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1.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(12): 7, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499703

RESUMO

Purpose: Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) as the most important risk factor. POAG IOP elevation is due to pathological changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Elevated TGFß2 contributes to these changes and increases IOP. We have shown that histone hyperacetylation is associated with TGFß2 elevation in the TM. In this study, we determined if clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) interference could specifically deacetylate histones and decrease TGFß2 in the TM. Methods: We tested the efficiency of different promoters in driving KRAB-dCAS9 expression in human TM cells. We also screened and determined the optimal sgRNA sequence in the inhibition of TGFß2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR was used to determine the binding of KRAB-dCAS9. An adenovirus-mediated TGFß2-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) mouse model was used to determine the effect of the CRISPR interference system in vivo. Results: We found that the CRISPR interference system inhibited TGFß2 expression in human TM cells, and properly designed sgRNA targeted the promoter of the TGFß2 gene. Using sgRNA targeting the CMV promoter of the Ad5-CMV-TGFß2 viral vector, we found that lentivirus-mediated KRAB-dCAS9 and sgRNA expression was able to inhibit Ad5-CMV-TGFß2-induced OHT in C57BL/6J female and male mice eyes. This inhibition of OHT was associated with decreased levels of TGFß2 and extracellular matrix proteins in the mouse eye. Conclusions: Our results indicate that CRISPR interference is a useful tool for gene inhibition and may be a therapeutic approach to treat TGFß2-induced OHT.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Hipertensão Ocular/genética , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/efeitos adversos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/induzido quimicamente , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hipertensão Ocular/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão Ocular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Malha Trabecular/patologia
2.
Am J Pathol ; 191(6): 1020-1035, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705750

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma is a secondary open-angle glaucoma. About 40% of the general population may develop elevated intraocular pressure on prolonged glucocorticoid treatment secondary to damages in the trabecular meshwork (TM), a tissue that regulates intraocular pressure. Therefore, identifying the key molecules responsible for glucocorticoid-induced ocular hypertension is crucial. In this study, Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk1), a canonical Wnt signaling inhibitor, was found to be elevated in the aqueous humor and TM of glaucoma patients. At the signaling level, Dkk1 enhanced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling, whereas Dkk1 knockdown or Wnt signaling activators decreased GR signaling in human TM cells as indicated by luciferase assays. Similarly, activation of the GR signaling inhibited Wnt signaling. At the protein level, glucocorticoid-induced extracellular matrix was inhibited by Wnt activation using Wnt activators or Dkk1 knockdown in primary human TM cells. In contrast, inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling by ß-catenin knockdown increased glucocorticoid-induced extracellular matrix proteins. At the physiological level, adenovirus-mediated Wnt3a expression decreased glucocorticoid-induced ocular hypertension in mouse eyes. In summary, Wnt and GR signaling inhibit each other in the TM, and canonical Wnt signaling activators may prevent the adverse effect of glucocorticoids in the eye.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Glaucoma/induzido quimicamente , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Exp Eye Res ; 206: 108530, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675778

RESUMO

Noninvasive in vivo imaging of the mouse retina is essential for eye research. However, imaging the mouse fundus is challenging due to its small size and requires specialized equipment, maintenance, and training. These issues hinder the routine evaluation of the mouse retina. In this study, we developed a noncontact imaging system consisting of a smartphone, a 90D condensing lens, a homemade light diaphragm, a tripod, and a Bluetooth remote. With minimal training, examiners were able to capture fundus images from the mouse retina. We also found that fundus images captured using our system from wild type mice, mice with laser-induced retinal injury, and a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa showed a quality similar to those captured using a commercial fundus camera. These images enabled us to identify normal structures and pathological changes in the mouse retina. Additionally, fluorescein angiography was possible with the smartphone system. We believe that the smartphone imaging system is low cost, simple, accessible, easy to operate, and suitable for the routine screening and examination of the mouse eye.


Assuntos
Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Oftalmoscopia/métodos , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Smartphone , Animais , Fundo de Olho , Camundongos , Retina
4.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 37(6): 917-927, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To develop a sensitive and clinically applicable risk assessment tool identifying coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with a high risk of mortality at hospital admission. This model would assist frontline clinicians in optimizing medical treatment with limited resources. METHODS: 6415 patients from seven hospitals in Wuhan city were assigned to the training and testing cohorts. A total of 6351 patients from another three hospitals in Wuhan, 2169 patients from outside of Wuhan, and 553 patients from Milan, Italy were assigned to three independent validation cohorts. A total of 64 candidate clinical variables at hospital admission were analyzed by random forest and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analyses. RESULTS: Eight factors, namely, Oxygen saturation, blood Urea nitrogen, Respiratory rate, admission before the date the national Maximum number of daily new cases was reached, Age, Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and absolute Neutrophil counts, were identified as having significant associations with mortality in COVID-19 patients. A composite score based on these eight risk factors, termed the OURMAPCN-score, predicted the risk of mortality among the COVID-19 patients, with a C-statistic of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-0.93). The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality between patients with OURMAPCN-score >11 compared with those with scores ≤ 11 was 18.18 (95% CI 13.93-23.71; p < .0001). The predictive performance, specificity, and sensitivity of the score were validated in three independent cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The OURMAPCN score is a risk assessment tool to determine the mortality rate in COVID-19 patients based on a limited number of baseline parameters. This tool can assist physicians in optimizing the clinical management of COVID-19 patients with limited hospital resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medição de Risco/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , China , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália , Fatores de Risco
5.
Cell Metab ; 33(2): 258-269.e3, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421384

RESUMO

Corticosteroid therapy is now recommended as a treatment in patients with severe COVID-19. But one key question is how to objectively identify severely ill patients who may benefit from such therapy. Here, we assigned 12,862 COVID-19 cases from 21 hospitals in Hubei Province equally to a training and a validation cohort. We found that a neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) > 6.11 at admission discriminated a higher risk for mortality. Importantly, however, corticosteroid treatment in such individuals was associated with a lower risk of 60-day all-cause mortality. Conversely, in individuals with an NLR ≤ 6.11 or with type 2 diabetes, corticosteroid treatment was not associated with reduced mortality, but rather increased risks of hyperglycemia and infections. These results show that in the studied cohort corticosteroid treatment is associated with beneficial outcomes in a subset of COVID-19 patients who are non-diabetic and with severe symptoms as defined by NLR.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos/citologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Tempo de Internação , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Med (N Y) ; 2(1): 38-48.e2, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043313

RESUMO

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently emerged respiratory infectious disease with kidney injury as a part of the clinical complications. However, the dynamic change of kidney function and its association with COVID-19 prognosis are largely unknown. Methods: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, we analyzed clinical characteristics, medical history, laboratory tests, and treatment data of 12,413 COVID-19 patients. The patient cohort was stratified according to the severity of the outcome into three groups: non-severe, severe, and death. Findings: The prevalence of elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN), elevated serum creatinine (Scr), and decreased blood uric acid (BUA) at admission was 6.29%, 5.22%, and 11.66%, respectively. The trajectories showed the elevation in BUN and Scr levels, as well as a reduction in BUA level for 28 days after admission in death cases. Increased all-cause mortality risk was associated with elevated baseline levels of BUN and Scr and decreased levels of BUA. Conclusions: The dynamic changes of the three kidney function markers were associated with different severity and poor prognosis of COVID-19 patients. BUN showed a close association with and high potential for predicting adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients for severity stratification and triage. Funding: This study was supported by grants from the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFF0101504), the National Science Foundation of China (81630011, 81970364, 81970070, 81970011, 81870171, and 81700356), the Major Research Plan of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (91639304), the Hubei Science and Technology Support Project (2019BFC582, 2018BEC473, and 2017BEC001), and the Medical Flight Plan of Wuhan University.

7.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 14: 3017-3024, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061288

RESUMO

The current global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected over 21 million people and caused over half a million deaths within a few months. COVID-19 has become one of the most severe public health crises in recent years. Compared to other pathogenic coronaviruses, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly infectious. Due to the lack of specific and effective treatment or vaccines, disease prevention and early detection are essential for establishing guidelines to mitigate further spread. The potential role of the ocular system in COVID-19 is still not clear but it has gained increasing attention. Here, we reviewed both clinical and research evidence on the ocular manifestations associated with COVID-19, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in ocular surface tissues and tears, and the potential role of the eye in contracting SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Exp Eye Res ; 200: 108241, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941875

RESUMO

The cannabinoid signaling system regulates intraocular pressure (IOP) in the mouse via a complex system that includes three receptors: CB1, GPR18 and GPR119. In each case, activating the receptor lowers IOP, but CB1 receptors are found both at sites of aqueous humor inflow and outflow. As such, knockout mice for any of these receptors would be expected to have higher-than average, or at least unchanged, intraocular pressure. The current study investigates the unexpected observation that CB1 knockout mice have lower pressure than wild type counterparts by testing various regulators of cannabinoid signaling in murine models of IOP. We now report that a CB1 antagonist has differential effects on IOP: SR141716 raises IOP in standard light cycle (SLC) but lowers IOP in reverse light cycle (RLC). This is mimicked by ABD1085, a negative allosteric modulator of CB1. CB1 inhibitors lower IOP in both normotensive and hypertensive mouse eyes. The pressure-lowering effect is absent in CB1 knockout mice. IOP rebounds after the end of treatment but shows no sign of desensitization with daily treatment for a week. Unlike the positive cannabinoid effect, antagonist effects are not sex-dependent. We propose that there are two mechanisms of action for CB1, one that lowers IOP upon activation and a second with inverse sign that lowers IOP when CB1 is antagonized. The relatively lower pressure in CB1 knockout mouse eyes suggests that this second negative regulation of IOP is dominant.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/metabolismo , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
9.
Cell Metab ; 32(4): 537-547.e3, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861268

RESUMO

The safety and efficacy of anti-diabetic drugs are critical for maximizing the beneficial impacts of well-controlled blood glucose on the prognosis of individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Metformin is the most commonly prescribed first-line medication for T2D, but its impact on the outcomes of individuals with COVID-19 and T2D remains to be clarified. Our current retrospective study in a cohort of 1,213 hospitalized individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D indicated that metformin use was significantly associated with a higher incidence of acidosis, particularly in cases with severe COVID-19, but not with 28-day COVID-19-related mortality. Furthermore, metformin use was significantly associated with reduced heart failure and inflammation. Our findings provide clinical evidence in support of continuing metformin treatment in individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D, but acidosis and kidney function should be carefully monitored in individuals with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Acidose/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Acidose Láctica/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Hypertension ; 76(4): 1104-1112, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673499

RESUMO

The prognostic power of circulating cardiac biomarkers, their utility, and pattern of release in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have not been clearly defined. In this multicentered retrospective study, we enrolled 3219 patients with diagnosed COVID-19 admitted to 9 hospitals from December 31, 2019 to March 4, 2020, to estimate the associations and prognostic power of circulating cardiac injury markers with the poor outcomes of COVID-19. In the mixed-effects Cox model, after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the adjusted hazard ratio of 28-day mortality for hs-cTnI (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I) was 7.12 ([95% CI, 4.60-11.03] P<0.001), (NT-pro)BNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide or brain natriuretic peptide) was 5.11 ([95% CI, 3.50-7.47] P<0.001), CK (creatine phosphokinase)-MB was 4.86 ([95% CI, 3.33-7.09] P<0.001), MYO (myoglobin) was 4.50 ([95% CI, 3.18-6.36] P<0.001), and CK was 3.56 ([95% CI, 2.53-5.02] P<0.001). The cutoffs of those cardiac biomarkers for effective prognosis of 28-day mortality of COVID-19 were found to be much lower than for regular heart disease at about 19%-50% of the currently recommended thresholds. Patients with elevated cardiac injury markers above the newly established cutoffs were associated with significantly increased risk of COVID-19 death. In conclusion, cardiac biomarker elevations are significantly associated with 28-day death in patients with COVID-19. The prognostic cutoff values of these biomarkers might be much lower than the current reference standards. These findings can assist in better management of COVID-19 patients to improve outcomes. Importantly, the newly established cutoff levels of COVID-19-associated cardiac biomarkers may serve as useful criteria for the future prospective studies and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Cardiopatias , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Pandemias , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Pneumonia Viral , Troponina I/sangue , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/virologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Cell Metab ; 32(2): 176-187.e4, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592657

RESUMO

Statins are lipid-lowering therapeutics with favorable anti-inflammatory profiles and have been proposed as an adjunct therapy for COVID-19. However, statins may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry by inducing ACE2 expression. Here, we performed a retrospective study on 13,981 patients with COVID-19 in Hubei Province, China, among which 1,219 received statins. Based on a mixed-effect Cox model after propensity score-matching, we found that the risk for 28-day all-cause mortality was 5.2% and 9.4% in the matched statin and non-statin groups, respectively, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.58. The statin use-associated lower risk of mortality was also observed in the Cox time-varying model and marginal structural model analysis. These results give support for the completion of ongoing prospective studies and randomized controlled trials involving statin treatment for COVID-19, which are needed to further validate the utility of this class of drugs to combat the mortality of this pandemic.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19 , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Hepatology ; 72(2): 389-398, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease. To reveal the hepatic injury related to this disease and its clinical significance, we conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study that included 5,771 adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Hubei Province. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We reported the distributional and temporal patterns of liver injury indicators in these patients and determined their associated factors and death risk. Longitudinal liver function tests were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the risk factors and death. Liver injury dynamic patterns differed in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TBIL). AST elevated first, followed by ALT, in severe patients. ALP modestly increased during hospitalization and largely remained in the normal range. The fluctuation in TBIL levels was mild in the non-severe and the severe groups. AST abnormality was associated with the highest mortality risk compared with the other indicators of liver injury during hospitalization. Common factors associated with elevated liver injury indicators were lymphocyte count decrease, neutrophil count increase, and male gender. CONCLUSION: The dynamic patterns of liver injury indicators and their potential risk factors may provide an important explanation for the COVID-19-associated liver injury. Because elevated liver injury indicators, particularly AST, are strongly associated with the mortality risk, our study indicates that these parameters should be monitored during hospitalization.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Bilirrubina/sangue , Biomarcadores , COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Cell Metab ; 31(6): 1068-1077.e3, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369736

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major comorbidity of COVID-19. However, the impact of blood glucose (BG) control on the degree of required medical interventions and on mortality in patients with COVID-19 and T2D remains uncertain. Thus, we performed a retrospective, multi-centered study of 7,337 cases of COVID-19 in Hubei Province, China, among which 952 had pre-existing T2D. We found that subjects with T2D required more medical interventions and had a significantly higher mortality (7.8% versus 2.7%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49) and multiple organ injury than the non-diabetic individuals. Further, we found that well-controlled BG (glycemic variability within 3.9 to 10.0 mmol/L) was associated with markedly lower mortality compared to individuals with poorly controlled BG (upper limit of glycemic variability exceeding 10.0 mmol/L) (adjusted HR, 0.14) during hospitalization. These findings provide clinical evidence correlating improved glycemic control with better outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/patologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/complicações , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Circ Res ; 126(12): 1671-1681, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302265

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Use of ACEIs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) and ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers) is a major concern for clinicians treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between in-hospital use of ACEI/ARB and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension and hospitalized due to COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: This retrospective, multi-center study included 1128 adult patients with hypertension diagnosed with COVID-19, including 188 taking ACEI/ARB (ACEI/ARB group; median age 64 [interquartile range, 55-68] years; 53.2% men) and 940 without using ACEI/ARB (non-ACEI/ARB group; median age 64 [interquartile range 57-69]; 53.5% men), who were admitted to 9 hospitals in Hubei Province, China from December 31, 2019 to February 20, 2020. In mixed-effect Cox model treating site as a random effect, after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, and in-hospital medications, the detected risk for all-cause mortality was lower in the ACEI/ARB group versus the non-ACEI/ARB group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.19-0.92]; P=0.03). In a propensity score-matched analysis followed by adjusting imbalanced variables in mixed-effect Cox model, the results consistently demonstrated lower risk of COVID-19 mortality in patients who received ACEI/ARB versus those who did not receive ACEI/ARB (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.15-0.89]; P=0.03). Further subgroup propensity score-matched analysis indicated that, compared with use of other antihypertensive drugs, ACEI/ARB was also associated with decreased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.12-0.70]; P=0.01) in patients with COVID-19 and coexisting hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and coexisting hypertension, inpatient use of ACEI/ARB was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality compared with ACEI/ARB nonusers. While study interpretation needs to consider the potential for residual confounders, it is unlikely that in-hospital use of ACEI/ARB was associated with an increased mortality risk.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações
16.
Exp Eye Res ; 176: 188-195, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006274

RESUMO

Optic nerve astrocytes play a major role in axonal degeneration and regeneration. Astrocyte lines are an important tool to elucidate the responsible cellular mechanisms. In this study, we established a conditionally immortalized mouse optic nerve astrocyte line. Astrocytes were cultured from explants derived from postnatal day 4-5 H-2kb-tsA58 transgenic mouse optic nerves. Cells were cultured in defined astrocyte culture medium under permissive (33 °C) or non-permissive (38.5 °C) temperatures with or without interferon-ɤ (IFN-ɤ). Astrocytes were characterized by immunocytochemistry staining using antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Cell proliferation rates were determined by cell growth curves and percentage of Ki67 positive cells. Karyotyping was performed to validate the mouse origin of established cell line. Conditional immortalization was assessed by western blot-determined expression levels of SV40 large T antigen (TAg), p53, GFAP and NCAM in non-permissive culture conditions. In addition, phagocytic activity of immortalized cells was determined by flow cytometry-based pHrodo fluorescence analysis. After 5 days in culture, cells migrated out from optic nerve explants. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that migrating cells expressed astrocyte makers, GFAP and NCAM. In permissive conditions, astrocytes had increased expression levels of TAg and p53, exhibited a greater cell proliferation rate as well as a higher percentage of Ki67 positive cells (n = 3, p < 0.05) compared to cells cultured in non-permissive conditions. One cell line (ImB1ON) was further maintained through 60 generations. Karyotyping showed that ImB1ON was of mouse origin. Flow cytometry-based pHrodo fluorescence analysis demonstrated phagocytic activity of ImB1ON cells. Quantitative PCR showed mRNA expression of trophic factors. Non-permissive culture conditions decreased expression of TAg and p53 in ImB1ON, and increased the expression of NCAM. A conditionally immortalized mouse optic nerve astrocyte line was established. This cell line provides an important tool to study astrocyte biological processes.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/citologia , Nervo Óptico/citologia , Animais , Antígenos Transformantes de Poliomavirus/metabolismo , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Antígeno CD56/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Cariotipagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Nervo Óptico/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
17.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 59(3): 1454-1466, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625468

RESUMO

Purpose: Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in the trabecular meshwork (TM) is required for maintaining normal intraocular pressure (IOP), although the mechanism(s) behind this are unknown. We hypothesize that Wnt/ß-catenin signaling regulates IOP via ß-catenin's effects on cadherin junctions. Methods: Nonglaucomatous primary human TM (NTM) cells were treated with or without 100 ng/ml Wnt3a, 1 µg/ml sFRP1, or both for 4 to 48 hours. Cells were immunostained for ß-catenin, total cadherins, or cadherin isoforms. Membrane proteins or whole-cell lysates were isolated for Western immunoblotting and probed for cadherin isoforms. RNA was extracted for cDNA synthesis and qPCR analysis of cadherin expression. Some NTM cells were cultured on electric plates for cell impedance assays. Ad5.CMV recombinant adenoviruses encoding K-cadherin, and/or sFRP1 were injected into eyes of 4- to 6-month-old female BALB/cJ mice (n = 8-10). Conscious IOPs were assessed for 35 days. Results: Upon Wnt3a treatment, total cadherin expression increased and ß-catenin accumulated at the TM cell membrane and on processes formed between TM cells. qPCR showed that Wnt3a significantly increased K-cadherin expression in NTM cells (P < 0.01, n = 3), and Western immunoblotting showed that Wnt3a increased K-cadherin in NTM cells, which was inhibited by the addition of sFRP1. Cell impedance assays showed that Wnt3a treatment increased transcellular resistance and anti-K-cadherin siRNA decreased transcellular resistance (P < 0.001, n = 4-6). Our in vivo study showed that K-cadherin significantly decreased sFRP1-induced ocular hypertension (P < 0.05, n = 6). Western immunoblotting also showed that K-cadherin alleviated sFRP1-induced ß-catenin decrease in mouse anterior segments. Conclusions: Our results suggest that cadherins play important roles in the regulation of TM homeostasis and IOP via the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway.


Assuntos
Caderinas/fisiologia , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Malha Trabecular/efeitos dos fármacos , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia , Proteína Wnt3A/farmacologia , beta Catenina/fisiologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Caderinas/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo
18.
Exp Eye Res ; 171: 164-173, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526795

RESUMO

Cultured trabecular meshwork (TM) cells are a valuable model system to study the cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of conventional outflow resistance and thus intraocular pressure; and their dysfunction resulting in ocular hypertension. In this review, we describe the standard procedures used for the isolation of TM cells from several animal species including humans, and the methods used to validate their identity. Having a set of standard practices for TM cells will increase the scientific rigor when used as a model, and enable other researchers to replicate and build upon previous findings.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Separação Celular/métodos , Guias como Assunto , Malha Trabecular/citologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Consenso , Feto , Humanos , Doadores de Tecidos , Preservação de Tecido , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, a large number of studies indicate that high dose ionizing radiation exposure is an important risk factor for liver damage. Whether protracted exposure to low external doses of ionizing radiation could induce liver injury is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of liver injury following protracted exposure to occupational radiation compared to a group of unexposed workers. METHODS: A three-year cohort study was initiated in Xinjiang, China in 2010 and included 508 industrial radiographers and 2156 unexposed workers. The incidence of liver injury was assessed clinically based on the evaluation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels. Logistic regression was used to examine whether radiation is a risk factor for liver injury. RESULTS: Compared with the unexposed group, protracted radiation exposure was found to be a risk factor for liver injury. Sex, age at baseline and alcohol consumption were not associated with liver injury. However, hypertension was a risk factor for liver injury. The association between cumulative recorded radiation dose and liver injury was not found in this study. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that protracted exposure to radiation is a risk factor for liver injury.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Radiação Ionizante , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Open Med (Wars) ; 12: 92-98, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28730167

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes and psychological distress in patients with chronic idiopathic anal pain. The study was conducted on patients referred to Hangzhou Third Hospital for chronic anal pain from January, 2010 to December, 2014. Patient demographics, clinical history, anorectal physiology, and radiological imaging data were recorded for all patients. The treatment outcome was noted for patients treated and followed up for more than 6 month at the present unit. Ninety-six patients with mean age of 45.1 years (range, 17-82) were studied. Seventy-one patients (74.0%) had functional anorectal pain(FARP). The main complaints were dull, sharp, stabbing, or spasm pain. Among all patients, 34.3% reported that their pain radiated into other locations. Fifty-one patients (53.1%) had bowel dysfunction, while 28.1% patients had urinary dysfunction. The common factors associated with pain relief were day time, lying down and warm water baths; the factors that contributed to aggravated pain were night time, defecation or sitting. 92.7% (89/96) of patients reported symptoms of psychological disturbance. FARP patients exhibited increased depression than non-FARP patients(P<0.05). In addition, female patients were more likely to have depression than male patients (P<0.05). The overall pain treatment success rate was 55.2% (53/96). The pain treatment outcome was better in non-FARP patients than in FARP patients(χ2=3.85, P<0.05). Conclusively, chronic idiopathic anal pain is a complex clinical symptom, involving pelvic floor muscles, the nervous system, endocrine system, and the patients' psychological conditions. Further research is needed to improve diagnosis and treatment for patients with chronic idiopathic anal pain.

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