma/imunologia , Camundongos Transgênicos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
14.
World J Pediatr ; 17(2): 115-122, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is a common form of glomerular nephropathy in children, with an incidence rate of 1.15-16.9/100,000 depending on different nationalities and ethnicities. The etiological factors and mechanisms of childhood idiopathic nephrotic syndrome have not yet been fully elucidated. This review summarizes the progress of the immunopathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children. DATA SOURCES: We review the literature on the immunopathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children. Databases including Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for studies published in any language with the terms "children", "idiopathic nephrotic syndrome", "immunopathogenesis", "T cells", "circulating permeability factors", and "B cells". RESULTS: Dysfunction in T lymphocytes and pathogenic circulatory factors were indicated to play key roles in the pathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Recently, some studies have shown that cellular immune dysfunction may also be involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Both T- and B-cell dysfunction may play significant roles in the pathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, like two sides of one coin, but the role of B cell seems more important than T cells.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Síndrome Nefrótica/imunologia , Síndrome Nefrótica/fisiopatologia , Criança , Humanos
15.
Environ Int ; 153: 106520, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A healthy gut microbiome is critical for glucose metabolism during pregnancy. In vivo studies indicate that trace element affects the composition and function of the gut microbiome and potentially leads to metabolic disorders but their relationships are largely unknown. We aimed to investigate whether the gut microbiome plays a role in the relationship between trace element exposure and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, serum levels of 22 trace elements and the fecal gut microbiome composition were assessed in 837 pregnant women in the second trimester between 22 and 24 weeks of pregnancy prior to GDM diagnosis. Regression and mediation analysis were used to explore the link between element exposure, the gut microbiome, and GDM. RESULTS: 128 pregnant women (15.3%) were diagnosed with GDM. No individual trace elements were found significantly associated with GDM. In contrast, the composition of the gut microbiome was dramatically altered in women later diagnosed with GDM and characterized by lower alpha diversity and lower abundance of co-abundance groups (CAGs) composed of genera belonging to Ruminococcaceae, Coriobacteriales, and Lachnospiraceae. Rubidium (Rb) was positively associated with alpha diversity indices while mercury (Hg) and vanadium (V) showed negative associations. Elements including rubidium (Rb), thallium (Tl), arsenic (As), and antimony (Sb) were significantly correlated with GDM-related CAGs and mediation analysis revealed that Rb and Sb were inversely related to GDM risk by altering abundance levels of CAGs enriched for Lachnospiraceae, Coriobacteriales, and Ruminococcaceae. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that trace element exposure is associated with specific gut microbiome features that may contribute to GDM development, which could provide a new avenue for intervening in environmental exposure-related GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oligoelementos , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Oncotarget ; 12(3): 173-184, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33613845

RESUMO

Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) can either promote or inhibit transcription depending on cellular context. In this study, we show that a new HIPK2 isoform increases TEAD reporter activity in NSCLC cells. We detected HIPK2 copy number gain in 5/6 (83.3%) NSCLC cell lines. In NSCLC patients with high HIPK2 mRNA expression in the Human Protein Atlas, the five-year survival rate is significantly lower than in patients with low expression (38% vs 47%; p = 0.047). We also found that 70/78 (89.7%) of NSCLC tissues have moderate to strong expression of the N-terminal HIPK2 protein. We detected and cloned a novel HIPK2 isoform 3 and found that its forced overexpression promotes TEAD reporter activity in NSCLC cells. Expressing HIPK2 isoform 3_K228A kinase-dead plasmid failed to increase TEAD reporter activity in NSCLC cells. Next, we showed that two siRNAs targeting HIPK2 decreased HIPK2 isoform 3 and YAP protein levels in NSCLC cells. Degradation of the YAP protein was accelerated after HIPK2 knockdown in NSCLC cells. Inhibition of HIPK2 isoform 3 decreased the mRNA expression of YAP downstream gene CTGF. The specific HIPK2 kinase inhibitor TBID decreased TEAD reporter activity, reduced cancer side populations, and inhibited tumorsphere formation of NSCLC cells. In summary, this study indicates that HIPK2 isoform 3, the main HIPK2 isoform expressed in NSCLC, promotes YAP/TEAD transcriptional activity in NSCLC cells. Our results suggest that HIPK2 isoform 3 may be a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC.

17.
World J Pediatr ; 17(3): 227-233, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary renal tubular disease can cause hypercalciuria, acid-base imbalance, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, rickets, kidney stones, etc. If these diseases are not diagnosed or treated in time, they can cause kidney damage and electrolyte disturbances, which can be detrimental to the maturation and development of the child. Glomerular involvement in renal tubular disease patients has only been considered recently. METHODS: We screened 71 papers (including experimental research, clinical research, etc.) about Dent's disease, Gitelman syndrome, and cystinosis from PubMed, and made reference. RESULTS: Glomerular disease was initially underestimated among the clinical signs of renal tubular disease or was treated merely as a consequence of the tubular damage. Renal tubular diseases affect glomerular podocytes through certain mechanisms resulting in functional damage, morphological changes, and glomerular lesions. CONCLUSIONS: This article focuses on the progress of changes in glomerular podocyte function in Dent disease, Gitelman syndrome, and cystinosis for the purposes of facilitating clinically accurate diagnosis and scientific treatment and improving prognosis.

18.
Oncogene ; 40(11): 2096-2111, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627782

RESUMO

Genomic instability induced by DNA damage and improper DNA damage repair is one of the main causes of malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are the most detrimental form of DNA damage, and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) mechanisms play dominant and priority roles in initiating DSB repair. A well-studied oncogene, the ubiquitin ligase Cullin 4A (CUL4A), is reported to be recruited to DSB sites in genomic DNA, but whether it regulates NHEJ mechanisms of DSB repair is unclear. Here, we discovered that the CUL4A-DTL ligase complex targeted the DNA-PKcs protein in the NHEJ repair pathway for nuclear degradation. Overexpression of either CUL4A or DTL reduced NHEJ repair efficiency and subsequently increased the accumulation of DSBs. Moreover, we demonstrated that overexpression of either CUL4A or DTL in normal cells led to genomic instability and malignant proliferation. Consistent with the in vitro findings, in human precancerous lesions, CUL4A expression gradually increased with increasing malignant tendency and was negatively correlated with DNA-PKcs and positively correlated with γ-H2AX expression. Collectively, this study provided strong evidence that the CUL4A-DTL axis increases genomic instability and enhances the subsequent malignant transformation of normal cells by inhibiting NHEJ repair. These results also suggested that CUL4A may be a prognostic marker of precancerous lesions and a potential therapeutic target in cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Proteínas Culina/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/genética , Humanos , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia
19.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(580)2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568520

RESUMO

Among the pleotropic roles of transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) signaling in cancer, its impact on genomic stability is least understood. Inhibition of TGFß signaling increases use of alternative end joining (alt-EJ), an error-prone DNA repair process that typically functions as a "backup" pathway if double-strand break repair by homologous recombination or nonhomologous end joining is compromised. However, the consequences of this functional relationship on therapeutic vulnerability in human cancer remain unknown. Here, we show that TGFß broadly controls the DNA damage response and suppresses alt-EJ genes that are associated with genomic instability. Mechanistically based TGFß and alt-EJ gene expression signatures were anticorrelated in glioblastoma, squamous cell lung cancer, and serous ovarian cancer. Consistent with error-prone repair, more of the genome was altered in tumors classified as low TGFß and high alt-EJ, and the corresponding patients had better outcomes. Pan-cancer analysis of solid neoplasms revealed that alt-EJ genes were coordinately expressed and anticorrelated with TGFß competency in 16 of 17 cancer types tested. Moreover, regardless of cancer type, tumors classified as low TGFß and high alt-EJ were characterized by an insertion-deletion mutation signature containing short microhomologies and were more sensitive to genotoxic therapy. Collectively, experimental studies revealed that loss or inhibition of TGFß signaling compromises the DNA damage response, resulting in ineffective repair by alt-EJ. Translation of this mechanistic relationship into gene expression signatures identified a robust anticorrelation that predicts response to genotoxic therapies, thereby expanding the potential therapeutic scope of TGFß biology.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades , Neoplasias , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta
20.
Arch Toxicol ; 95(3): 949-958, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458792

RESUMO

Azoxymethane (AOM) is a widely used carcinogen to study chemical-induced colorectal carcinogenesis and is an agent for studying fulminant hepatic failure. The inter-strain susceptibility to acute toxicity by AOM has been reported, but its association with host genetics or gut microbiota remains largely unexplored. Here a cohort of genetically diverse Collaborative Cross (CC) mice was used to assess the contribution of host genetics and the gut microbiome to AOM-induced acute toxicity. We observed variation in AOM-induced acute liver failure across CC strains. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis revealed three chromosome regions significantly associated with AOM toxicity. Genes located within these QTL, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Ppara), were enriched for enzyme activator and nucleoside-triphosphatase regulator activity. We further demonstrated that the protein level of PPARα in liver tissues from sensitive strains was remarkably lower compared to levels in resistant strains, consistent with protective role of PPAR family in liver injury. We discovered that the abundance levels of gut microbial families Anaeroplasmataceae, Ruminococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Akkermansiaceae and Clostridiaceae were significantly higher in the sensitive strains compared to the resistant strains. Using a random forest classifier method, we determined that the relative abundance levels of these microbial families predicted AOM toxicity with the area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) of 0.75. Combining the three genetic loci and five microbial families increased the predictive accuracy of AOM toxicity (AUC of 0.99). Moreover, we found that Ruminococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae acted as mediators between host genetics and AOM toxicity. In conclusion, this study shows that host genetics and specific microbiome members play a critical role in AOM-induced acute toxicity, which provides a framework for analysis of the health effects from environmental toxicants.


Assuntos
Azoximetano/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/microbiologia , Camundongos de Cruzamento Colaborativo , Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Falência Hepática Aguda/genética , Falência Hepática Aguda/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Especificidade da Espécie
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...