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1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 590: 163-168, 2022 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979317

RESUMO

Liquid-phase electron microscopy is highly desirable for observing biological samples in their native liquid state at high resolution. We developed liquid imaging approaches for biological cells using scanning electron microscopy. Novel approaches included scanning transmission electron imaging using a liquid-cell apparatus (LC-STEM), as well as correlative cathodoluminescence and electron microscopy (CCLEM) imaging. LC-STEM enabled imaging at a ∼2 nm resolution and excellent contrast for the precise recognition of localization, distribution, and configuration of individually labeled membrane proteins on the native cells in solution. CCLEM improved the resolution of fluorescent images down to 10 nm. Liquid SEM technologies will bring unique and wide applications to the study of the structure and function of cells and membrane proteins in their near-native states at the monomolecular level.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Receptores ErbB/ultraestrutura , Fluorescência , Humanos
2.
Mater Horiz ; 8(3): 948-955, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821325

RESUMO

Body-centered-cubic (BCC) refractory high-entropy alloys (RHEAs) are being actively pursued due to their potential to outperform existing superalloys at elevated temperatures. One bottleneck problem, however, is that these RHEAs lack tensile ductility and, hence, processability at room temperature. The strategy previously invoked to sustain ductility in high-strength HEAs is to manage dislocation movements via incorporating dispersed obstacles; this, however, may also have embrittlement ramifications. Here, a new strategy is demonstrated to achieve ductile BCC HfNbTiV, via decomposing the BCC arrangement (ß phase) into a ß(BCC1) + ß*(BCC2) arrangement via spinodal decomposition, producing chemical composition modulations and, more importantly, elastic strain on a length scale of a few tens of nanometers. The periodically spaced ß*, with large lattice distortion, is particularly potent in heightening the ruggedness of the terrain for the passage of dislocations. This makes the motion of dislocations sluggish, causing a traffic jam and cross-slip, facilitating dislocation interactions, multiplication, and accumulation. Wavy dislocations form walls that entangle with slip bands, promoting strain hardening and delocalizing plastic strain. A simultaneous combination of high yield strength (1.1 GPa) and tensile strain to failure (28%) is achieved; these values are among the best reported so far for refractory high-entropy alloys.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2218, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850117

RESUMO

Revealing the atomistic mechanisms for the high-temperature mechanical behavior of materials is important for optimizing their properties for service at high-temperatures and their thermomechanical processing. However, due to materials microstructure's dynamic recovery and the absence of available in situ techniques, the high-temperature deformation behavior and atomistic mechanisms of materials are difficult to evaluate. Here, we report the development of a microelectromechanical systems-based thermomechanical testing apparatus that enables mechanical testing at temperatures reaching 1556 K inside a transmission electron microscope for in situ investigation with atomic-resolution. With this unique technique, we first uncovered that tungsten fractures at 973 K in a ductile manner via a strain-induced multi-step body-centered cubic (BCC)-to-face-centered cubic (FCC) transformation and dislocation activities within the strain-induced FCC phase. Both events reduce the stress concentration at the crack tip and retard crack propagation. Our research provides an approach for timely and atomic-resolved high-temperature mechanical investigation of materials at high-temperatures.

5.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(5): 4345-4353, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006846

RESUMO

Various single-atom materials exhibit distinguished performances in catalysis and biology. To boost their applications, single-atom-based strategies are highly demanded to exhibit repeatable functions on advanced wearable substrates. However, single-atom approaches are rarely reported to anchor on wearable materials, i.e., widely applied cotton fabrics. Here, we developed a simple method of loading uniformly dispersed single tungsten atoms on cotton via ordinary direct-dye processing to exhibit superior sustainable functions. The single sites of tungsten atom centers are constructed by binding oxygen-coordinated single tungsten atom on the cotton fabric surface via -COOH groups. Consequently, the band gap of single sites decreases significantly to 2.75 from 3.03 eV. Therefore, the single-site-modified cotton exhibits excellent visible-light-driven (>420 nm) photocatalytic degradation efficiency of organic dyes, which exceeds other reported cotton-based materials by nearly two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the single-site-modified cotton also exhibits great antibacterial performance due to reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the cotton with anchored single sites possesses great washing-resistance ability during 20 laundry cycles under soap-washing conditions. After recycling, the single sites on cotton have no obvious changes in the microstructure, which demonstrates the success of our sustainable strategy of single sites anchored on cotton. The single-site technique can be extended to many other elemental atoms on various wearable devices, providing a playground for functional material communities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Fibra de Algodão , Luz , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tungstênio/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/síntese química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Catálise , Teste de Materiais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Processos Fotoquímicos , Tungstênio/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 532(2): 179-184, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854945

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important target for tumor therapy in various tumors. The current understanding of EGFR conformations on the cell surface is based on X-ray structural data, molecular dynamic simulations, and fluorescence-localization imaging. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) with the resolution at sub-nanometers, we successfully recognized individual molecules of EGFRs and their assembly details on the surface of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) upon one-to-one labeling by Au nanoparticles. Based on our results, we have proposed the possible configurations, structural models, and conformational transitions of EGFR oligomers. Our study shows that the high-resolution electron imaging is an invaluable tool to provide direct evidence of EGFR configuration on tumor cell surfaces, and may play a pivotal role in further understanding of EGFR-associated signaling and tumor therapy.


Assuntos
Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Receptores ErbB/análise , Receptores ErbB/química , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Ouro/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Multimerização Proteica , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
7.
Adv Mater ; 32(18): e1904387, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538374

RESUMO

Nanosized materials are known to have the ability to withstand ultralarge elastic strains (4-10%) and to have ultrahigh strengths approaching their theoretical limits. However, it is a long-standing challenge to harnessing their exceptional intrinsic mechanical properties in bulk forms. This is commonly known as "the valley of death" in nanocomposite design. In 2013, a breakthrough was made to overcome this challenge by using a martensitic phase transforming matrix to create a composite in which ultralarge elastic lattice strains up to 6.7% are achieved in Nb nanoribbons embedded in it. This breakthrough was enabled by a novel concept of phase transformation assisted lattice strain matching between the uniform ultralarge elastic strains (4-10%) of nanomaterials and the uniform crystallographic lattice distortion strains (4-10%) of the martensitic phase transformation of the matrix. This novel concept has opened new opportunities for developing materials of exceptional mechanical properties or enhanced functional properties that are not possible before. The work in progress in this research over the past six years is reported.

8.
Adv Mater ; 31(52): e1903491, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725182

RESUMO

Metal oxides, as one of the mostly abundant and widely utilized materials, are extensively investigated and applied in environmental remediation and protection, and in energy conversion and storage. Most of these diverse applications are the result of a large diversity of the electronic states of metal oxides. Noticeably, however, many metal oxides present obstacles for applications in catalysis, mainly due to the lack of efficient active sites with desired electronic states. Here, the fabrication of single-tungsten-atom-oxide (STAO) is demonstrated, in which the metal oxide's volume reaches its minimum as a unit cell. The catalytic mechanism in the STAO is determined by a new single-site physics mechanism, named as quasi-atom physics. The photogenerated electron transfer process is enabled by an electron in the spin-up channel excited from the highest occupied molecular orbital to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital +1 state, which can only occur in STAO with W5+ . STAO results in a record-high and stable sunlight photocatalytic degradation rate of 0.24 s-1 , which exceeds the rates of available photocatalysts by two orders of magnitude. The fabrication of STAO and its unique quasi-atom photocatalytic mechanism lays new ground for achieving novel physical and chemical properties using single-metal-atom oxides (SMAO).

9.
ACS Nano ; 13(8): 8708-8716, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318525

RESUMO

With continuous minimization of nanodevices, the dimensions of metallic materials used in nanodevices decrease to a few nanometers. Understanding the structural stability and deformation behavior of these small-sized metallic materials is important for their practical applications. Here we report our atomic-resolution observation of the deformation processes of Ag nanowires with widths of ∼3 nm. The nanowires under tension experienced plastic deformation via partial dislocation activities, which led to deformation twinning in and homogeneous elongation of the nanowires, and surface atom diffusion that reduced the nanowires' width but did not contribute to the nanowire elongation. The diffusion of surface atoms was initiated at surface steps introduced by the partial dislocation activities, leading to fracture of the nanowires with relatively low homogeneous elongation.

10.
Ultramicroscopy ; 195: 69-73, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195095

RESUMO

Twin boundary can both strengthen and soften nanocrystalline metals and has been an important path for improving the strength and ductility of nano materials. Here, using in-lab developed double-tilt tensile stage in the transmission electron microscope, the atomic scale twin boundary shearing process was in situ observed in a twin-structured nanocrystalline Pt. It was revealed that the twin boundary shear was resulted from partial dislocation emissions on the intersected {111} planes, which accommodate as large as 47% shear strain. It is uncovered that the partial dislocations nucleated and glided on the two intersecting {111} slip planes lead to a transition of the original <110> symmetric tilt ∑3/(111) coherent twin boundary into a <110> symmetric tilt ∑9/(114) high angle grain boundary. These results provide insight of twin boundary strengthening mechanisms for accommodating plasticity strains in nanocrystalline metals.

11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17240, 2017 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222467

RESUMO

Using state-of-the-art atomic scale super energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and high angle annular dark field imaging this study reveals the elemental partitioning preference between the γ' and γ phases in a Co-Al-W-Ti-Ta superalloy and the site preference of its alloying elements in the ordered L12 γ' phase. A semi-quantitative analysis of atomic column compositions in the ordered L12 γ' structure is provided. Co atoms were found to occupy the {1/2, 1/2, 0} face-center positions whereas Al, W, Ti and Ta atoms prefer to occupy the {0, 0, 0} cube corner positions in the L12 γ phase. These findings agree well with predictions from first principles simulations in the literature.

12.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 13264, 2017 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038576

RESUMO

This paper reports a study of time-resolved deformation process at the atomic scale of a nanocrystalline Pt thin film captured in situ under a transmission electron microscope. The main mechanism of plastic deformation was found to evolve from full dislocation activity-enabled plasticity in large grains (with grain size d > 10 nm), to partial dislocation plasticity in smaller grains (with grain size 10 nm < d < 6 nm), and grain boundary-mediated plasticity in the matrix with grain sizes d < 6 nm. The critical grain size for the transition from full dislocation activity to partial dislocation activity was estimated based on consideration of stacking fault energy. For grain boundary-mediated plasticity, the possible contributions to strain rate of grain creep, grain sliding and grain rotation to plastic deformation were estimated using established models. The contribution of grain creep is found to be negligible, the contribution of grain rotation is effective but limited in magnitude, and grain sliding is suggested to be the dominant deformation mechanism in nanocrystalline Pt thin films. This study provided the direct evidence of these deformation processes at the atomic scale.

13.
Adv Mater ; 28(25): 5099-105, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27135462

RESUMO

Ceramic/polymer composite equipped with 3D interlocking skeleton (3D IL) is developed through a simple freeze-casting method, exhibiting exceptionally light weight, high strength, toughness, and shock resistance. Long-range crack energy dissipation enabled by 3D interlocking structure is considered as the primary reinforcing mechanism for such superior properties. The smart composite design strategy should hold a place in developing future structural engineering materials.

14.
Nanoscale ; 8(7): 4030-6, 2016 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818908

RESUMO

We present the surface plasmon polariton (SPP)-enhanced ultraviolet (UV) emission of an Au@SiO2/ZnO hybrid nanostructure. We achieved approximately 20- and 8-fold enhancements of the UV-emitting intensities from Au-SPP coupled nanometre- and micrometre-scaled ZnO wires through an optimized 5 nm-thick SiO2 spacer compared to that obtained from bare ZnO on a Si substrate without SPP coupling. Cathodoluminescence measurements and simulations demonstrated that the plasmonic hybrid nanostructure enables the strong localization of the SPP field, resulting in significantly enhanced UV emission. This plasmonic structure paves the way to nanoscale UV-optical lasers and sensors.

15.
Sci Rep ; 5: 17530, 2015 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26625854

RESUMO

Freestanding nanowires have been found to exhibit ultra-large elastic strains (4 to 7%) and ultra-high strengths, but exploiting their intrinsic superior mechanical properties in bulk forms has proven to be difficult. A recent study has demonstrated that ultra-large elastic strains of ~6% can be achieved in Nb nanowires embedded in a NiTi matrix, on the principle of lattice strain matching. To verify this hypothesis, this study investigated the elastic deformation behavior of a Nb nanowire embedded in NiTi matrix by means of in situ transmission electron microscopic measurement during tensile deformation. The experimental work revealed that ultra-large local elastic lattice strains of up to 8% are induced in the Nb nanowire in regions adjacent to stress-induced martensite domains in the NiTi matrix, whilst other parts of the nanowires exhibit much reduced lattice strains when adjacent to the untransformed austenite in the NiTi matrix. These observations provide a direct evidence of the proposed mechanism of lattice strain matching, thus a novel approach to designing nanocomposites of superior mechanical properties.

16.
Sci Rep ; 4: 6753, 2014 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25341619

RESUMO

This study investigated the elastic deformation behaviour of Nb nanowires embedded in a NiTi matrix. The Nb nanowires exhibited an ultra-large elastic deformation, which is found to be dictated by the martensitic transformation of the NiTi matrix, thus exhibiting unique characteristics of locality and rapidity. These are in clear contrast to our conventional observation of elastic deformations of crystalline solids, which is a homogeneous lattice distortion with a strain rate controlled by the applied strain. The Nb nanowires are also found to exhibit elastic-plastic deformation accompanying the martensitic transformation of the NiTi matrix in the case when the transformation strain of the matrix over-matches the elastic strain limit of the nanowires, or exhibit only elastic deformation in the case of under-matching. Such insight provides an important opportunity for elastic strain engineering and composite design.

17.
Science ; 339(6124): 1191-4, 2013 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23471404

RESUMO

Freestanding nanowires have ultrahigh elastic strain limits (4 to 7%) and yield strengths, but exploiting their intrinsic mechanical properties in bulk composites has proven to be difficult. We exploited the intrinsic mechanical properties of nanowires in a phase-transforming matrix based on the concept of elastic and transformation strain matching. By engineering the microstructure and residual stress to couple the true elasticity of Nb nanowires with the pseudoelasticity of a NiTi shape-memory alloy, we developed an in situ composite that possesses a large quasi-linear elastic strain of over 6%, a low Young's modulus of ~28 gigapascals, and a high yield strength of ~1.65 gigapascals. Our elastic strain-matching approach allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be exploited in bulk materials.

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