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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601216

RESUMO

The application of pressure can achieve novel structures and exotic phenomena in condensed matters. However, such pressure-induced transformations are generally reversible and useless for engineering materials for ambient-environment applications. Here, we report comprehensive high-pressure investigations on a series of Dion-Jacobson (D-J) perovskites A'A n-1Pb n I3n+1 [A' = 3-(aminomethyl) piperidinium (3AMP), A = methylammonium (MA), n = 1, 2, 4]. Our study demonstrates their irreversible behavior, which suggests pressure/strain engineering could viably improve light-absorber material not only in situ but also ex situ, thus potentially fostering the development of optoelectronic and electroluminescent materials. We discovered that the photoluminescence (PL) intensities are remarkably enhanced by one order of magnitude at mild pressures. Also, higher pressure significantly changes the lattices, boundary conditions of electronic wave functions, and possibly leads to semiconductor-metal transitions. For (3AMP)(MA)3Pb4I13, permanent recrystallization from 2D to three-dimensional (3D) structure occurs upon decompression, with dramatic changes in optical properties.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693585

RESUMO

Hybrid manganese halides have attracted widespread attention because of their highly emissive optical properties. To understand the underlying structural factors that dictate the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of these materials, we report five new hybrid manganese bromides with the general formula AmMnBr4 [m = 1 or 2, A = dimethylammonium (DMA), 3-methylpiperidinium (3MP), 3-aminomethylpiperidinium (3AMP), heptamethylenimine (HEP), and trimethylphenylammonium (TMPEA)]. By studying the crystal structures and optical properties of these materials and combining our results with the findings from previously reported analogs, we have found a direct correlation between Mn···Mn distance and the PLQY, where high PLQYs are associated with long Mn···Mn distances. This effect can be viewed as a manifestation of the concentration-quenching effect, except these are in stoichiometric compounds with precise interatomic distances rather than random alloys. To gain better separation of the Mn centers and prevent energy transfer, a bulky singly protonated cation that avoids H-bonding is ideal. We have demonstrated this principle in one of our newly reported material, (TMPEA)2MnBr4, where a PLQY of 70.8% for a powder sample and 98% for a large single crystal sample is achieved. Our study reveals a generalized method for improving PLQYs in hybrid manganese bromides and is readily extended to designing all varieties of highly emissive hybrid materials.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 346, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze and discuss the transmission route of a cluster of cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV). METHOD: We performed an epidemiological investigation and a genetic analysis of patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) caused by SFTSV, their close contacts and the surrounding population. RESULTS: We found that all patients had contact with the blood of the first patient. The comparison of gene sequences in the three isolated SFTSV strains showed that the strains were closely related. Six close contacts and nine individuals in the surrounding population were positive for SFTSV IgM antibody. CONCLUSION: We suspect that the cluster outbreak was transmitted via blood and that the natural reservoir host of SFTSV exists in the patients' environment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Phlebovirus/genética , Idoso , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Leucopenia/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Trombocitopenia/virologia
5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279505

RESUMO

Hybrid layered halide perovskites have achieved impressive performance in optoelectronics. New structural types in the two-dimensional (2D) halide system such as the Dion-Jacobson phases have attracted wide research attention due to the short interlayer distance and unique layer orientation that facilitate better charge-transport and higher stability in optoelectronic devices. Here, we report the first solid solution series incorporating both A and A' cations in the 2D Dion-Jacobson family, with the general formula (A')(A)Pb2Br7 ((A' = 3-(aminomethyl)piperidinium (3AMP) and 4-(aminomethyl)piperidinium) (4AMP); A = methylammonium (MA) and formamidinium (FA)). Mixing the spacing A' cations and perovskitizer A cations generates the new (3AMP)a(4AMP)1-a(FA)b(MA)1-bPb2Br7 perovskites. The crystallographically refined crystal structures using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data reveal that the distortion of the inorganic framework is heavily influenced by the degree of A' and A alloying. A rising fraction of 4AMP in the structure, decreases the Pb-Br-Pb angles, making the framework more distorted. On the contrary, higher FA fractions increase the Pb-Br-Pb angles. This structural evolution fine-tunes the optical properties where the larger the Pb-Br-Pb angle, the narrower the band gap. The photoluminescence emission energy mirrors this trend. Raman spectroscopy reveals a highly dynamical lattice similar to MAPbBr3 and consistent with the local distortion environment of the [Pb2Br7] framework. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structures reveal the same trend as the experimental results where (3AMP)(FA)Pb2Br7 has the smallest band gap while (4AMP)(MA)Pb2Br7 has the largest band gap. The structural effects from solely the organic cations in the 2D system highlight the importance of understanding the high sensitivity of the optoelectronic properties on the structural tuning in this broad class of materials.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 721: 137605, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163735

RESUMO

Owing to the wide application of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in the manufacturing of plastic products, they are ubiquitous in the marine environment. However, the occurrence of various PAEs in marine organisms from China has not been well characterized. In this study, 341 marine organism samples (including fish, shrimp, crab, and shellfish) were collected from Hangzhou Bay, China and analyzed for 16 PAEs. Further, the human PAE exposure risks raised from the consumption of marine organisms were evaluated for adults and children. In total, eight PAEs were detected in collected organism samples, with the concentration of total PAEs (∑PAEs) ranging from 64 to 2840 ng/g (mean 238 ng/g). Crab (mean 811 ng/g) samples had the highest mean concentration of ∑PAEs, followed by fish (465 ng/g), shrimp (293 ng/g), and shellfish (261 ng/g) samples. Among detected PAEs, di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were the predominant PAEs, and they collectively accounted for 84-97% of the ∑PAEs concentrations in all samples. The estimated daily intakes of DiBP, DBP, and DEHP were more than one order of magnitude higher than remaining PAEs. Calculated hazard quotient values of PAEs were all <0.1, suggesting non-cancer risks for the general population through the consumption of marine organisms. Overall, for the first time, this study systematically examined the occurrence of multiple PAEs in four types of marine organisms from Hangzhou Bay, China.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Adulto , Animais , Baías , Criança , China , Dibutilftalato , Ésteres/análise , Humanos
7.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013421

RESUMO

Bismuth-based perovskites are of interest as safer alternatives to lead-based optoelectronic materials. Prior studies have reported on the compounds Cs3Bi2Cl9, Cs3Bi2I9, and Cs3Bi2Cl3I6. Here we examine a range of compounds of the formula Cs3Bi2(Cl1-xIx)9, where x takes values from 0.09 to 0.52. Powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction were used to determine that all of these compounds adopt the layered vacancy-ordered perovskite structure observed for Cs3Bi2Cl3I6, which is also the high-temperature phase of Cs3Bi2Cl9. We find that, even with very small iodine incorporation, the structure is switched to that of Cs3Bi2Cl3I6, with I atoms displaying a distinct preference for the capping sites on the BiX6 octahedra. Optical absorption spectroscopy was employed to study the evolution of optical properties of these materials, and this is complemented by density functional theory electronic structure calculations. Three main absorption features were observed for these compounds, and with increasing x, the lowest-energy features are red-shifted.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 136417, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955077

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates are widespread in human breast milk. However, the occurrence of chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonates (Cl-PFESAs) and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) in breast milk and their effects on postnatal growth of infants through breast milk consumption are still not well known. This study characterized the occurrence of 16 poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in breast milk from 174 women in Hangzhou, China and investigated the association between lactation exposure to these PFASs through breast milk consumption and the postnatal growth of infants. Our results showed that perfluorooctanoate (mean 87 pg/mL) was the predominant PFAS in breast milk, followed by perfluorohexanoate (41 pg/mL), 6:2 Cl-PFESA (28 pg/mL), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (25 pg/mL). The occurrence and levels of Cl-PFESAs in Chinese breast milk were firstly reported in the current study. The 8:2 and 10:2 FTOH were detected in half of breast milk samples, with the mean concentration of 9.0 pg/mL and 10 pg/mL, respectively. Breast milk concentrations of C8-C10 PFCAs and 6:2 Cl-PFESA were negatively correlated with infant's length gain rate. Exposed to higher levels of 8:2 FTOH were correlated with decreased infant's weight gain rate. Daily intakes of PFASs via the consumption of breast milk were calculated for infants. Overall, this study firstly demonstrated that lactation exposure to C8-C10 PFCAs, 8:2 FTOH, and 6:2 Cl-PFESA through breast milk consumption may affect the postnatal growth of infants.


Assuntos
Leite Humano/química , Animais , Ácidos Carboxílicos , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos , Humanos , Lactente
9.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113779, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887597

RESUMO

Many studies show that bisphenol A (BPA) is widespread in human breast milk. However, the occurrence of other bisphenol analogues (BPs), including bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol AF (BPAF), in breast milk is still not well known. In this study, breast milk samples were collected from 190 women in Hangzhou, China, with the aims to characterize the occurrence of BPA, BPS, BPF, and BPAF in these samples and to investigate their effects on postnatal growth of infants through breast milk consumption. BPA (mean 2.5 ng/mL, range < LOD-15 ng/mL) was the most abundant BP in breast milk, followed by BPS (0.19 ng/mL,

Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite Humano/química , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Cuidado Pós-Natal
10.
Exp Cell Res ; 388(1): 111801, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877304

RESUMO

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by autoimmune-mediated platelet destruction and impaired platelet production, which can lead to an increased risk of bleeding. The clinical management of ITP currently remains a challenge for hematologists. We explored the role of interleukin-9 (IL-9) in the treatment of CD41-induced ITP, and investigated its underlying mechanisms in a CD41-induced ITP mouse model. IL-9 treatment increased the numbers of mature megakaryocytes (CD41+CD42d+) and CD41+Sca-1+ cells in the bone marrow in these model mice, while IL-9 receptor (IL-9R) small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited the process. Moreover, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), as a downstream molecule of IL-9R, was increased after IL-9 treatment. We next investigated the source of IL-9 in bone marrow, osteoblasts produced the highest level of IL-9. These results confirmed that IL-9 could prevent CD41-induced ITP in BALB/c mice by regulating osteoblasts and activating IL-9R/STAT5 signaling in megakaryocytes, thus providing further evidence for IL-9 as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of ITP.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(48): 19099-19109, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697076

RESUMO

Hybrid halide double perovskites are a class of compounds attracting growing interest because of their richness of structure and property. Two-dimensional (2D) derivatives of hybrid double perovskites are formed by the incorporation of organic spacer cations into three-dimensional (3D) double perovskites. Here, we report a series of seven new layered double perovskite halides with propylammonium (PA), octylammonium (OCA), and 1,4-butyldiammonium (BDA) cations. The general formulas of the compounds are AmMIMIIIX8 (single-layered Ruddlesden-Popper type with m = 4 and A = PA or OCA, and single-layered Dion-Jacobson type with m = 2 and A = BDA, MI = Ag, MIII= In or Bi, X = Cl or Br) and PA2CsMIMIIIBr7 (bilayered, with MI = Ag, MIII = In or Bi). These families of compounds demonstrate great versatility, with tunable layer thickness, the ability to vary the interlayer spacing, and the ability to selectively tune the band gap by varying the MI and MIII cations along with the halide anions. The band gap of the single-layered materials varies from 2.41 eV for PA4AgBiBr8 to 3.96 eV for PA4AgInCl8. Photoluminescent emission spectra of the layered double perovskites at low-temperature (100 K) are reported, and density functional theory electronic structure calculations are presented to understand the nature of the band gap evolution. The development of new structural and compositions in layered double perovskite halides enhances the understanding of structure-property relations in this important family.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(3): 1171-1190, 2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399319

RESUMO

Hybrid halide perovskites have become the "next big thing" in emerging semiconductor materials, as the past decade witnessed their successful application in high-performance photovoltaics. This resurgence has encompassed enormous and widespread development of the three-dimensional (3D) perovskites, spearheaded by CH3NH3PbI3. The next generation of halide perovskites, however, is characterized by reduced dimensionality perovskites, emphasizing the two-dimensional (2D) perovskite derivatives which expand the field into a more diverse subgroup of semiconducting hybrids that possesses even higher tunability and excellent photophysical properties. In this Perspective, we begin with a historical flashback to early reports before the "perovskite fever", and we follow this original work to its fruition in the present day, where 2D halide perovskites are in the spotlight of current research, offering characteristics desirable in high-performance optoelectronics. We approach the evolution of 2D halide perovskites from a structural perspective, providing a way to classify the diverse structure types of the materials, which largely dictate the unusual physical properties observed. We sort the 2D hybrid halide perovskites on the basis of two key components: the inorganic layers and their modification, and the organic cation diversity. As these two heterogeneous components blend, either by synthetic manipulation (shuffling the organic cations or inorganic elements) or by application of external stimuli (temperature and pressure), the modular perovskite structure evolves to construct crystallographically defined quantum wells (QWs). The complex electronic structure that arises is sensitive to the structural features that could be in turn used as a knob to control the dielectric and optical properties the QWs. We conclude this Perspective with the most notable achievements in optoelectronic devices that have been demonstrated to date, with an eye toward future material discovery and potential technological developments.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(12): 127401, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296165

RESUMO

Excitations of free electrons and optical phonons are known to permit access to the negative real part of relative permittivities (ϵ^{'}<0) that yield strong light-matter interactions. However, negative ϵ^{'} arising from excitons has been much less explored. Via development of a dielectric-coating based technique described herein, we report fundamental optical properties of two-dimensional hybrid perovskites (2DHPs), composed of alternating layers of inorganic and organic sublattices. Low members of 2DHPs (N=1 and N=2) exhibit negative ϵ^{'} stemming from the large exciton binding energy and sizable oscillator strength. Furthermore, hyperbolic dispersion (i.e., ϵ^{'} changes sign with directions) occurs in the visible range, which has been previously achieved only with artificial metamaterials. Such naturally occurring, exotic dispersion stems from the extremely anisotropic excitonic behaviors of 2DHPs, and can intrinsically support a large photonic density of states. We suggest that several other van der Waals solids may exhibit similar behaviors arising from excitonic response.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(40): 13078-13088, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212624

RESUMO

Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites are under intense investigations because of their astounding physical properties and promises for optoelectronics. Lead bromide and chloride perovskites exhibit intrinsic white-light emission believed to arise from self-trapped excitons (STEs). Here, we report a series of new structurally diverse hybrid lead bromide perovskites that have broad-band emission at room temperature. They feature Pb/Br structures which vary from 1D face-sharing structures to 3D corner- and edge-sharing structures. Through single-crystal X-ray diffraction and low-frequency Raman spectroscopy, we have identified the local distortion level of the octahedral environments of Pb2+ within the structures. The band gaps of these compounds range from 2.92 to 3.50 eV, following the trend of "corner-sharing < edge-sharing < face-sharing". Density functional theory calculations suggest that the electronic structure is highly dependent on the connectivity mode of the PbBr6 octahedra, where the edge- and corner-sharing 1D structure of (2,6-dmpz)3Pb2Br10 exhibits more disperse bands and smaller band gap (2.49 eV) than the face-sharing 1D structure of (hep)PbBr3 (3.10 eV). Using photoemission spectroscopy, we measured the energies of the valence band of these compounds and found them to remain almost constant, while the energy of conduction bands varies. Temperature-dependent PL measurements reveal that the 2D and 3D compounds have narrower PL emission at low temperature (∼5 K), whereas the 1D compounds have both free exciton emission and STE emission. The 1D compound (2,6-dmpz)3Pb2Br10 has the highest photoluminescence quantum yield of 12%, owing to its unique structure that allows efficient charge carrier relaxation and light emission.

15.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 18(12): 669-676, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106668

RESUMO

Francisella tularensis causes a highly infectious zoonotic disease tularemia. Both Haemaphysalis longicornis and Hyalomma asiaticum are widely distributed in China, but the presence of Francisella and Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) in the two tick species is poorly understood. Therefore, a total of 627 H. longicornis (471 adults and 156 nymphs) and 88 Hy. asiaticum ticks (adults) were collected, of which 88 were from Bole of Xinjiang, 236 from Liaoyang, and 176 from Shenyang of Liaoning, and 215 from Wuhan of Hubei. Notably, five H. longicornis pools from Liaoyang of Liaoning province might have harbored F. tularensis, showing a minimum prevalence of 2.12% (5/236). This study should alert the health department and veterinarians working within the region to prevent and control the emergence of tularemia. After the screening of 16S rRNA and tul4 genes, the results revealed that FLEs were detected in Hy. asiaticum ticks in Bole and in H. longicornis ticks in Liaoyang and Shenyang. Their infection rate was 100% (88/88), 3.39% (8/236 is a minimum), and 8.52% (15/176), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the sequence named bole in Hy. Asiaticum from Bole, the sequence named liaoyang1 in H. longicornis from Liaoyang, and the sequence named shanyang1 in H. longicornis from Shenyang shared consistent 16S rRNA sequence, and the difference between Chinese FLEs and the known FLEs was obvious. These findings suggest that this FLE species might be a potentially novel FLE circulating in H. longicornis and Hy. asiaticum from China.


Assuntos
Francisella/genética , Francisella/isolamento & purificação , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Simbiose
16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2019, 2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789666

RESUMO

Two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper organic-inorganic hybrid layered perovskites (2D RPs) are solution-grown semiconductors with prospective applications in next-generation optoelectronics. The heat-carrying, low-energy acoustic phonons, which are important for heat management of 2D RP-based devices, have remained unexplored. Here we report on the generation and propagation of coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons along the cross-plane direction of 2D RPs, following separate characterizations of below-bandgap refractive indices. Through experiments on single crystals of systematically varied perovskite layer thickness, we demonstrate significant reduction in both group velocity and propagation length of acoustic phonons in 2D RPs as compared to the three-dimensional methylammonium lead iodide counterpart. As borne out by a minimal coarse-grained model, these vibrational properties arise from a large acoustic impedance mismatch between the alternating layers of perovskite sheets and bulky organic cations. Our results inform on thermal transport in highly impedance-mismatched crystal sub-lattices and provide insights towards design of materials that exhibit highly anisotropic thermal dissipation properties.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(10): 3775-3783, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29465246

RESUMO

The three-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have shown huge potential for use in solar cells and other optoelectronic devices. Although these materials are under intense investigation, derivative materials with lower dimensionality are emerging, offering higher tunability of physical properties and new capabilities. Here, we present two new series of hybrid two-dimensional (2D) perovskites that adopt the Dion-Jacobson (DJ) structure type, which are the first complete homologous series reported in halide perovskite chemistry. Lead iodide DJ perovskites adopt a general formula A'A n-1Pb nI3 n+1 (A' = 3-(aminomethyl)piperidinium (3AMP) or 4-(aminomethyl)piperidinium (4AMP), A = methylammonium (MA)). These materials have layered structures where the stacking of inorganic layers is unique as they lay exactly on top of another. With a slightly different position of the functional group in the templating cation 3AMP and 4AMP, the as-formed DJ perovskites show different optical properties, with the 3AMP series having smaller band gaps than the 4AMP series. Analysis on the crystal structures and density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that the origin of the systematic band gap shift is the strong but indirect influence of the organic cation on the inorganic framework. Fabrication of photovoltaic devices utilizing these materials as light absorbers reveals that (3AMP)(MA)3Pb4I13 has the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.32%, which is much higher than that of the corresponding (4AMP)(MA)3Pb4I13.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(41): 14800-14806, 2017 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28953381

RESUMO

Tin-based perovskites have very comparable electronic properties to lead-based perovskites and are regarded as possible lower toxicity alternates for solar cell applications. However, the efficiency of tin-based perovskite solar cells is still low and they exhibit poor air stability. Here, we report lead-free tin-based solar cells with greatly enhanced performance and stability using so-called "hollow" ethylenediammonium and methylammonium tin iodide ({en}MASnI3) perovskite as absorbers. Our results show that en can improve the film morphology and most importantly can serve as a new cation to be incorporated into the 3D MASnI3 lattice. When the cation of en becomes part of the 3D structure, a high density of SnI2 vacancies is created resulting in larger band gap, larger unit cell volume, lower trap-state density, and much longer carrier lifetime compared to classical MASnI3. The best-performing {en}MASnI3 solar cell has achieved a high efficiency of 6.63% with an open circuit voltage of 428.67 mV, a short-circuit current density of 24.28 mA cm-2, and a fill factor of 63.72%. Moreover, the {en}MASnI3 device shows much better air stability than the neat MASnI3 device. Comparable performance is also achieved for cesium tin iodide solar cells with en loading, demonstrating the broad scope of this approach.

19.
Sci Adv ; 3(8): e1701293, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28875173

RESUMO

Perovskite solar cells have revolutionized the fabrication of solution-processable solar cells. The presence of lead in the devices makes this technology less attractive, and alternative metals in perovskites are being researched as suitable alternatives. We demonstrate a new type of tin-based perovskite absorber that incorporates both ethylenediammonium (en) and formamidinium (FA), forming new materials of the type {en}FASnI3. The three-dimensional ASnI3 structure is stable only with methylammonium, FA, and Cs cations, and the bandgap can be tuned with solid solutions, such as ASnI3-x Br x . We show that en can serve as a new A cation capable of achieving marked increases in the bandgap without the need for solid solutions. The en introduces a new bandgap tuning mechanism that arises from massive Schottky style defects. In addition, incorporation of the en cation in the structure markedly increases the air stability and improves the photoelectric properties of the tin-based perovskite absorbers. Our best-performing {en}FASnI3 solar cell has the highest efficiency of 7.14%, which is achieved for a lead-free perovskite cell, and retains 96% of its initial efficiency after aging over 1000 hours with encapsulation. Our results introduce a new approach for improving the performance and stability of tin-based, lead-free perovskite solar cells.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(34): 11956-11963, 2017 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28745881

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) hybrid halide perovskites come as a family (B)2(A)n-1PbnX3n+1 (B and A= cations; X= halide). These perovskites are promising semiconductors for solar cells and optoelectronic applications. Among the fascinating properties of these materials is white-light emission, which has been mostly observed in single-layered 2D lead bromide or chloride systems (n = 1), where the broad emission comes from the transient photoexcited states generated by self-trapped excitons (STEs) from structural distortion. Here we report a multilayered 2D perovskite (n = 3) exhibiting a tunable white-light emission. Ethylammonium (EA+) can stabilize the 2D perovskite structure in EA4Pb3Br10-xClx (x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9.5, and 10) with EA+ being both the A and B cations in this system. Because of the larger size of EA, these materials show a high distortion level in their inorganic structures, with EA4Pb3Cl10 having a much larger distortion than that of EA4Pb3Br10, which results in broadband white-light emission of EA4Pb3Cl10 in contrast to narrow blue emission of EA4Pb3Br10. The average lifetime of the series decreases gradually from the Cl end to the Br end, indicating that the larger distortion also prolongs the lifetime (more STE states). The band gap of EA4Pb3Br10-xClx ranges from 3.45 eV (x = 10) to 2.75 eV (x = 0), following Vegard's law. First-principles density functional theory calculations (DFT) show that both EA4Pb3Cl10 and EA4Pb3Br10 are direct band gap semiconductors. The color rendering index (CRI) of the series improves from 66 (EA4Pb3Cl10) to 83 (EA4Pb3Br0.5Cl9.5), displaying high tunability and versatility of the title compounds.

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