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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1205, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139679

RESUMO

Since its invention in the 1960s, one of the most significant evolutions of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOS-FETs) would be the three dimensionalized version that makes the semiconducting channel vertically wrapped by conformal gate electrodes, also recognized as FinFET. During the past decades, the width of fin (W[Formula: see text]) in FinFETs has shrunk from about 150 nm to a few nanometers. However, W[Formula: see text] seems to have been levelling off in recent years, owing to the limitation of lithography precision. Here, we show that by adapting a template-growth method, different types of mono-layered two-dimensional crystals are isolated in a vertical manner. Based on this, FinFETs with one atomic layer fin are obtained, with on/off ratios reaching [Formula: see text]. Our findings push the FinFET to the sub 1 nm fin-width limit, and may shed light on the next generation nanoelectronics for higher integration and lower power consumption.

2.
Biosci Rep ; 40(3)2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149326

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death among men worldwide. CRC is a multifactor digestive pathology, which is a huge problem faced not only by clinicians but also by researchers. Importantly, a unique feature of CRC is the dysregulation of molecular signaling pathways. To date, a series of reviews have indicated that different signaling pathways are disordered and have potential as therapeutic targets in CRC. Nevertheless, an overview of the function and interaction of multiple signaling pathways in CRC is needed. Therefore, we summarized the pathways, biological functions and important interactions involved in CRC. First, we investigated the involvement of signaling pathways, including Wnt, PI3K/Akt, Hedgehog, ErbB, RHOA, Notch, BMP, Hippo, AMPK, NF-κB, MAPK and JNK. Subsequently, we discussed the biological function of these pathways in pathophysiological aspects of CRC, such as proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. Finally, we summarized important interactions among these pathways in CRC. We believe that the interaction of these pathways could provide new strategies for the treatment of CRC.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(5): 4527-4546, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160589

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent cancers and currently the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. One recent study reported that lncRNA-LALR1 promotes liver regeneration, the role and underlying mechanisms of lncRNA-LALR1 in HCC remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that lncRNA-LALR1 was significantly upregulated in HCC tissues compared with adjacent tissues and high expression of lncRNA-LALR1 was associated with advanced TNM stage, poor differentiation, and distant metastasis. RNA Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed lncRNA-LALR1 was expressed not only in cytoplasm but also in nucleolus. Knockdown of lncRNA-LALR1 obviously inhibited HCC cells growth and invasion in vivo and in vitro. Besides, transcriptomic analysis and subsequent confirmation revealed that lncRNA-LALR1 upregulated small nucleolar RNA SNORD72 via binding with SNORD72 and stabilized ID2 mRNA. SNORD72 was overexpressed in HCC tissues and enhanced HCC cells proliferation, colony formation and invasion. Overexpression of SNORD72 could also stabilize ID2 mRNA and rescue the inhibitory effect of silencing lncRNA-LALR1. In conclusion, lncRNA-LALR1 is highly expressed in HCC and promotes tumor growth and invasion by upregulating SNORD72 to stabilize ID2 mRNA, implying that lncRNA-LALR1 might be a novel target for intervention of HCC.

4.
Neurosci Lett ; : 134922, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205185

RESUMO

Our previous experiments found that a suitable dose of vitamin A (VA) can affect neuronal apoptosis after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) by binding to RARα to activate the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway; however, the other neuroprotective effects of VA after HIBD, for example, whether it promotes neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, remain unclear. In this study, in vivo and in vitro experiments revealed that VA regulates ß-catenin signaling through RARɑ to affect NSC proliferation after HIBD and to improve neurocognitive outcomes. Because of the accumulation and suspended growth characteristics of NSCs, we performed in vitro experiments with PC12 cells to mimic NSCs. Flow cytometry, CCK8, EdU staining, immunofluorescence and behavioral tests were performed to explore the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on NSC proliferation and post-HIBD function. The expression of RARα and ß-catenin pathway components were measured by real-time PCR and Western blotting. We found that the learning and memory of the VA-deficient (VAD) group was more seriously damaged than that of the VA normal (VAN) group. The proliferation of hippocampal NSCs was significantly decreased in the VAD group compared with the VAN group. The mRNA and protein expression of RARɑ, AKT, GSK-3ß, ß-catenin and Cyclin D1 were significantly lower in the VAD group than in the VAN group. In vitro, too high and too low of an RA intervention resulted in decreased proliferation, while an appropriate RA concentration (1-5 µmol/L) significantly promoted proliferation, S phase cells and high ß-catenin pathway expression. These results suggested that VA can exert a neuroprotective effect by promoting the proliferation of hippocampal NSCs after neonatal HIBD injury at the appropriate concentration. VA activates RARɑ, which regulates the ß-catenin signaling pathway, which in turn upregulates Cyclin D1 expression, promotes NSC proliferation, and finally plays a role in the neuroprotective effect.

6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 953-964, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103949

RESUMO

Aim: A new Ag(I) complex (A3) was synthesized and evaluated for its anticancer activity against human cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The complex A3 was characterized by 1H, 13C, and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR) spectra, elemental analysis, and X-ray crystallography. The interaction of the complex with CT-DNA was studied by electronic absorption spectra, fluorescence spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry; cell viability (%) was assessed by absorbance measurement of the samples. Results: The interaction mode of the complex A3 with DNA is electrostatic, and this complex shows good potential in anticancer properties against HCT 116 (human colorectal cancer cells) and MDA-MB-231 (MD Anderson-metastatic breast) cell lines with 0.5 micromolar concentrations. Conclusion: The Ag(I) complex could interact with DNA noncovalently and has anticancer properties.

7.
Orthop Surg ; 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most universal and effective means for treating terminal stage osteoarthritis (OA) of knee. Accurate intramedullary guide of femur is the basis for the distal femoral cuts. Determining the surgical transepicondylar axis (sTEA) is the key to reconstruction of the femoral rotational alignment, because the correct rotational alignment can place the femoral component in the right position, balance the flexion gap so that the inner and outer tension is equal, get stability during the flexion process of the knee, and enhance the quality of life of patients. With the development of three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology in the medical domain, the application of patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) in arthroplasty has become more common. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a novel 3D-printed patient-specific intramedullary guide to control femoral component rotation in TKA. METHODS: Eighty patients (65 females and 15 males) with knee OA were included in this prospective randomized study. The patients were divided into two groups by random number table method, 40 in each group. TKA assisted by PSI (PSI group) and conventional TKA (conventional group) was performed respectively. Clinical outcomes [operation time, postoperative drainage volume, duration of drainage, Hospital for Special Surgery knee score (HSS), American Knee Society knee score (AKS)] and radiological outcomes [hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA), posterior condylar angle (PCA), patella transverse axis-femoral transepicondylar axis angle (PFA), depth of intramedullary guide] were compared between and within the two groups. RESULTS: PSI group had less postoperative drainage volume but longer operation time than the conventional group (P < 0.05). The AKS and HSS scores after surgery were improved compared with those before surgery in each group (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the duration of drainage and range of motion (ROM) after surgery between the two groups. For the radiological results, the HKA and PFA were improved after surgery in both groups (P < 0.05).The postoperative PFA and PCA of the PSI group were closer to 0°, which was better than that of the conventional group (P < 0.05). The depth of intramedullary guide in the PSI group was less than the conventional group (P < 0.05). But there was no significant difference in HKA before and after surgery between the two groups as well as the preoperative PFA. CONCLUSION: The short-term clinical efficacy of TKA assisted by PSI was similar to the conventional TKA. Although TKA assisted by PSI spent more time during operation, it could assist in intramedullary guide and align femoral rotation more accurately.

8.
Adv Mater ; : e1907288, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977113

RESUMO

In a modern electronics system, charge-coupled devices and data storage devices are the two most indispensable components. Although there has been rapid and independent progress in their development during the last three decades, a cofunctionality of both sensing and memory at single-unit level is yet premature for flexible electronics. For wearable electronics that work in ultralow power conditions and involve strains, conventional sensing-and-memory systems suffer from low sensitivity and are not able to directly transform sensed information into sufficient memory. Here, a new transformative device is demonstrated, which is called "sen-memory", that exhibits the dual functionality of sensing and memory in a monolithic integrated circuit. The active channel of the device is formed by a carbon nanotube thin film and the floating gate is formed by a controllably oxidized aluminum nanoparticle array for electrical- and optical-programming. The device exhibits a high on-off current ratio of ≈106 , a long-term retention of ≈108 s, and durable flexibility at a bending strain of 0.4%. It is shown that the device senses a photogenerated pattern in seconds at zero bias and memorizes an image for a couple of years.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999438

RESUMO

Advancement of the synthesis and control of the self-assembly process of new high-nucleus silver clusters with desired structures is important for both the material sciences and the many applications. Herein, three new silver clusters, 20-, 22-, and 8-nucleus, based on alkynyl ligands were constructed and their structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For the first time, the trivalent tetrahedron anion of AsO43-, as a template, and the surface ligand of Ph2PO2H, with new coordination modes, were employed in preparation of the silver clusters. The role of surface ligands and template anions in the size and structure of the clusters was investigated. The presence of the template in the structure of the clusters led to the formation of the high-nucleus clusters. Also, in this report, it was shown that the participation of the template in the assembly of a cluster can be controlled by the surface ligands. UV-vis absorption and luminescent properties of the clusters and the thermal stability of the 8-nucleus cluster were also studied.

10.
J Org Chem ; 85(2): 622-632, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799847

RESUMO

An efficient Pd-catalyzed arylation of alkylpyridine based on the pyridinium activation strategy has been developed for synthesis of mixed aryl alkylpyridines. It was found that (1) the N-methyl group in the pyridinium salts acted as a transient activator and could be automatically departed after the reaction, (2) CuBr was an indispensable additive for achieving the C6-selective arylation, (3) the α-branched alkyl chain on the alkylpyridine greatly increased the yield of the product. Deuterium labelling experiment revealed that in the case of the α-branched alkylpyridine, the presence of CuBr completely inhibited the H/D exchange at the benzylic position and thus enabled the selective arylation at the C6 position. This protocol demonstrates a broad substrate scope, and with respect to both the aryl iodides and the α-branched alkylpyridine, the desired mixed aryl alkylpyridines were obtained in generally good to excellent yields.

11.
J Hazard Mater ; 387: 121667, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791860

RESUMO

Water pollution by heavy metal ions especially Hg(II) and Pb(II) is one of the most important concerns because of their harmful effects on human health and environment sustainability. Here, we developed Fe3O4@TMU-32 metal-organic framework (MOF)-based nanocomposite by applying pore functionalization and surface-charge modulation strategies. Based on synergic effects of these strategies, Fe3O4@TMU-32 nanocomposite shows very high capacity toward Hg(II) and Pb(II) metal ions. TMU-32 (with formula [Zn(OBA)(DPU)]·2DMF·H2O where H2OBA and DPU are (4,4'-oxybis(benzoic acid)) and 1,3-di(pyridin-4-yl)urea)) is decorated with urea functional groups containing carbonyl and amine groups that can interact with metal ions. As results, TMU-32 show very high capacity toward Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions. To improve the TMU-32 capacity toward Hg(II) and Pb(II) cations, we tried to modulate the surface-charge of TMU-32 as a host-framework. Surface-charge modulation strategy had been conducted through encapsulation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles by TMU-32 in an in-situ synthesis procedure and synthesis of Fe3O4@TMU-32 nanocomposite. Fe3O4@TMU-32 nanocomposite shows improved removal capacity (45 % and 54 % toward Pb(II) and Hg(II)) rather pristine TMU-32 framework because of urea decorated framework and charge modulated surface. Fe3O4@TMU-32 nanocomposite adsorb 1600 mg.g-1 of Pb(II) and 905 mg.g-1 of Hg(II) which extremely rare in the literature. Such improvement can be related to the electrostatic interaction between cationic nature of Pb(II) and Hg(II) and negative charge of the Fe3O4@TMU-32 adsorbent.

12.
Mol Med Rep ; 21(1): 209-219, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746391

RESUMO

Previous microRNA (miR) microarray analysis revealed that miR­218 is downregulated in cervical cancer tissues. The present study aimed to further evaluate the expression of miR­218 in cervical cancer specimens, determine the association between its expression with disease progression, and investigate the roles of miR­218 in cervical cancer cells. Tissue specimens were obtained from 80 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma, 30 patients with high­grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [(CIN) II/III] and 15 patients with low­grade CIN (CINI); in addition, 60 plasma samples were obtained from patients with cervical cancer, and 15 normal cervical tissue specimens and 30 plasma samples were obtained from healthy women. These samples were used for analysis of miR­218 expression via reverse transcription­-quantitative PCR. In addition, tumor cells were transfected with miR­218 mimics, human papillomavirus (HPV)16 E6/E7 small interfering RNA, or their respective negative controls to determine the viability, colony formation, migration and invasion of cells using MTT, colony formation, wound healing and Transwell assays, respectively. Target genes of miR­218 were bioinformatically predicted and analyzed using Gene Ontology (GO) terms. The results revealed that miR­218 was downregulated in the tumor tissues and plasma of patients with cervical cancer, with expression associated with the advanced clinicopathological characteristics of patients, including HPV positivity, tumor size, blood vessel invasion and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, miR­218 overexpression reduced tumor cell viability and xenograft growth, and suppressed tumor cell migration and invasion. HPV was detected in 75% of the 80 patients with cervical cancer, and HPV positivity was inversely associated with miR­218 expression. In addition, bioinformatics analysis predicted that roundabout guidance receptor 1 (ROBO1) was a target gene of miR­218; miR­218 overexpression significantly reduced ROBO1 levels. Furthermore, GO analysis revealed that ROBO1 was involved in regulating cell proliferation, adhesion and migration, and the cell cycle. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggested that miR­218 may possess antitumor activities in cervical cancer.

13.
Mol Ther ; 28(2): 631-641, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862314

RESUMO

Pumilio (PUM) proteins are members of a highly conserved RNA-binding protein family that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression in many organisms. However, their roles in the placenta are unclear. In the present study, we report the requirement for the PUM homolog 1 (PUM1) gene in preeclampsia (PE). Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical data showed that PUM1 was highly expressed in human placental villi from women with PE compared to healthy controls (HCs). Further, PUM1 overexpression repressed, and knockdown enhanced, the invasion and proliferation of trophoblasts. Interestingly, PUM1 knockdown promoted trophoblast invasion in a villous explant culture model, while PUM1 overexpression repressed these effects. Furthermore, lncRNA transcriptome sequencing coupled with RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) revealed that PUM1 inhibits trophoblast invasion in PE by downregulating the expression of lncRNA HOTAIR. Moreover, PUM1 regulates HOTAIR expression via a posttranscriptional mechanism. Using RNA-protein pull-down and mRNA stability assays, we identified PUM1 as a specific binding partner that decreased the half-life of HOTAIR and lowered the steady-state level of HOTAIR expression, suggesting a novel posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism. Collectively, these findings identified a novel RNA regulatory mechanism, revealing a new pathway governing the regulation of PUM1/HOTAIR in trophoblast invasion in the pathogenesis of PE.

14.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 28(4): 115243, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879183

RESUMO

Glyoxalase I (GLO1) is a homodimeric Zn2+-metalloenzyme that catalyses the transformation of methylglyoxal (MG) to d-lacate through the intermediate S-d-lactoylglutathione. Growing evidence indicates that GLO1 has been identified as a potential target for the treatment cancer and other diseases. Various inhibitors of GLO1 have been discovered or developed over the past several decades including natural or natural product-based inhibitors, GSH-based inhibitors, non-GSH-based inhibitors, etc. The aim of this review is to summarize recent achievements of concerning discovery, design strategies, as well as pharmacological aspects of GLO1 inhibitors with the target of promoting their development toward clinical application.

15.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2419, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708894

RESUMO

Bacterial symbionts are omnipresent in insects, particularly aphids, and often exert important effects on the host ecology; however, examples of symbionts that mediate herbivore-plant interactions remain limited. Here, three clones with identical genetic backgrounds were established: a Hamiltonella defensa-free clone, H. defensa-infected clone and H. defensa-cured clone. H. defensa infection was found to increase the fitness of Sitobion miscanthi by increasing the total number of offspring and decreasing the age of first reproduction. Furthermore, gene expression studies and phytohormone measurement showed that feeding by the Hamiltonella-infected clone suppressed the salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-related defense pathways and SA/JA accumulation in wheat plants relative to feeding by the other two clones. Additionally, after feeding by the Hamiltonella-infected clone, the activity levels of the defense-related enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) in wheat plants were significantly decreased compared with the levels observed after feeding by the other two clones. Taken together, these data reveal for the first time the potential role of H. defensa of S. miscanthi in mediating the anti-plant defense responses of aphids.

16.
BMC Biol ; 17(1): 89, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells provides a unique opportunity to study human heart development in vitro and offers a potential cell source for cardiac regeneration. Compared to the large body of studies investigating cardiac maturation and cardiomyocyte subtype-specific induction, molecular events underlying cardiac lineage commitment from pluripotent stem cells at early stage remain poorly characterized. RESULTS: In order to uncover key molecular events and regulators controlling cardiac lineage commitment from a pluripotent state during differentiation, we performed single-cell RNA-Seq sequencing and obtained high-quality data for 6879 cells collected from 6 stages during cardiac differentiation from human embryonic stem cells and identified multiple cell subpopulations with distinct molecular features. Through constructing developmental trajectory of cardiac differentiation and putative ligand-receptor interactions, we revealed crosstalk between cardiac progenitor cells and endoderm cells, which could potentially provide a cellular microenvironment supporting cardiac lineage commitment at day 5. In addition, computational analyses of single-cell RNA-Seq data unveiled ETS1 (ETS Proto-Oncogene 1) activation as an important downstream event induced by crosstalk between cardiac progenitor cells and endoderm cells. Consistent with the findings from single-cell analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) against ETS1 revealed genomic occupancy of ETS1 at cardiac structural genes at day 9 and day 14, whereas ETS1 depletion dramatically compromised cardiac differentiation. CONCLUSION: Together, our study not only characterized the molecular features of different cell types and identified ETS1 as a crucial factor induced by cell-cell crosstalk contributing to cardiac lineage commitment from a pluripotent state, but may also have important implications for understanding human heart development at early embryonic stage, as well as directed manipulation of cardiac differentiation in regenerative medicine.

17.
Science ; 366(6468): 990-994, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753998

RESUMO

Aliphatic amines strongly coordinate, and therefore easily inhibit, the activity of transition-metal catalysts, posing a marked challenge to nitrogen-hydrogen (N-H) insertion reactions. Here, we report highly enantioselective carbene insertion into N-H bonds of aliphatic amines using two catalysts in tandem: an achiral copper complex and chiral amino-thiourea. Coordination by a homoscorpionate ligand protects the copper center that activates the carbene precursor. The chiral amino-thiourea catalyst then promotes enantioselective proton transfer to generate the stereocenter of the insertion product. This reaction couples a wide variety of diazo esters and amines to produce chiral α-alkyl α-amino acid derivatives.

18.
Neurobiol Dis ; 132: 104585, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445164

RESUMO

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by maternal mutation and paternal imprinting of the gene encoding UBE3A, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Although several potential target proteins of UBE3A have been reported, how these proteins regulate neuronal development remains unclear. We performed a large-scale quantitative proteomic analysis using stable-isotope labeling of amino acids in mammals (SILAM) in mice with maternal Ube3a mutation. We identified huntingtin (Htt)-associated protein (HAP1), a protein that is involved in Huntington's disease (HD), as a new target of UBE3A. We demonstrate that HAP1 regulates autophagy at the initiation stage by promoting PtdIns3K complex formation and enhancing its activity. HAP1 also co-localized with MAP1LC3 (LC3) and other proteins involved in autophagosome expansion. As a result, HAP1 increased autophagy flux. Strikingly, knocking down of HAP1 alleviated aberrant autophagy in primary neurons from AS mice. Concordantly, treatment of AS neurons with an autophagy inhibitor alleviated the reduction in density of dendritic spines. Furthermore, autophagy inhibition in AS mice partially alleviated a social interaction deficit as shown in open field test. Thus, our results identify HAP1 as an in vivo UBE3A target that contributes to deregulated autophagy and synaptic dysfunction in the central nervous system of AS mouse.

19.
Front Oncol ; 9: 736, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448236

RESUMO

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a profoundly important cofactor in redox reactions. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT) are key enzymes for NAD salvage biosynthesis pathway, which reciprocally synthesize NAD to supply the main source of NAD biosythesis. However, the prognostic value of NAMPT and NAPRT in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely unknown. Our present study detected NAMPT and NAPRT protein expression in cancer and adjacent tissues from 261 CRC using immunohistochemical staining. We found that high expression of NAMPT or NAPRT was associated with vascular invasion, invasion depth and advanced TNM stage in CRC. High expression of NAMPT or NAPRT predicts short overall survival and disease-free survival time in CRC patients, which were further confirmed by public datasets. Furthermore, positive correlation between expression of NAMPT and NAPRT was revealed in CRC tissues and cell lines. NAPRThigh/NAMPThigh patients tended to have the shortest survival time. Using the TCGA RNA-sequencing data, we showed that gene amplification, mutation, and methylation of NAPRT are more common than NAMPT. On the other hand, NAMPT gene might be targeted by more miRNAs. Finally, genes that are correlated with NAPRT or NAMPT are enriched in different pathways. In conclusion, we found that high expression of NAMPT or NAPRT predicts poor prognosis of CRC patients, but the regulatory mechanism might be distinct from each other.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2809, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243279

RESUMO

Large-area high-quality AB-stacked bilayer graphene films are highly desired for the applications in electronics, photonics and spintronics. However, the existing growth methods can only produce discontinuous bilayer graphene with variable stacking orders because of the non-uniform surface and strong potential field of the solid substrates used. Here we report the growth of wafer-scale continuous uniform AB-stacked bilayer graphene films on a liquid Pt3Si/solid Pt substrate by chemical vapor deposition. The films show quality, mechanical and electrical properties comparable to the mechanically exfoliated samples. Growth mechanism studies show that the second layer is grown underneath the first layer by precipitation of carbon atoms from the solid Pt, and the small energy requirements for the movements of graphene nucleus on the liquid Pt3Si enables the interlayer epitaxy to form energy-favorable AB stacking. This interlayer epitaxy also allows the growth of ABA-stacked trilayer graphene and is applicable to other liquid/solid substrates.

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