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1.
Eur Radiol ; 30(2): 816-822, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) merged T4N0-2 and T1-4N3 to create stage IVa. In the present study, we aimed to assess the difference in clinical outcomes and patterns of failure between 8th AJCC T4N0-2 and T1-4N3 NPC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). METHODS: We included 3107 patients with stage IVa NPC disease (1871 with T4N0-2 and 1236 with T1-4N3) according to the 8th AJCC staging system. Overall survival (OS) was the primary endpoint. The clinical outcomes between T4N0-2 and T1-4N3 patients were compared. RESULTS: T1-4N3 patients had significantly worse 3-year OS (84.1% vs. 89.2%; p < 0.001) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS; 78.3% vs. 85.9%; p < 0.001), but better local relapse-free survival (LRFS; 94.9% vs. 92.2%; p = 0.003), as compared with T4N0-2 patients. Multivariate analysis showed that T1-4N3 was still an independent adverse prognostic factor for both DMFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.517, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.274-1.806, p < 0.001) and OS (HR = 1.315, 95% CI = 1.100-1.572, p = 0.003), whereas T4N0-2 was an independent adverse prognostic factor for LRFS (HR = 1.581, 95% CI = 1.158-2.158, p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In terms of the OS, T4N0-2 patients had better prognosis compared with T1-4N3 patients, and the patterns of failure differed between T4N0-2 and T1-4N3 patients. We believe that future modifications of the AJCC/UICC staging system should separate T4N0-2 from T1-4N3. KEY POINTS: • In nasopharyngeal carcinoma, T4N0-2 patients tended to develop local relapse, whereas T1-4N3 patients were more likely to develop distant metastasis. • In terms of overall survival, T4N0-2 patients had better prognosis than T1-4N3 patients. • T4N0-2 should be separated from T1-4N3 in the UICC/AJCC staging system.

2.
Water Res ; 167: 115138, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585382

RESUMO

This study investigated the polyphosphates accumulation rate in a novel sulfur transformation-centric enhanced biological phosphorus removal (SEBPR) process. The SEBPR system was continuously operated over 120 days in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) that alternated between the anaerobic mode and the anoxic mode of operation (temperature: 30 °C and salinity: 6000 mg/L Cl-). In addition to the SBR, batch experiments were carried out to test the effect of two different sulfate concentrations on the system performance and sulfur-phosphorus transformations. The key intercellular polymers of polyphosphates and polysulfur (poly-S) were identified by employing advanced microscopes. Metagenomic analysis was performed to characterize the diversity of microbes and their functions enriched in the SEBPR system. Finally, several molecular techniques including flow cytometry cell sorting and 16S DNA high-throughput sequencing were applied to identify the phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs). The amounts of P release and P uptake in the SEBPR increased gradually to nearly 18 ±â€¯6.4 mg P/L and 26.5 ±â€¯6.7 mg P/L respectively, yielding a net P removal efficiency of 84 ±â€¯25%. Batch tests indicated no polyhydroxyalkanate (PHA) synthesis, but P uptake was observed and it was correlated with the intracellular poly-S consumption, suggesting that the poly-S could act as an intracellular energy source for P uptake and polyphosphates formation. Moreover, CLSM and TEM micrographs clearly showed the presence of intercellular polyphosphates and poly-S respectively. Metagenomic analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (36.5%), Bacteroidetes (23.3%), Thermotogae (7.1%), Chloroflexi (4.5%) and Firmicutes (2.3%) were the dominant phyla in Bacteria. The conventional PAO of Candidatus Accumulibacter was found at a low abundance of 0.32% only; and an uncultured genus close to Rhodobacteraceae at the family level is speculated to be the putative sulfur PAO (SPAO). Finally, this research suggests that poly-S considerably impacts on polyphosphates accumulation in the SEBPR system when no PHAs are formed.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Águas Residuárias , Fósforo , Polifosfatos , Enxofre , Temperatura Ambiente
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4574, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594929

RESUMO

Several recent studies have shown the presence of genes for the key enzyme associated with archaeal methane/alkane metabolism, methyl-coenzyme M reductase (Mcr), in metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) divergent to existing archaeal lineages. Here, we study the mcr-containing archaeal MAGs from several hot springs, which reveal further expansion in the diversity of archaeal organisms performing methane/alkane metabolism. Significantly, an MAG basal to organisms from the phylum Thaumarchaeota that contains mcr genes, but not those for ammonia oxidation or aerobic metabolism, is identified. Together, our phylogenetic analyses and ancestral state reconstructions suggest a mostly vertical evolution of mcrABG genes among methanogens and methanotrophs, along with frequent horizontal gene transfer of mcr genes between alkanotrophs. Analysis of all mcr-containing archaeal MAGs/genomes suggests a hydrothermal origin for these microorganisms based on optimal growth temperature predictions. These results also suggest methane/alkane oxidation or methanogenesis at high temperature likely existed in a common archaeal ancestor.


Assuntos
Archaea/genética , Evolução Biológica , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Metagenoma , Oxirredutases/genética , Alcanos/metabolismo , Archaea/enzimologia , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , China , Biologia Computacional , Genoma Arqueal , Temperatura Alta , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Metano/metabolismo , Família Multigênica/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Filogenia
4.
Cancer Med ; 8(16): 6887-6893, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To identify thyroid dose-volume thresholds for radiotherapy (RT)-related hypothyroidism (HT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated RT (IMRT). In this way, we desired to guide the design of treatment plans and, finally, lower HT prevalence. METHODS: In total, 345 NPC patients treated with IMRT were evaluated retrospectively during a median follow-up of 45.2 (range, 11.3-64.9) months. Serum-based assessments of thyroid function before and after IMRT were monitored periodically. Thyroid dose-volume parameters were analyzed for their association with HT risk. RESULTS: In total, 44.1% of patients (152/345) developed primary HT. Analyses of thyroid dose-volume parameters identified a stringent dose-volume histogram (DVH) threshold defined by V25Gy (the percentage thyroid volume that receives >25 Gy, not the absolute volume) ≤60%, V35Gy  ≤ 55%, and V45Gy  ≤ 45%. Patients whose thyroid DVHs satisfied these constraints had a lower prevalence of 2-year HT compared with the overall prevalence (13.2% vs 25.8%, P < .001). Another DVH was defined by V25Gy  > 95%, V35Gy  > 90%, and V45Gy  > 75%, and patients whose thyroid DVHs satisfied with these constraints had a higher prevalence of 2-year HT than the overall incidence (36.0% vs 25.8%, P < .001). CONCLUSION: We recommend V25Gy  ≤ 60%, V35Gy  ≤ 55%, and V45Gy  ≤ 45% as the "stringent" DVH line, and V25Gy  > 95%, V35Gy  > 90%, and V45Gy  > 75% as the "inhibition" DVH line, under the precondition of not compromising the target coverage. These findings could help in the design of individual treatment plans and, eventually, to lowering of HT prevalence.

5.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1102): 20190244, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298937

RESUMO

The prevalence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is characterized by an unbalanced distribution: the disease is particularly prevalent in East and Southeast Asia. In this article, we review the evolution of the International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. With the increasing using of newer imaging methods, more advanced radiotherapy techniques and systemic chemotherapy, we also discuss newer clinical features that might affect staging. Finally, we propose the future direction of staging and potential prognostic factors that have a major influence on the treatment outcomes of this disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/tendências , Vértebras Cervicais , Previsões , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/secundário , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/virologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/virologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias Parotídeas/patologia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/patologia
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121736, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288961

RESUMO

This study investigated a new method of multiple-cycle operation of a sulphur-cycle-enhanced biological phosphorus (P) removal system to maintain good phosphorus removal performance at a high temperature (30 °C). The findings demonstrate that P removal was low and unstable under a normal cycle (77 ±â€¯18%), but multiple cycles resulted in a high and quite stable level of P removal (88 ±â€¯9%). Moreover, in the normal mode, the polyhydroxyalkanoate levels increased significantly from 2 to 15 mg C/g of VSS, the glycogen level doubled from 5 to 10 mg C/g of VSS and the polyhydroxyalkanoate and glycogen levels were maintained at considerably low levels after multiple cycles (only 5 C/g of VSS). The 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that the genera Thioalbus and Psychrobacter in the gamma-Proteobacteria class were the key functional communities. These findings suggest a high level of P removal with multiple cycles of sulphur-cycle enhanced biological phosphorus removal.


Assuntos
Fósforo/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
N Engl J Med ; 381(12): 1124-1135, 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platinum-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care for patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Additional gemcitabine and cisplatin induction chemotherapy has shown promising efficacy in phase 2 trials. METHODS: In a parallel-group, multicenter, randomized, controlled, phase 3 trial, we compared gemcitabine and cisplatin as induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy with concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone. Patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive gemcitabine (at a dose of 1 g per square meter of body-surface area on days 1 and 8) plus cisplatin (80 mg per square meter on day 1), administered every 3 weeks for three cycles, plus chemoradiotherapy (concurrent cisplatin at a dose of 100 mg per square meter every 3 weeks for three cycles plus intensity-modulated radiotherapy) or chemoradiotherapy alone. The primary end point was recurrence-free survival (i.e., freedom from disease recurrence [distant metastasis or locoregional recurrence] or death from any cause) in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary end points included overall survival, treatment adherence, and safety. RESULTS: A total of 480 patients were included in the trial (242 patients in the induction chemotherapy group and 238 in the standard-therapy group). At a median follow-up of 42.7 months, the 3-year recurrence-free survival was 85.3% in the induction chemotherapy group and 76.5% in the standard-therapy group (stratified hazard ratio for recurrence or death, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.77; P = 0.001). Overall survival at 3 years was 94.6% and 90.3%, respectively (stratified hazard ratio for death, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.77). A total of 96.7% of the patients completed three cycles of induction chemotherapy. The incidence of acute adverse events of grade 3 or 4 was 75.7% in the induction chemotherapy group and 55.7% in the standard-therapy group, with a higher incidence of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, nausea, and vomiting in the induction chemotherapy group. The incidence of grade 3 or 4 late toxic effects was 9.2% in the induction chemotherapy group and 11.4% in the standard-therapy group. CONCLUSIONS: Induction chemotherapy added to chemoradiotherapy significantly improved recurrence-free survival and overall survival, as compared with chemoradiotherapy alone, among patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (Funded by the Innovation Team Development Plan of the Ministry of Education and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01872962.).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Quimioterapia de Indução , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/efeitos adversos , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Cancer ; 10(6): 1349-1357, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031844

RESUMO

Background: First degree family history of cancer is associated with developing esophageal cancer and sparse data is about the impact on poor survival among established esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) patients. In this study, we investigated the prognoses of patients with ESCC with a family history. Methods: A total of 479 ESCC patients were retrospectively enrolled from a Southern Chinese institution. A positive family history was defined as having malignant cancer among parents and siblings. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regressions were applied for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Among 479 patients, 119 (24.8%) and 68 (14.2%) reported a first-degree family history of cancer and digestive tract cancer, respectively. Compared with patients without a family history of cancer, the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) among those with it were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.08-1.82, p=0.011) for death, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.05-1.76, p=0.018) for progression. Similar results were observed in those with a family history of digestive tract cancer (HR=1.69, 95%CI, 1.24-1.98, p=0.001 for death and HR=1.77, 95%CI, 1.30-2.37, p<0.001 for progression, respectively). Furthermore, there was a trend for increasing risk of overall mortality (p=0.021, p=0.004, respectively), and progression (p=0.022, p=0.001, respectively) with an increasing number of affected family members. Conclusion: A first-degree family history of cancer, especially digestive tract cancer is associated with poor survival for established ESCC patients and plays an important role in prognosis. The patients with a family history of cancer might need a greater intensity of treatment and more frequent follow-up.

9.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2213-2222, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) provides excellent local control in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We investigated whether simplifying 8th American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system T categories improves prognostic value. METHODS: We used 2191 NPC patients as a training set and 414 patients separately as an independent, external validation cohort. RESULTS: In the training set, local relapse-free survival (LRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were not significantly different between the 8th edition T2/T3 (P = 0.610, 0.380 and 0.353, respectively). Merging T2 and T3 to proposed T2 (proT2) provided significant differences in LRFS, DFS, and OS between proposed T categories. Proposed T categories had similar c-indices for LRFS, DFS, and OS (vs the 8th edition), which was validated in the external cohorts. Moreover, for DFS, the adjusted HRs of the proT2N0 (3.8), proT1N1 (3.8), and proT2N1 (6.0) subsets were similar; the adjusted HRs of the proT3N0 (7.0), proT3N1 (11.4), proT1N2 (11.0), proT2N2 (11.6), and proT3N2 (13.3) subsets were similar; the adjusted HRs of the proT1N3 (17.8), proT2N3 (15.3), and proT3N3 (26.4) subsets were similar; the results of the adjusted HRs for OS had the same rule. Defining proT1N0 as stage I; proT1N1/proT2N0-1 as stage II; proT3N0-2/proT1-2N2 as stage III; and proT1-3N3 as stage IVa generated orderly, significant differences in DFS and OS between stages in the training set and external validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In the IMRT era, three T categories are more reasonable (merging T2/T3 into T2) and proT3N0-2 (the 8th edition T4N0-2) should be down-staged to stage III.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(14): 4271-4279, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975664

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the value of deep learning on positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT)-based radiomics for individual induction chemotherapy (IC) in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We constructed radiomics signatures and nomogram for predicting disease-free survival (DFS) based on the extracted features from PET and CT images in a training set (n = 470), and then validated it on a test set (n = 237). Harrell's concordance indices (C-index) and time-independent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were applied to evaluate the discriminatory ability of radiomics nomogram, and compare radiomics signatures with plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA. RESULTS: A total of 18 features were selected to construct CT-based and PET-based signatures, which were significantly associated with DFS (P < 0.001). Using these signatures, we proposed a radiomics nomogram with a C-index of 0.754 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.709-0.800] in the training set and 0.722 (95% CI, 0.652-0.792) in the test set. Consequently, 206 (29.1%) patients were stratified as high-risk group and the other 501 (70.9%) as low-risk group by the radiomics nomogram, and the corresponding 5-year DFS rates were 50.1% and 87.6%, respectively (P < 0.0001). High-risk patients could benefit from IC while the low-risk could not. Moreover, radiomics nomogram performed significantly better than the EBV DNA-based model (C-index: 0.754 vs. 0.675 in the training set and 0.722 vs. 0.671 in the test set) in risk stratification and guiding IC. CONCLUSIONS: Deep learning PET/CT-based radiomics could serve as a reliable and powerful tool for prognosis prediction and may act as a potential indicator for individual IC in advanced NPC.

11.
Oral Oncol ; 91: 7-12, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cervical lymph node (CLN) metastasis of unknown primary origin is classified as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) T0 by the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging manual (8th edition). We aimed to investigate the possible primary sites and patterns of EBV-positive CLN metastases and to provide implications for the management of NPC T0 classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 269 patients with newly diagnosed EBV-positive CLN metastatic disease who underwent EBV detection via EBV-encoded RNA in situ hybridization. Fifteen patients with unknown primary tumors underwent follow-up after initial treatment. RESULTS: In patients with EBV-positive CLNs, the most common primary sites after the nasopharynx (51.7%) were the salivary gland (24.5%), lung (7.8%), oropharynx (3.3%), nasal cavity/maxillary (3.3%), oral cavity (2.2%), orbit (1.1%), and liver (0.4%). No primary site was found in 15 patients (5.6%). For salivary gland malignancies, level II and I were the most frequently involved regions. Tumors arising from the lung or liver metastasized to the lower neck (level IV, V, and VI) rather than the upper neck. After initial treatment, 2/15 patients with EBV-positive CLNs of unknown primary exhibited primary NPC and oropharyngeal tumor, respectively. Further, even without prophylactic irradiation to the nasopharynx, only one of 13 unknown primary patients developed NPC. CONCLUSIONS: The origins of EBV-positive CLNs may not be restricted to the nasopharynx alone, and are likely to involve the head and neck or non-head and neck regions. NPC T0 classification should be cautiously assigned to such tumors.

12.
Oral Oncol ; 90: 23-29, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In cancer trials, prior cancer is a common exclusion criterion. We evaluated the characteristics of prior cancer exclusion criteria in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) trials and determined its prognostic effect on patients with NPC. METHODS: We reviewed NPC trials for prior cancer exclusion criteria. Then we estimated the effect of prior cancer among NPC patients using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.Propensity score-matching was used to compensate for differences in baseline characteristics between patients with and without prior cancer. RESULTS: There were 109 clinical trials involving 10,437 patients; 49 trials (45%) excluded patients with prior cancer. Prior cancer exclusion was more common in recent or phase III trials. We identified 10,195 NPC patients; 6.2% had prior cancer. More than 70% of these cancers were in situ/localized/regional and diagnosed relatively close to the NPC diagnosis (median 3.3 years). Patients with certain prior cancer type (prostate, breast, gynecological, hematological), time of diagnosis (>5 years ago), or stage (in situ/localized) did not have inferior survival compared with patients with no prior cancer. We tested one form of prior cancer exclusion criteria in an NPC cohort resembling a modern trial population: it did not adversely affect overall and NPC-specific survival. CONCLUSIONS: Many NPC trials excluded patients with prior cancer, whichimpacts trialaccrual and generalizability. Our findings suggest that broader inclusion in trials of patients with NPC with prior cancer might not affect trial outcomes. More research is needed to understand the appropriateness of this exclusion policy across cancer types and trials.

13.
Int J Mol Med ; 43(4): 1769-1777, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720058

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most frequent diseases in elderly people and causes high mortality. Its incidence is increasing annually and no effective therapeutic treatment currently exists. In the present study, salidroside, a major active ingredient of Rhodiola rosea, was able to protect PC­12 cells from the toxicity and apoptosis induced by AD inducer amyloid (A)ß1­42. Salidroside significantly protected PC­12 cells by inhibiting Aß1­42­induced cytotoxicity and mitochondria­mediated endogenous caspase apoptotic pathways. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that salidroside significantly activated the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathways. This observation was further confirmed using the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 and the AKT inhibitor LY294002, which demonstrated that salidroside promoted PC­12 cell survival and proliferation by activating the ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways. Salidroside is a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD and provides a basis for further drug development.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 7/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/química , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Fenóis/química , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Oral Oncol ; 89: 102-106, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is the standard treatment for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The cumulative cisplatin dose (CCD) during radiotherapy is an important prognostic factor; however, the optimal CCD is undetermined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, patients with locoregionally advanced NPC treated with single-agent cisplatin-based CCRT or RT alone from 2009 through 2015 were identified. CCD was entered into a multivariate Cox regression model as a continuous variable using natural cubic splines to allow for a nonlinear relationship between CCD and outcomes. The primary endpoint was overall survival, and the secondary endpoints were locoregional relapse-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival. RESULTS: A total of 2 924 patients were included in our study, with a median CCD of 160 mg/m2 (range, 0-300 mg/m2). As the CCD increased, the risk of death remained steady until 180 mg/m2, then decreased sharply until 250 mg/m2, and then increased until 300 mg/m2. The optimal CCD of 230-270 mg/m2 was associated with the lowest risk of death and disease relapse. However, the CCD had less prognostic value for disease control, especially for distant control among high-risk patients (N2-3 or T4). CONCLUSIONS: A CCD dose of 230-270 mg/m2 (240 mg/m2 is recommended) is optimal for patients with locoregionally advanced NPC, especially for those at low risk (T1-3 and N0-1). For high-risk patients (N2-3 or T4), additional chemotherapy should be administered before or after CCRT.

15.
J Pineal Res ; 66(3): e12557, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638277

RESUMO

We performed comprehensive genomic analyses of the melatonergic system within the tumor microenvironment and their clinical relevance across a broad spectrum of solid tumors. RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of 14 solid tumors representing 6658 human samples were analyzed. The tumor melatonergic system was characterized by the rates of melatonin synthesis and metabolism using a two-gene expression model (melatonin synthesis/metabolism Index). We calculated three indexes according to different melatonin metabolism isoenzymes (Index-I [ASMT:CYP1A1], Index-II [ASMT:CYP1A2], and Index-III [ASMT:CYP1B1]). Samples of each cancer type were classified into two subgroups (high vs low) based on median values. Clinical outcomes, mutational burden, and neoepitope abundance were analyzed and compared. We found that the ability of the tumor microenvironment to synthesize and accumulate melatonin varied across cancer types and negatively correlated with tumor burden. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and multivariable modeling showed that the three indexes played different roles across different cancers and harbored prognostic values in breast cancer (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]Index-II  = 0.65 [0.44-0.97]; P = 0.03), cervical cancer (AHRIndex-I  = 0.62 [0.39-0.98]; P = 0.04), lung squamous cell carcinoma (AHRIndex-III  = 0.75 [0.56-0.99]; P = 0.04), melanoma (AHRIndex-I  = 0.74 [0.55-0.98]; P = 0.04), and stomach adenocarcinoma (AHRIndex-III  = 0.68 [0.41-0.94]; P = 0.02). We further investigated its clinical relevance with tumor immunogenic features (mutational burden and neoantigen abundance), which may predict immunotherapy benefits. We observed significant negative correlations with mutational burden in the majority of tumors (P < 0.05), except cervical cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and thyroid carcinoma. Our study provides a systematic overview of the oncostatic values of the melatonergic system and highlights the utilization of this simple and promising gene signature as a prognosticator and potential predictor of response to immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Melatonina/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Genômica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Transcriptoma
16.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 295-305, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613964

RESUMO

To report long-term results of a randomized controlled trial that compared cisplatin/fluorouracil/docetaxel (TPF) induction chemotherapy (IC) plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with CCRT alone in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients with stage III-IVB (except T3-4 N0) NPC were randomly assigned to receive IC plus CCRT (n = 241) or CCRT alone (n = 239). IC included three cycles of docetaxel (60 mg/m2 d1), cisplatin (60 mg/m2 d1), and fluorouracil (600 mg/m2 /d civ d1-5) every 3 weeks. Patients from both groups received intensity-modulated radiotherapy concurrently with three cycles of 100 mg/m2 cisplatin every 3 weeks. After a median follow-up of 71.5 months, the IC plus CCRT group showed significantly better 5-year failure-free survival (FFS, 77.4% vs. 66.4%, p = 0.019), overall survival (OS, 85.6% vs. 77.7%, p = 0.042), distant failure-free survival (88% vs. 79.8%, p = 0.030), and locoregional failure-free survival (90.7% vs. 83.8%, p = 0.044) compared to the CCRT alone group. Post hoc subgroup analyses revealed that beneficial effects on FFS were primarily observed in patients with N1, stage IVA, pretreatment lactate dehydrogenase ≥170 U/l, or pretreatment plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA ≥6000 copies/mL. Two nomograms were further developed to predict the potential FFS and OS benefit of TPF IC. The incidence of grade 3 or 4 late toxicities was 8.8% (21/239) in the IC plus CCRT group and 9.2% (22/238) in the CCRT alone group. Long-term follow-up confirmed that TPF IC plus CCRT significantly improved survival in locoregionally advanced NPC with no marked increase in late toxicities and could be an option of treatment for these patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Quimiorradioterapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nomogramas , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 104(2): 355-361, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load at induction chemotherapy (ICT) completion (postICT-DNA) is a useful outcome predictor in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and to compare the prognostic value of postICT- DNA and post-chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) DNA (postRT-DNA). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed 278 patients with stage III-IV NPC treated with ICT followed by concurrent CCRT. The EBV DNA load was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction pre-ICT (pre-DNA), at ICT completion (postICT-DNA), and 1 week after CCRT completion (postRT-DNA). RESULTS: PostICT-DNA was associated with significantly worse 3-year overall survival (86.4% vs. 93.4%, P = .023), distant metastasis-free survival (69.2% vs. 93.9%, P < .001), and disease-free survival (64.6% vs. 88.7%, P < .001) than was undetectable postICT-DNA. In multivariate analysis, postICT-DNA was an independent predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 2.567; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.104-5.967; P = .029), distant metastasis-free survival (HR, 5.618; 95% CI, 2.781-11.348; P < .001), and disease-free survival (HR, 3.672; 95% CI, 2.064-6.533; P < .001). The postICT-DNA and postRT-DNA areas under the curve were 0.584 and 0.561 (P < .001), respectively, for predicting 3-year death; 0.717 and 0.649 (P < .001), respectively, for predicting 3-year metastasis; and 0.659 and 0.602 (P < .001), respectively, for predicting 3-year disease failure. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma EBV DNA load at ICT completion is a powerful and earlier outcome predictor in locoregionally advanced NPC that would facilitate further risk stratification and early treatment modification.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/sangue , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/sangue , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/sangue , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Área Sob a Curva , Quimiorradioterapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/mortalidade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Cancer ; 125(1): 79-89, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients who have Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in which the tumor tissues harbor EBV have a better prognosis than those without EBV-related NPC. Therefore, the eighth edition of the TNM staging system could be modified for EBV-related NPC by incorporating the measurement of plasma EBV DNA. METHODS: In total, 979 patients with NPC who received intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were retrospectively reviewed. Recursive partitioning analysis was conducted based on tumor (T) classification, lymph node (N) classification, and EBV DNA measurement to derive objectively the proposed stage groupings. The validity of the proposed stage groupings was confirmed in a prospective cohort of 550 consecutive patients who also received with IMRT. RESULTS: The pretreatment plasma EBV DNA level was identified as a significant, negative prognostic factor for progression-free survival and overall survival in univariate analysis (all P < .001) and multivariate analysis (all P < .05). Recursive partitioning analysis of the primary cohort to incorporate EBV DNA generated the following proposed stage groupings: stage RI (T1N0), RIIA (T2-T3N0 or T1-T3N1, EBV DNA ≤2000 copies/mL), stage RIIB (T2-T3N0 or T1-T3N1, EBV DNA >2000 copies/mL; T1-T3N2, EBV DNA ≤2000 copies/mL), stage RIII (T1-T3N2, EBV DNA >2000 copies/mL; T4N0-N2), and stage RIVA (any T and N3). In the validation cohort, the 5-year progression-free survival rate was 100%, 87.9%, 76.7%, 68.7%, and 50.4% for proposed stage RI, RIIA, RIIB, RIII, and RIV NPC, respectively (P < .001). Compared with the eighth edition TNM stage groupings, the proposed stage groupings incorporating EBV DNA provided better hazard consistency, hazard discrimination, outcome prediction, and sample size balance. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed stage groupings have better prognostic performance than the eighth edition of the TNM staging system. EBV DNA titers should be included in the TNM staging system to assess patients who have EBV-related NPC.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/sangue , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , DNA Viral/efeitos da radiação , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/radioterapia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Masculino , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/virologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/virologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Oncologist ; 24(4): 498-504, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines are among the most widely used guidance in oncology. It is critical to understand the extent to which the recommendations in these guidelines are supported by evidence and to investigate whether these recommendations have been influenced by payments from industry to authors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the quality and consistency of evidence, as scored by guidelines authors, for systemic treatment incorporated in the NCCN guidelines. Payments data in 2015 were manually abstracted using the Open Payments database, which discloses all payments between the industry and American physicians. Correlations between the percentage of authors who received payments and the proportion of recommendations developed from low-level evidence per guideline were calculated using Spearman rank correlation. RESULTS: In total, 1,782 recommendations were identified in 29 guidelines, of which 1,282 (71.9%) were based on low-quality or low-consistency evidence (low-level evidence), including "case reports or clinical experience only" (18.9%). A substantial proportion (31/143, 21.7%) of category 1 (the highest level) recommendations were based on low-level evidence. The majority of authors (87.1%) received payments from industry. However, no association was found between the prevalence of payments among authors and the percentage of recommendations developed from low-level evidence per guideline. CONCLUSION: The majority of systemic treatment recommendations in the NCCN guidelines are based on low-level evidence, including more than one in five category 1 recommendations. Payments from industry were prevalent among authors. However, industrial payments among authors were not associated with inclusion of regimen/agent for which there is no conclusive evidence in the guidelines. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The authors found that the majority (71.9%) of systemic treatment recommendations issued in the current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines were based on low-level evidence. Physicians should remain cautious when using current guidelines as the sole source guiding patient care decisions.

20.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 19(12): 924-934, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507076

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in interhemispheric functional connectivity in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) based on a triple network model consisting of the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and executive control network (ECN). The technique of voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) analysis was applied to explore the aberrant connectivity of all patients. The results showed that: (1) the statistically significant connections of interhemispheric brain regions included DMN-related brain regions (i.e. precuneus, calcarine, fusiform, cuneus, lingual gyrus, temporal inferior gyrus, and hippocampus), SN-related brain regions (i.e. frontoinsular cortex), and ECN-related brain regions (i.e. frontal middle gyrus and frontal inferior); (2) the precuneus and frontal middle gyrus in the AD group exhibited lower VMHC values than those in the aMCI and healthy control (HC) groups, but no significant difference was observed between the aMCI and HC groups; and (3) significant correlations were found between peak VMHC results from the precuneus and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Scale (MOCA) scores and their factor scores in the AD, aMCI, and AD plus aMCI groups, and between the results from the frontal middle gyrus and MOCA factor scores in the aMCI group. These findings indicated that impaired interhemispheric functional connectivity was observed in AD and could be a sensitive neuroimaging biomarker for AD. More specifically, the DMN was inhibited, while the SN and ECN were excited. VMHC results were correlated with MMSE and MOCA scores, highlighting that VMHC could be a sensitive neuroimaging biomarker for AD and the progression from aMCI to AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa
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