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1.
Sleep ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878190

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Observational epidemiological studies have suggested that chronotype may play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of prostate cancer. However, whether there is a causal association remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential causal relationship between chronotype and prostate cancer risk using a Mendelian randomization (MR) design. METHODS: A total of 268 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with chronotype were selected from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of 697,828 individuals. The genetic association data for prostate cancer was derived from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer-Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) Consortium (79,148 cases and 61,106 controls). Inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) method was used as the primary analysis to calculate the causal effect estimates. The weighted-median method, MR-Egger regression, MR-PRESSO test, and multivariable MR analyses were applied as sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: Genetically predicted morningness (scaled to a sleep midpoint of 1 hour earlier) had a reduced risk of prostate cancer, with an odds ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.54-0.94 by IVW), compared with the eveningness. Similar causal effect estimates were also observed by using the weighted median and MR-PRESSO analyses. In addition, results from the multivariable MR analysis supported the findings from the univariable MR analyses. No indication of horizontal pleiotropy was observed in the MR-Egger analysis (P for intercept =0.234). CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence of a causal protective effect of morning chronotype on the risk of prostate cancer.

2.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 90, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the available evidence on the association of breastfeeding with the risk of childhood cancer. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed and Embase databases was performed to identify eligible observational studies published from inception to July 17, 2020. The categorical and dose-response meta-analysis was conducted by pooling relative risk (RR) or odds ratio (OR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential sources of heterogeneity were detected by meta-regression and stratification analysis. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias test were also carried out. RESULTS: Forty-five articles involving 475,579 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. Among the thirty-three studies on the association between breastfeeding and risk of childhood leukemia, the pooled risk estimates were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.65-0.91) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.63-0.94) for ever versus non/occasional breastfeeding and longest versus shortest breastfeeding duration group, respectively. There was clear indication for non-linear dose-response relationship between breastfeeding duration and the risk of childhood leukemia (P non-linear < 0.001). The most protective effect (OR, 0.66, 95% CI 0.62-0.70) was observed at a breastfeeding duration of 9.6 months. Four studies examined, the association between breastfeeding and risk of childhood neuroblastoma, and significant inverse associations were consistently observed in both the comparisons of ever breastfeeding versus non/occasional breastfeeding (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.44-0.81) and longest versus shortest breastfeeding (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.44-0.83). However, no associations of breastfeeding with risk of other cancers were found. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports a protective role of breastfeeding on the risk of childhood leukemia, also suggesting a non-linear dose-response relationship. Further studies are warranted to confirm the association between breastfeeding and risk of childhood neuroblastoma.

3.
Explore (NY) ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910778

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that perennial Chan training leads to improvements in brain functioning. However, few studies have investigated the effects of short-term Huatou Chan training. The current study explored the effects of a three-day Huatou Chan training on physical and emotional health, as well as brain state. Seventy healthy subjects were recruited and divided into two groups: the Huatou Chan group and the Control group. The Huatou Chan group received a 3-day Huatou Chan training, while the Control group waited for three days. Both groups completed a 6 min Brain State Index recording, the SCL-90, the brief profile of mood state, the meaning in life questionnaire, and the Index of Well-being, prior to and after the training or waiting period. Results showed that short-term Huatou Chan training had significant benefits on some aspects such as physical and emotional health (obsessive-compulsive, depression, hostility, and psychoticism), negative emotions (tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment), well-being, and attitude towards life. In addition, short-term Chan training can significantly improve brain state, as shown by the index of depression, anxiety, alerting and intelligence. This is the first study to provide direct evidence for the benefits of short-term intensive Huatou Chan training on physical and mental health.

4.
J Nutr ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have reported an inconsistent relation between iron status and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Moreover, it remains uncertain whether the observed association is causal or due to confounding or reverse causality. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association between serum iron status and risk of SLE using a 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. METHODS: Genetic instruments for iron status including serum iron, log-transformed ferritin, transferrin saturation, and transferrin were identified from a large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) performed by the Genetics of Iron Status Consortium among 48,972 individuals of European ancestry (55% female). Three independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1800562, rs1799945, and rs855791) concordantly related with 4 iron status biomarkers were selected as instrumental variables. Summary statistics of SLE were obtained from a publicly available GWAS of 4036 patients with SLE and 6959 controls of European descent. The MR study was conducted using the inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method, supplemented with MR-Egger regression and simple- and weighted-median methods. Leave-one-out analysis was further performed to test the robustness of our findings. ORs with 95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: Genetically predicted iron status was associated with altered risk of SLE, with ORs of 0.79 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.94), 0.54 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.85), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.94), and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.76) per 1-SD increase in iron, log-transformed ferritin, transferrin saturation, and transferrin using the IVW method, respectively. MR-Egger regression did not indicate potential pleiotropic bias. Sensitivity analyses produced similar findings, suggesting the robustness of the association. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that high iron status may be associated with a reduced risk of SLE among European populations. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the mechanism underlying the protective role of iron against susceptibility to SLE.

5.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786690

RESUMO

Clinicians are advised caution in reducing serum urate for gout management due to observational associations with risk of neuropsychiatric diseases. We examined the causal effect of genetically predicted serum urate levels on the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety, and related psychiatric disorders using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). We identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with serum urate from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 110,347 European-descent individuals. The causal effect of serum urate on MDD was tested using summary data from a GWAS of 135,458 cases and 344,901 controls of European descent. MR was performed using random-effects inverse variance-weighted method and a series of sensitivity analyses. This approach was repeated using summary GWAS data for anxiety, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and anorexia nervosa. We identified 30 SNPs associated with serum urate. Genetically predicted urate levels were not causally associated with risk of MDD (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.94, 1.03), anxiety (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.80, 1.02), or the other psychiatric conditions (OR range 0.95 to 1.06). Results were similar in sensitivity analyses. We found no evidence that genetically predicted serum urate has a causal effect on risk of MDD, anxiety, or other psychiatric disorders. Key Points • Clinicians are advised to be cautious about reducing the serum urate level too far in gout management, citing observational associations between low serum urate levels and various neuropsychiatric diseases. • In this two-sample Mendelian randomization study, we found no evidence for a causal link between genetically predicted serum urate level and the development of major depressive, anxiety, or other related psychiatric disorders. • Future revisions of clinical guidelines may need to reconsider recommendations regarding lower limits for serum urate levels.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656572

RESUMO

PURPOSE: China was affected by an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2019-2020. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce the adverse psychological and occupational impacts on healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: From March 1, 2020, to March 8, 2020, 946 HCWs in China completed a survey consist of sociodemographic data, precautionary measures against COVID-19, and concerns about COVID-19. Self-administered questionnaire were collected to assess psychological and occupational adverse outcomes of HCWs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 55.0%, 56.0% and 48.3% of the HCWs experienced burnout, psychological distress and posttraumatic stress, respectively. A total of seven factors were independently associated with burnout: good health status (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.36-0.71), fear of contagion (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.003-1.79), avoiding contact with children (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.91), enough staff support at the workplace (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.38-0.92), having to work overtime (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03-1.83), maladaptive coping (OR 3.28, 95% CI 2.42-4.45) and adaptive coping (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.35-0.62). A total of 11 factors were independently associated with high psychological distress: having one child (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.38-0.77), good health status (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.39-0.83), alcohol abuse (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.02-2.25), thinking the epidemic would continue for quite a long time (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.08-2.34), wearing extra-work clothes (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.06-2.15),effective protective equipment (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.22-0.90), enough staff support at the workplace (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.89), unable to take care of families (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.42-2.78), economic losses (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.14-2.31), maladaptive coping (OR 6.88, 95% CI 4.75-9.97),and adaptive coping (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.21-0.41). These factors were independently associated with posttraumatic stress: living with the elderly (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-2.05), alcohol abuse (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.002-1.98), working at a 3A hospital(OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.49-0.88), acquaintances confirmed COVID-19 (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.20-3.84), fear of contagion (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.40-2.50), believing they would survive if infected (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.46-0.86), self-disinfected after arriving home (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.01-2.02), interpersonal isolation (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.21-2.26), unable to take care of families (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.05-1.88) and maladaptive coping (OR 3.09, 95% CI 2.32-4.11). CONCLUSION: The variance in adverse outcomes was explained by the effect of various factors, which will help policymakers better prepare for subsequent potential outbreaks of COVID-19.

7.
Hereditas ; 158(1): 5, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The disability rate associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) ranks high among inflammatory joint diseases. However, the cause and potential molecular events are as yet not clear. Here, we aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs), pathways and immune infiltration involved in RA utilizing integrated bioinformatics analysis and investigating potential molecular mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression profiles of GSE55235, GSE55457, GSE55584 and GSE77298 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which contained 76 synovial membrane samples, including 49 RA samples and 27 normal controls. The microarray datasets were consolidated and DEGs were acquired and further analyzed by bioinformatics techniques. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses of DEGs were performed using R (version 3.6.1) software, respectively. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs were developed utilizing the STRING database. Finally, the CIBERSORT was used to evaluate the infiltration of immune cells in RA. RESULTS: A total of 828 DEGs were recognized, with 758 up-regulated and 70 down-regulated. GO and KEGG pathway analyses demonstrated that these DEGs focused primarily on cytokine receptor activity and relevant signaling pathways. The 30 most firmly related genes among DEGs were identified from the PPI network. The principal component analysis showed that there was a significant difference between the two tissues in infiltration immune. CONCLUSION: This study shows that screening for DEGs, pathways and immune infiltration utilizing integrated bioinformatics analyses could aid in the comprehension of the molecular mechanisms involved in RA development. Besides, our study provides valuable data related to DEGs, pathways and immune infiltration of RA and may provide new insight into the understanding of molecular mechanisms.

8.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e038137, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cases attributable to selected non-genetic risk factors. DESIGN: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and meta-analysis. PARTICIPANTS: US adults. DATA SOURCES: The prevalence of exposure was obtained from NHANES. Weighted analysis was performed to account for the complex sampling design in NHANES. PubMed and Web of Science up to 31 March 2019 were searched to identify epidemiological studies reported the association between non-genetic risk factors and RA in US adults. Relative risk (RR) value and the corresponding CI were pooled by meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between modifiable risk factors and RA. Population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated based on the prevalence and RR data. RESULTS: The weighted percentages of former smokers, current smokers and overweight or obese people were 24.84%, 23.93% and 63.97%, and the average alcohol consumption was 51.34 g/week. In the meta-analysis, we found that former smokers (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.36) and current smokers (RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.68) had higher risks of RA. Overweight and obese individuals had 1.27-fold (95% CI 1.09 to 1.48) increased risk of RA. Each per 50 g/week increment of alcohol consumption was associated with 8% (95% CI 0% to 16%) reduction in the risk of RA. Therefore, PAF value of smoking was 14.00% (95% CI 8.13% to 23.33%). Excess body mass index (BMI) was found to account for 14.73% (95% CI 5.45% to 23.50%) of RA incidence. The fraction of RA risk attributed by low alcohol intake was 8.21% (95% CI 0.31% to 16.39%). Collectively, we found that 32.69% (95% CI 13.41% to 50.96%) of RA cases were attributable to smoking, overweight or obesity and low alcohol drinking. CONCLUSION: Nearly 33% of RA incidence was attributed to smoking, excess BMI and low alcohol drinking in USA. Our findings could provide a basis for developing guidelines of RA prevention and control in USA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Incidência , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco
9.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 35(5): e5051, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354789

RESUMO

As a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Gardeniae Fructus (GF) and its processed products, GF (stir-baked) and GF Praeparatus, have important medicinal value in clinical practice. Gardenia jasminoides var. radicans (GJVR) is a variant of GF, and because of the naming GJVR is often confused in the clinic with GF, resulting in medical misprescriptions. To distinguish GF and GJVR and study the changes before and after processing, the fingerprints of GF and GJVR are presented using HPLC, followed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). GF has purging and choleretic effects, and in this study, we determined the content of main active ingredients to preliminarily assess the GF and GJVR quality from the perspective of material basis. For PCA score plot, the samples fell into six clusters, the cross-validity Q2 (cum) = 0.842 and the cumulative contribution rate R2 x (cum) = 0.988, indicating that the model has a good precision. The results were then corroborated by HCA and PLS-DA method, showing that this methodology can distinguish GF and GJVR and can be used for the comparison of raw and two processed products. According to the model established by PLS-DA, eight components were identified as the most significant variables for discrimination. The results obtained by multiple model methods are consistent and verified by each other, providing a scientific reference for further clarification of the medicinal properties of GF and GJVR.

10.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 37(12): 1352-1355, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic basis for a pedigree affected with X-linked recessive mental retardation Claes-Jensen type. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the patient, his parents (phenotypically normal) and two elder brothers with similar clinical manifestations. Whole exome sequencing was carried out for the proband, and the result was verified by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: The proband was found to harbor a hemizygous c.1565C>T missense variant in exon 11 of the KDM5C gene. The transition has resulted in replacement of serine by phenylalanine at position 522 (p.Ser522Phe). Sanger sequencing showed that the patient's two elder brothers and mother carried the same variant, which was predicted to be probably damaging by SIFT, PolyPhen2 and Mutation_Taster. The three affected brothers presented with similar clinical phenotypes characterized by mental retardation, speech delay, behavioral problem, self-limited epilepsy responsible to medication, short stature and microcephaly. The mother only had mild cognitive impairment and learning disability. The same variant was not found in their father and was unreported previously. CONCLUSION: The c.1565C>T (p.Ser522Phe) of the KDM5C gene probably underlay the X-linked recessive mental retardation Claes-Jensen type in this pedigree.

11.
Front Oncol ; 10: 545603, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178578

RESUMO

Background: Inconsistent findings from observational studies have reported that C-reactive protein (CRP) is likely associated with risk of prostate cancer. Because conventional observational studies are susceptible to confounding and reverse causality, it remains unclear whether there is a causal relationship of CRP with risk of prostate cancer. Methods: In this study, we applied a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to evaluate the potential causal association of circulating CRP levels with prostate cancer risk. Instrumental variables (IVs) and corresponding genetic association estimates for circulating CRP levels were obtained from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 204,402 participants of European descent. The genetic association estimates of these IVs with prostate cancer were obtained from a GWAS meta-analysis including 79,148 cases and 61,106 controls of European ancestry. The inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method was used as primary MR analyses, whereas in sensitivity analyses, MR-Egger regression, and MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) test were used to assess the presence of pleiotropy. Odd ratio (OR) and 95% CI were calculated. Results: Overall, 58 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as instruments for circulating CRP levels. MR analysis suggested that genetically determined CRP levels were not associated with prostate cancer risk (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.16) using the IVW method. Sensitivity analyses using alternative MR methods produced similar results (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.08 for the weighted-median method; OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.08 for MR-PRESSO test). MR-Egger regression did not suggest evidence of directional pleiotropy (P = 0.25). Conclusion: Our study found that genetically predicted circulating CRP levels were not associated with prostate cancer risk, suggesting that CRP is unlikely to be a causal factor in the development of prostate cancer.

13.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 8815270, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774515

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the association between the expression level of miR-16 and prognosis of solid cancer patients by meta-analysis and bioinformatic analysis. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases were searched until October 31, 2019, to identify eligible studies reporting the association of the miR-16 status with the prognosis of solid cancer patients. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled, and a heterogeneity test was conducted. Sensitivity analysis and a publication bias test were also carried out. Furthermore, the miRpower database was used to validate the association. Results: Thirteen articles with 2303 solid cancer patients were included in the meta-analysis. Solid cancer patients with low expression level of miR-16 had shorter survival time (I 2 = 84.0%, HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.13-1.91, P = 0.004). In the subgroup analyses of cancer sites, low miR-16 expression level was associated with poor prognosis in the reproductive system cancers (I 2 = 33.3%, HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.45, P = 0.008). Sensitivity analysis suggested that the pooled HR was stable and omitting a single study did not change the significance of the pooled HR. Begg's test and Egger's test revealed no publication bias in the meta-analysis. In bioinformatic analysis, the significant association between miR-16 level and prognosis of patients with reproductive system cancers was further confirmed (HR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.03-1.42, P = 0.017). Conclusion: Low expression level of miR-16 is an indicator for poor prognosis of solid cancer patients, particularly in reproductive system cancers.

14.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766155

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer micro environment factor WNT2 was critical in cancer metastasis. However, very little is known about WNT2 receptors and their role in the malignant progression of ESCC. The clinical significance and underlying molecular mechanisms of FZD2, one of the receptors of WNT2, was further investigated in ESCC. We found that FZD2 expression was positively correlated with WNT2 levels in clinical ESCC specimens through database analysis. Upregulated FZD2 expression was detected in 69% (69/100) of the primary ESCC cases examined, and increased FZD2 expression was significantly correlated with poor prognosis (P < 0.05). Mechanistically, FZD2 induced the migration and invasion of ESCC cells by regulating the FZD2/STAT3 signaling. In vivo xenograft experiments further revealed the metastasis-promoting role of FZD2 in ESCC. Moreover, we found that the WNT2 ligand could stabilize and phosphorylate the FZD2 receptor by attenuating FZD2 ubiquitination, leading to the activation of STAT3 signaling and the initiation of ESCC cell metastasis. Collectively, our data revealed that a novel non-canonical WNT2/FZD2/STAT3 signaling axis is critical for ESCC progression. Strategies targeting this specific signaling axis might be developed to treat patients with ESCC.

15.
Nutrition ; 79-80: 110953, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous observational studiíes provided conflicting findings on the relationship between linoleic acid (LA) and the risk for stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of LA levels in blood or adipose tissue samples with risk for stroke. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases were searched until February 29, 2020 to identify eligible observational studies, including cohort studies, nested case-control studies, case-cohort studies, and case-control studies, reporting the association of LA with the risk for stroke and its subtypes. We pooled hazard ratio (HR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and conducted heterogeneity test. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias test were also carried out. RESULTS: Twelve studies from 11 observational articles involving 47 836 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. We observed an inverse association between biomarkers of dietary LA and risk for total stroke (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.83-0.94; P < 0.001). Meta-regression analysis suggested that ethnicity (P = 0.029) and study design (P = 0.049) contributed to between-study heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis showed that the association was statistically significant among studies conducted in white (P < 0.001) and Asian (P = 0.032) populations, and those with cohort (P = 0.001) and case-cohort design (P = 0.007). Moreover, we found that higher LA levels were associated with a reduced risk for ischemic stroke (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95; P = 0.001), although no statistically significant association was found between LA levels and the risk for hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: The present study supported an inverse association of LA levels with the risk for stroke, particularly ischemic stroke. Racial disparity exists in the association between LA and the risk for stroke, which deserves further studies.

16.
Diabetes Care ; 43(10): 2435-2443, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of erythrocyte n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes and explore the potential role of gut microbiota in the association. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated 2,731 participants without type 2 diabetes recruited between 2008 and 2013 in the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study (Guangzhou, China). Case subjects with type 2 diabetes were identified with clinical and biochemical information collected at follow-up visits. Using stool samples collected during the follow-up in the subset (n = 1,591), 16S rRNA profiling was conducted. Using multivariable-adjusted Poisson or linear regression, we examined associations of erythrocyte n-6 PUFA biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes and diversity and composition of gut microbiota. RESULTS: Over 6.2 years of follow-up, 276 case subjects with type 2 diabetes were identified (risk 0.10). Higher levels of erythrocyte γ-linolenic acid (GLA), but not linoleic or arachidonic acid, were associated with higher type 2 diabetes incidence. Comparing the top to the bottom quartile groups of GLA levels, relative risk was 1.72 (95% CI 1.21, 2.44) adjusted for potential confounders. Baseline GLA was inversely associated with gut microbial richness and diversity (α-diversity, both P < 0.05) during follow-up and significantly associated with microbiota ß-diversity (P = 0.002). α-Diversity acted as a potential mediator in the association between GLA and type 2 diabetes (P < 0.05). Seven genera (Butyrivibrio, Blautia, Oscillospira, Odoribacter, S24-7 other, Rikenellaceae other, and Clostridiales other) were enriched in quartile 1 of GLA and in participants without type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Relative concentrations of erythrocyte GLA were positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population and also with gut microbial profiles. These results highlight that gut microbiota may play an important role linking n-6 PUFA metabolism and type 2 diabetes etiology.

17.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 184, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early life risk factors of childhood obesity among preterm infants are unclear and little is known about the influence of the feeding practices. We aimed to identify early life risk factors for childhood overweight/obesity among preterm infants and to determine feeding practices that could modify the identified risk factors. METHODS: A total of 338,413 mother-child pairs were enrolled in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort (1999 to 2013), and 2125 eligible singleton preterm born children were included for analyses. We obtained data on health examination, anthropometric measurement, lifestyle, and dietary habits of each participant at their visits to clinics. An interpretable machine learning-based analytic framework was used to identify early life predictors for childhood overweight/obesity, and Poisson regression was used to examine the associations between feeding practices and the identified leading predictor. RESULTS: Of the eligible 2125 preterm infants (863 [40.6%] girls), 274 (12.9%) developed overweight/obesity at age 4-7 years. We summarized early life variables into 25 features and identified two most important features as predictors for childhood overweight/obesity: trajectory of infant BMI (body mass index) Z-score change during the first year of corrected age and maternal BMI at enrollment. According to the impacts of different BMI Z-score trajectories on the outcome, we classified this feature into the favored and unfavored trajectories. Compared with early introduction of solid foods (≤ 3 months of corrected age), introducing solid foods after 6 months of corrected age was significantly associated with 11% lower risk (risk ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97) of being in the unfavored trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: The trajectory of BMI Z-score change within the first year of life is the most important predictor for childhood overweight/obesity among preterm infants. Introducing solid foods after 6 months of corrected age is a recommended feeding practice for mitigating the risk of being in the unfavored trajectory.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536967

RESUMO

Purpose: Psychological well-beings of left-behind children (LBC) in rural areas of China remain under-studied. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to explore the subjective well-being (SWB) in LBC and its associated factors in a rural area in eastern China. Methods: Stratified random cluster sampling was used to select middle school and high school students in Qingyuan County of Zhejiang Province. Relevant information including sociodemographic characteristics was collected from each participant using an organized questionnaire. SWB was measured using the modified scale developed for Chinese adolescents. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were performed using R version 3.3.0. Results: A total of 1086 children were recruited and examined in the current analysis, with 365 (33.61%) being left-behind. Compared with non-left-behind children (NLBC), LBC had significantly lower scores in family satisfaction (P = 0.003) and environment satisfaction (P = 0.020). Multivariable regression analysis uncovered that frequent parent-child communication was associated with high positive affect (P = 0.003) and life satisfaction (P < 0.001), and the type of caregivers was associated with negative affect among LBC (P = 0.037). Conclusions: Our results suggest SWB was lower in LBC, and targeted interventions including strengthening parental-child communication should be developed and implemented to improve LBC's SWB in rural areas of China.

19.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(9): e4901, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428269

RESUMO

Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and its processed products are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine, but the chaos phenomenon among processed products often occurs. In this study, we used multiple chemometric methods to analyze raw and six different processed products of RPA based on HPLC fingerprinting. Heat map analysis was used to assess the changes in chemical composition. Principal component analysis was used for classification, and the samples were divided into four classes: class 1 (raw, wine-processed, and vinegar-processed products), class 2 (bran-processed and soil-processed products), class 3 (stir-fried products), and class 4 (coke products). Further, the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis model was used to obtain chemical markers among different classes. The antioxidant property of RPA is an important factor responsible for its pharmacological effects, and so the antioxidant activity of RPA was also investigated. We measured 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, and ferric reducing antioxidant power. The total antioxidant activity follows the order: coke > stir-fried > soil-processed > bran-processed > wine-processed > raw > vinegar-processed products. These results suggest that different processing methods affect the chemical composition and antioxidant power of RPA, and thus, different products of RPA should not be mixed.

20.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(3): 709-720, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To systematically evaluate the efficacy of moxibustion in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS: Seven electronic databases were systematically searched for relevant studies for inclusion from databases inception to December 31, 2018. Randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of moxibustion for AS treatment versus Western medicine (Wm) treatment were included for systematic review and meta-analysis. Effect estimates were pooled using the fixed or random-effects models. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were also assessed. Stratification analyses were further performed based on the treatment plan of experimental groups. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies were eligible for inclusion with a total of 1,944 AS patients. Meta-analysis showed that compared with those receiving Wm treatment alone, patients receiving moxibustion combined with Wm treatment or moxibustion alone had a higher clinical efficacy rate [odds ratio (OR) =4.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.91 to 6.10, P<0.001 for moxibustion combined with Wm versus Wm; OR =2.43, 95% CI: 1.62 to 3.65, P<0.001 for moxibustion alone versus Wm]. In addition, patients receiving moxibustion combined with Wm treatment had lower levels of C-reactive protein [weighed-median difference (WMD) =-6.33, 95% CI: -9.64 to -3.01, P<0.001] and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (WMD =-7.86, 95% CI: -11.26 to -4.46, P<0.001) after treatment, respectively. Furthermore, moxibustion could also improve Schober test scores (WMD =0.85, 95% CI: 0.15 to 1.55, P=0.017), occipital-wall distances (WMD =-0.55, 95% CI: -0.92 to -0.19, P=0.003), and finger-ground distances (WMD =-3.64, 95% CI: -5.61 to -1.68, P<0.001) of AS patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that moxibustion is an effective complementary treatment for AS patients. However, further large-scale multicenter clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

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