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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248334, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690672

RESUMO

The worldwide spread of a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) since December 2019 has posed a severe threat to individuals' well-being. While the world at large is waiting that the released vaccines immunize most citizens, public health experts suggest that, in the meantime, it is only through behavior change that the spread of COVID-19 can be controlled. Importantly, the required behaviors are aimed not only at safeguarding one's own health. Instead, individuals are asked to adapt their behaviors to protect the community at large. This raises the question of which social concerns and moral principles make people willing to do so. We considered in 23 countries (N = 6948) individuals' willingness to engage in prescribed and discretionary behaviors, as well as country-level and individual-level factors that might drive such behavioral intentions. Results from multilevel multiple regressions, with country as the nesting variable, showed that publicized number of infections were not significantly related to individual intentions to comply with the prescribed measures and intentions to engage in discretionary prosocial behaviors. Instead, psychological differences in terms of trust in government, citizens, and in particular toward science predicted individuals' behavioral intentions across countries. The more people endorsed moral principles of fairness and care (vs. loyalty and authority), the more they were inclined to report trust in science, which, in turn, statistically predicted prescribed and discretionary behavioral intentions. Results have implications for the type of intervention and public communication strategies that should be most effective to induce the behavioral changes that are needed to control the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Governo , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , /patogenicidade
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374936

RESUMO

Attention on, and interest in, life satisfaction has increased worldwide. However, research on life satisfaction focused toward the urban dwellers' residential community is mainly from western countries, and the limited research from China is solely focused on the geriatric population via a narrowly constrained research perspective. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate urbanites' life satisfaction toward their community, combining the psychological (behavioral community engagement, mental state of flow, and cognitive community identity), physical (PREQIs-perceived residential environment quality indicators: e.g., green area), and social perspectives (social capital). The proposed conceptual model was tested on a regionally representative sample of 508 urban community residents in the city of Chengdu, Sichuan province, China. Data were analyzed via a structure equation modelling approach in AMOS software. Findings suggested that all of the psychological, physical and social factors contributed to a prediction of life satisfaction. Specifically, social capital mediated the path from community engagement and flow to life satisfaction, and community identity mediated the path from flow experience and green area to life satisfaction. Additionally, social capital contributed to predict life satisfaction through its influence on community identity. Findings provide suggestions for urban designers and policymakers to focus on creating an urban community equipped with green area, which helps to promote physical activities that are flow-productive, to enhance residents' identification to their residential community and, therefore, increase life satisfaction.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Características de Residência , Capital Social , Adulto , China , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
3.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957676

RESUMO

The stereotype "what is beautiful is good" suggests that having an attractive physical appearance is very important to people's lives. Physical attractiveness, as an important personal trait, plays vital roles for shaping one's first impression, and for influencing one's subsequent evaluation and selection, based on obvious visual features. However, the contextual difference of the physical attractiveness between a group and its group members has been given less attention. For this reason, Van Osch et al. proposed and tested that the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members (GA-effect), while Walker and Vul found that an individual as a group member is perceived to be more attractive in group context than in isolation (cheerleader effect). Our present work seeks to replicate these two effects on a sample of 1005 Chinese participants to check whether such effects also exist in China, a collectivist culture. Participants were asked to rate the degree of attractiveness presented in each photo stimuli and in each rating condition, and the results show that: (a) the participants' ratings of physical attractiveness of a group was significantly higher than the average attractiveness of its members (i.e., replicating the GA-effect); (b) the participants' ratings of physical attractiveness of an individual was evaluated higher in a group than in isolation (i.e., replicating the cheerleader effect); and (c) the larger the group size, the larger the GA-effect. This validating study may aid in understanding human behavior, judgments, and perceptions according to the GA-effect and the cheerleader effect used in a different context in China.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517165

RESUMO

Engaging in prosocial behavior is considered an effective way to increase happiness in a sustainable manner. However, there is insufficient knowledge about the conditions under which such a happiness effect occurs. From a person-activity congruence perspective, we proposed that an individual's eudaimonic orientation moderates the effect of prosocial behavior on happiness, whereas hedonic orientation does not. For this purpose, 128 participants were assigned to play a game in which half of them were explained the benevolence impact of playing the game (the benevolence condition), and the other half played the same game without this knowledge (the control condition). Participants' eudaimonic and hedonic orientations were assessed before the game, and their post-task happiness were measured after the game. The results showed that participants in the benevolence condition reported higher post-task positive affect than those in the control condition. Furthermore, this happiness effect was moderated by participants' eudaimonic orientation-participants with high eudaimonic orientation reaped greater benefits from benevolence, and their hedonic orientation did not moderate the relationship between benevolence and happiness. The importance of the effect of person-activity congruence on happiness is discussed, along with the implications of these findings for sustainably pursuing happiness.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Orientação , Prazer/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Comportamento , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Personalidade , Filosofia , Teoria Psicológica , Virtudes
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(7)2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235394

RESUMO

In the process of the attitude measurement for a steering drilling system, the measurement of the attitude parameters may be uncertain and unpredictable due to the influence of server vibration on bits. In order to eliminate the interference caused by vibration on the measurement and quickly obtain the accurate attitude parameters of the steering drilling tool, a new method for multi-sensor dynamic attitude combined measurement is presented. Firstly, by using a triaxial accelerometer and triaxial magnetometer measurement system, the nonlinear model based on the quaternion is established. Then, an improved adaptive fading square root unscented Kalman filter is proposed for eliminating the vibration disturbance signal. In this algorithm, the square root of the state covariance matrix is used to replace the covariance matrix in the classical unscented Kalman filter (UKF) to avoid the filter divergence caused by the negative definite state covariance matrix. The fading factor is introduced into UKF to adjust the filter gain in real-time and improve the adaptive ability of the algorithm to mutation state. Finally, the computational method of the fading factor is optimized to ensure the self-adaptability of the algorithm and reduce the computational complexity. The results of the laboratory test and the field-drilling data show that the proposed method can filter out the interference noise in the attitude measurement sensor effectively, improve the solution accuracy of attitude parameters of drilling tools in the case of abrupt changes in the measuring environment, and thus ensuring the dynamic stability of the well trajectory.

6.
New Phytol ; 223(2): 922-938, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087356

RESUMO

Plants produce countless specialized metabolites crucial for their development and fitness, and many are useful bioactive compounds. Capsaicinoids are intriguing genus-specialized metabolites that confer a pungent flavor to Capsicum fruits, and they are widely applied in different areas. Among the five domesticated Capsicum species, Capsicum chinense has a high content of capsaicinoids, which results in an extremely hot flavor. However, the species-specific upregulation of capsaicinoid-biosynthetic genes (CBGs) and the evolution of extremely pungent peppers are not well understood. We conducted genetic and functional analyses demonstrating that the quantitative trait locus Capsaicinoid1 (Cap1), which is identical to Pun3 contributes to the level of pungency. The Cap1/Pun3 locus encodes the Solanaceae-specific MYB transcription factor MYB31. Capsicum species have evolved placenta-specific expression of MYB31, which directly activates expression of CBGs and results in genus-specialized metabolite production. The capsaicinoid content depends on MYB31 expression. Natural variations in the MYB31 promoter increase MYB31 expression in C. chinense via the binding of the placenta-specific expression of transcriptional activator WRKY9 and augmentation of CBG expression, which promotes capsaicinoid biosynthesis. Our findings provide insights into the evolution of extremely pungent C. chinense, which is due to natural variations in the master regulator, and offers targets for engineering or selecting flavor in Capsicum.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Capsicum/genética , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Bases , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
7.
Front Psychol ; 7: 1654, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27872600

RESUMO

This study examined the relationship between flow experience and place identity, based on eudaimonistic identity theory (EIT) which prioritizes self-defining activities as important for an individual's identification of his/her goals, values, beliefs, and interests corresponding to one's own identity development or enhancement. This study focuses on place identity, the identity's features relating to a person's relation with her/his place. The study is also based on flow theory, according to which some salient features of an activity experience are important for happiness and well-being. Questionnaire surveys on Italian and Greek residents focused on their perceived flow and place identity in relation to their own specific local place experiences. The overall findings revealed that flow experience occurring in one's own preferred place is widely reported as resulting from a range of self-defining activities, irrespective of gender or age, and it is positively and significantly associated with one's own place identity. Such findings provide the first quantitative evidence about the link between flow experienced during meaningfully located self-defining activities and identity experienced at the place level, similarly to the corresponding personal and social levels that had been previously already empirically tested. Results are also discussed in terms of their implications for EIT's understanding and enrichment, especially by its generalization from the traditional, personal identity level up to that of place identity. More generally, this study has implications for maintaining or enhancing one's own place identity, and therefore people-place relations, by means of facilitating a person's flow experience within psychologically meaningful places.

8.
Sci Rep ; 6: 32534, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27581206

RESUMO

Purple foliage always appears in Camellia sinensis families; however, the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is unknown. The tea bud sport cultivar 'Zijuan' confers an abnormal pattern of anthocyanin accumulation, resulting in a mutant phenotype that has a striking purple color in young foliage and in the stem. In this study, we aimed to unravel the underlying molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthetic regulation in C. sinensis. Our results revealed that activation of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) anthocyanin1 (CsAN1) specifically upregulated the bHLH TF CsGL3 and anthocyanin late biosynthetic genes (LBGs) to confer ectopic accumulation of pigment in purple tea. We found CsAN1 interacts with bHLH TFs (CsGL3 and CsEGL3) and recruits a WD-repeat protein CsTTG1 to form the MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) complex that regulates anthocyanin accumulation. We determined that the hypomethylation of a CpG island in the CsAN1 promoter is associated with the purple phenotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that low temperature and long illumination induced CsAN1 promoter demethylation, resulting in upregulated expression to promote anthocyanin accumulation in the foliage. The successful isolation of CsAN1 provides important information on the regulatory control of anthocyanin biosynthesis in C. sinensis and offers a genetic resource for the development of new varieties with enhanced anthocyanin content.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Camellia sinensis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Antocianinas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Pigmentação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Chá/química , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Front Psychol ; 7: 67, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26924995

RESUMO

Eudaimonistic identity theory posits a link between activity and identity, where a self-defining activity promotes the strength of a person's identity. An activity engaged in with high enjoyment, full involvement, and high concentration can facilitate the subjective experience of flow. In the present paper, we hypothesized in accordance with the theory of psychological selection that beyond the promotion of individual development and complexity at the personal level, the relationship between flow and identity at the social level is also positive through participation in self-defining activities. Three different samples (i.e., American, Chinese, and Spanish) filled in measures for flow and social identity, with reference to four previously self-reported activities, characterized by four different combinations of skills (low vs. high) and challenges (low vs. high). Findings indicated that flow was positively associated with social identity across each of the above samples, regardless of participants' gender and age. The results have implications for increasing social identity via participation in self-defining group activities that could facilitate flow.

10.
Psych J ; 4(3): 123-37, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26354153

RESUMO

This paper concerns people's assessment of their neighborhood of residence in a Chinese urban context. The aim of the study was to verify the factorial structure and the reliability of two instruments originally developed and validated in Italy (the full versions of the Perceived Residential Environment Quality Indicators [PREQIs] and of the Neighborhood Attachment Scale [NAS]) in a different cultural and linguistic context. The instruments consist of 11 scales measuring the PREQIs and one scale measuring neighborhood attachment (NA). The PREQIs scales include items covering four macroevaluative domains of residential environment quality: architectural and urban planning aspects (three scales: Architectural and Town-planning Space, Organization of Accessibility and Roads, Green Areas), sociorelational aspects (one scale: People and Social Relations), functional aspects (four scales: Welfare Services, Recreational Services, Commercial Services, and Transport Services), and contextual aspects (three scales: Pace of Life, Environmental Health, Upkeep and Care). The PREQIs and NAS were included in a self-report questionnaire, which had been translated and back-translated from English to Chinese, and was then administered to 340 residents in six districts (differing along various features) of a highly urbanized context in China, the city of Chongqing. Results confirmed the factorial structure of the scales and demonstrated good internal consistency of the indicators, thus reaffirming the results of previous studies carried out in Western urban contexts. The indicators tapping the neighborhood's contextual aspects (i.e., pace of life, environmental health, and upkeep) emerged as most correlated to NA.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Saúde Mental , Características de Residência , China , Planejamento de Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Recreação/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
11.
Cogn Process ; 16 Suppl 1: 165-9, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26267118

RESUMO

Architectural and environmental psychology literature has shown the importance of urban design in provoking stress feelings or enhancing well-being and quality of life. The aim of this contribution is to show the main results of a set of cross-cultural survey studies concerning the perceived quality of urban features at the neighbourhood level. A questionnaire was used including the extended or the short version of the 11 scales measuring Perceived Residential Environment Quality Indicators (PREQIs), which cover architectural, social, functional, and contextual aspects. Both versions of PREQIs showed a similar factorial structure and a good (or at least acceptable) reliability across different geographical contexts, even though some differences emerged in those countries that are more distant from the Western linguistic and cultural milieu. The development of tools like PREQIs should increase a "user-centred" vision on urban issues.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Meio Ambiente , Características de Residência , Feminino , França , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Meio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Biol Psychol ; 109: 141-50, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26026894

RESUMO

Suppression of spontaneous alpha oscillatory activities, interpreted as cortical excitability, was observed in response to both transient and tonic painful stimuli. The changes of alpha rhythms induced by pain could be modulated by painful sensory inputs, experimental tasks, and top-down cognitive regulations such as attention. The temporal and spatial characteristics, as well as neural functions of pain induced alpha responses, depend much on how these factors contribute to the observed alpha event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS). How sensory-, task-, and cognitive-related changes of alpha oscillatory activities interact in pain perception process is reviewed in the current study, and the following conclusions are made: (1) the functional inhibition hypothesis that has been proposed in auditory and visual modalities could be applied also in pain modality; (2) the neural functions of pain induced alpha ERD/ERS were highly dependent on the cortical regions where it is observed, e.g., somatosensory cortex alpha ERD/ERS in pain perception for painful stimulus processing; (3) the attention modulation of pain perception, i.e., influences on the sensory and affective dimensions of pain experience, could be mediated by changes of alpha rhythms. Finally, we propose a model regarding the determinants of pain related alpha oscillatory activity, i.e., sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational, and cognitive-modulative aspects of pain experience, would affect and determine pain related alpha oscillatory activities in an integrated way within the distributed alpha system.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Sincronização de Fases em Eletroencefalografia/fisiologia , Percepção da Dor/fisiologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Humanos
13.
Behav Brain Res ; 295: 71-77, 2015 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25979788

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that alpha event-related desynchronization (α-ERD) is associated with reaction to visual stimuli in oddball paradigm, as a reflection of attention allocation and memory updating. The present study tested the hypothesis that it reflects a modality and/or frequency specific mechanism. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings (64 channels) were performed on 18 healthy subjects during visual, auditory, somatosensory, and pain oddball paradigms. Low- and high-frequency α-rhythm were analyzed on individual basis, and their sources were estimated by low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). α-ERD, served as an index of cortical activation, was computed on the cortical voxel level and compared across the conditions (target vs. non-target), α sub-bands (lower vs. higher frequency), and modalities (visual, auditory, somatosensory, and pain). The results showed that visual α-ERD was mainly generated from occipital cortex for both target and non-target conditions. Its magnitude was enhanced across widespread cortical regions (e.g., bilateral occipital, parietal, and frontal areas) in the target condition and was greater in high-frequency α-band. Finally, α-ERD difference between target and non-target conditions was not higher in visual than that in other control modalities. All these findings indicated that human high-frequency α-ERD reflects cognitive attention processes underlying reaction to oddball target stimuli regardless of stimulus modality.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Sincronização Cortical/fisiologia , Lobo Occipital/fisiologia , Adulto , Ritmo alfa , Atenção/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa
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