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1.
J Biol Chem ; : 100277, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428940

RESUMO

Anxiety is often comorbid with pain. Delta opioid receptors (DORs) are promising targets for the treatment of pain and mental disorders with little addictive potential. However, their roles in anxiety symptoms at different stages of pain are unclear. In the current study, mice with inflammatory pain at the 4th hour following complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection displayed significant anxiety-like behavior, which disappeared at the 7th day. Combining electrophysiology, optogenetics, and pharmacology, we found that activation of delta opioid receptor 1 (DOR1) in the central nucleus amygdala (CeA) inhibited both the anxiolytic excitatory input from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the anxiogenic excitatory input from the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). In contrast, activation of delta opioid receptor 2 (DOR2) did not affect CeA excitatory synaptic transmission in normal and 4-hour CFA mice but inhibited the excitatory projection from the PBN rather than the BLA in 7-day CFA mice. Furthermore, the function of both DOR1 and DOR2 was downregulated to the point of not being detectable in the CeA of mice at the 21st day following CFA injection. Taken together, these results suggest that functional switching of DOR1 and DOR2 is associated with anxiety states at different stages of pain via modulating the activity of specific pathways (BLA-CeA and PBN-CeA).

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 758: 143641, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261863

RESUMO

Disinfection of secondary effluents is vital to provide a sustainable aquatic environment, minimize microbial risks and guarantee public and environmental safety. This study investigated the effectiveness of six treatment trains including single and combined disinfection processes (i.e., ozone alone, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation alone, chlorine alone, sequential ozone-UV, sequential ozone-chlorine and sequential ozone-UV-chlorine) on bacterial inactivation, as well as bulk water quality parameters such as color, turbidity, absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fluorescence based on samples collected from an actual water reclamation plant (WRP). For the single disinfection processes, when the ozone, UV and chlorine doses reached 5 mg/L, 15 mJ/cm2 and 4 mg/L, respectively, the log removal of Escherichia coli (E. coli) reached 5 log. A trailing phenomenon was observed with further increases in the disinfectant dosage. Under the combined treatment scenarios, ozone pretreatment resulted in substantial removal of color, turbidity, UV254, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) and chlorine consuming organics, thus enhancing the efficiency of subsequent UV irradiation or chlorine treatments. In the sequential ozone-UV-chlorine experiments, E. coli inactivation reached 7 log with ozone, UV and available chlorine of 3 mg/L, 5 or 10 mJ/cm2 and 2.5 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of the results from the actual WRP, the estimated operating cost per unit for the disinfection systems is 0.065 CNY/t, which is economical for long-term operation.

3.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 1): 128211, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032248

RESUMO

The physicochemical mechanism of starch digestion is very complicated since it may be affected by the non-valence interactions of the amylase inhibitor with the substrate or the enzyme. The role of hydrophobic interaction in the process of starch digestion is not clear. In this study, pluronics (PLs) with different hydrophobicity were used as model amphiphilic compounds to study their inhibition on starch digestion using multi-spectroscopic methods. The results showed that the hydrophobic nature of PLs changed starch structure, but it had a greater effect on the structure of α-amylase by exposing more tryptophan residues and increasing α-helix and ß-sheet contents. Further investigation by using different chain-length fatty acids confirmed the results. The finding in this study is informative to design and fabricate α-amylase inhibitors for controlling starch digestion at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Poloxâmero/farmacologia , Amido/farmacocinética , alfa-Amilases/química , Digestão , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Poloxâmero/química , Domínios Proteicos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Amido/química , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
4.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 63: 126651, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous experimental and occupational health studies have shown the toxic effects of relatively high-level cadmium and lead on lipid metabolism. However, limited studies investigated the relationships between serum lipid levels and exposure to low-level lead and cadmium in adults. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between lead and cadmium levels in blood and dyslipidemia in adults. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 7,457 adults aged 20-79 years who were recruited in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2005-2016) was conducted. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the associations of blood lead and cadmium levels with serum lipid profiles and risk of dyslipidemia, respectively. RESULTS: The weighted geometric means [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of lead and cadmium in blood were 1.23 (1.21, 1.25) µg/dL and 0.36 (0.35, 0.37) µg/L, respectively. Blood lead was significantly associated with serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) levels after adjusting for covariates. Compared with the adults in the lowest blood lead quartile (≤0.76 µg/dL), those in the highest lead quartile (>1.90 µg/dL) had higher risks of elevated TC (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.59-2.22), non-HDL-C (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.33-1.91), LDL-C (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.41-1.99) and Apo B (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.46-2.73). However, the single effect of cadmium exposure and the joint effect of lead and cadmium exposures on dyslipidemia were not observed. CONCLUSION: Blood lead well below the current recommended level was positively associated with the risk of dyslipidemia in adults, while the low-level cadmium exposure currently observed in adults did not show any significant associations with lipid levels.

5.
Neuroimage ; 227: 117632, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316392

RESUMO

Creative thinking is a hallmark of human cognition, which enables us to generate novel and useful ideas. Nevertheless, its emergence within the macro-scale neurocognitive circuitry remains largely unknown. Using resting-state fMRI data from two large population samples (SWU: n = 931; HCP: n = 1001) and a novel "travelling pattern prediction analysis", here we identified the modularized functional connectivity patterns linked to creative thinking ability, which concurrently explained individual variability across ordinary cognitive abilities such as episodic memory, working memory and relational processing. Further interrogation of this neural pattern with graph theoretical tools revealed both hub-like brain structures and globally-efficient information transfer paths that together may facilitate higher creative thinking ability through the convergence of distinct cognitive operations. Collectively, our results provide reliable evidence for the hypothesized emergence of creative thinking from core cognitive components through neural integration, and thus allude to a significant theoretical advancement in the study of creativity.

6.
Appl Ergon ; 92: 103312, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338973

RESUMO

Profile of cybersickness and balance disturbance induced by virtual ship motion alone and in combination with galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) remained unclear. Subjects were exposed to a ship deck vision scene under simulated Degree 5 or 3 sea condition using a head-mounted virtual reality display with or without GVS. Virtual ship motion at Degree 5 induced significant cybersickness with symptom profile: nausea syndrome > central (headache and dizziness) > peripheral (cold sweating) > increased salivation. During a single session of virtual ship motion exposure, GVS aggravated balance disturbance but did not affect most cybersickness symptoms except cold sweating. Repeated exposure induced cybersickness habituation which was delayed by GVS, while the temporal change of balance disturbance was unaffected. These results suggested that vestibular inputs play different roles in cybersickness and balance disturbance during virtual reality exposure. GVS might not serve as a potential countermeasure against cybersickness induced by virtual ship motion.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(51): 57382-57390, 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295749

RESUMO

Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs), which belong to the iron-based metal-organic frameworks, are important biomedical agents. Reducing the size of PBNPs can bring improved functional properties, but unfortunately, has been a long-standing challenge. Herein, sub-5 nm ultrasmall PBNPs (USPBNPs) were successfully synthesized by using ethanol/water mixture as the solvent and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the surface capping agent. Adjusting the ethanol/water ratio is not only able to control the nucleation time and size of PBNPs but also tune the conformation of PVP molecules so as to prevent interparticle attachment and enlargement. At an ethanol/water ratio of 3:1, highly stable USPBNPs with a size of ∼3.4 nm were synthesized. Due to their large specific surface area, they demonstrated high peroxidase-like and catalase-like activities, which outperform PBNPs synthesized by a conventional method. In addition, they also showed a high longitudinal relaxation rate (r1) of 1.3 mM-1 S-1, suggesting their potential to be used as T1 MRI agent.

8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(12)2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371350

RESUMO

Background and objectives: The prevalence of degenerative lumbar spine diseases has increased. In addition to standard lumbar decompression and/or fusion techniques, implantation of interspinous process devices (IPDs) can provide clinical benefits in highly selected patients. However, changes in spinal structures after IPD implantation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have rarely been discussed. This volumetric study aimed to evaluate the effect of IPD implantation on the intervertebral disc and foramen using three-dimensional assessment. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with lumbar degenerative disc diseases treated with IPD implantation and foraminotomy and/or discectomy between January 2016 and December 2019. The mean follow-up period was 13.6 months. The perioperative lumbar MRI data were processed for 3D-volumetric analysis. Clinical outcomes, including the Prolo scale and visual analog scale (VAS) scores, and radiographic outcomes, such as the disc height, foraminal area, and translation, were analyzed. Results: Fifty patients were included in our study. At the one-year follow-up, the VAS and Prolo scale scores significantly improved (both p < 0.001). The disc height and foraminal area on radiographs also increased significantly, but with limited effects up to three months postoperatively. MRI revealed an increased postoperative disc height with a mean difference of 0.5 ± 0.1 mm (p < 0.001). Although the mean disc volume difference did not significantly increase, the mean foraminal volume difference was 0.4 ± 0.16 mm3 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In select patients with degenerative disc diseases or lumbar spinal stenosis, the intervertebral foramen was enlarged, and disc loading was reduced after IPD implantation with decompression surgery. The 3D findings were compatible with the clinical benefits.

9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1140: 153-167, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218477

RESUMO

Uranium, a double-edged sword with high-efficiency energy and radioactive toxicity, attracts people to enjoy the advantages by generating power, but at the same time brings potential harm by nuclide migration. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a highly-efficient sensor to monitor uranyl ions in the field. However, the designed processes of the reported sensors are random, time-consuming and difficulty. It is urgent to find a new strategy to rationally, quickly and effectively screen out the required molecule for efficient uranium detection. Herein, with the guidance from the rational design method, the parameter, Egap, was applied to judge the chromatic aberration between the designed PADAP derivate and its uranyl complex. And the optimized structure sensor, 2-((3-bromo-5-(9,9-dioctyl-7-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl)-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino)phenol (abbr. W1H), was screened and successfully synthesized. W1H exhibited significant color change (red to blue) after binding uranyl ions, and its detection limit for uranium was as low as nanomolar. More meaningfully, the coordination mechanism of W1H toward uranium was clarified by theoretical calculation of the electron cloud density distribution, Ebind, and 1H NMR, IR and MS for the first time. With the more excellent uranyl sensitivity, selectivity, and recyclability, W1H and its colorimetric test strip have been applied to the detection of low-concentration uranium in environmental samples around the uranium tailings, providing a useful on-site method to monitor trace uranium in actual samples.

10.
Environ Res ; : 110450, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) are widely detected in the environment and human body, and they have been linked to asthma and a number of respiratory responses in children and mice. However, no previous studies have investigated the association between exposure to PFCs and airway inflammation in adults. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between serum PFCs and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3630 adults aged 20-79 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2007-2012) was conducted. Serum concentrations of five major PFCs were measured using SPE-HPLC-TIS-MS/MS method, including perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE). The detection rates of them were all >85%. Weighted multivariable linear regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) analyses were applied to examine the associations between serum PFCs and FeNO. RESULTS: After adjusted for potential confounding factors, linear regression analyses found that compared with their lowest tertiles, highest tertiles of PFOS, PFDE and PFOA were significantly associated with 5.02% (95% CI: 1.40%, 8.77%), 3.77% (95% CI: 0.30%, 7.36%) and 6.34% (95% CI: 2.81%, 10.01%) increases in FeNO, respectively. The second tertile of PFNA was significantly correlated with a 4.79% (95% CI: 1.41%, 8.29%) increase in FeNO compared with the lowest tertile. In the BKMR analysis, the mixture effect of PFCs on FeNO increased significantly when the PFC levels were at or above the 60th percentiles compared to those at their medians. PFOS and PFOA displayed significant positive single-exposure effects on FeNO when all the other PFCs are set at a particular threshold. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided preliminary evidence that serum PFCs were positively associated with increased FeNO in adults.

11.
Asian J Androl ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208562

RESUMO

We performed this study to investigate the diagnostic performance of prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) in a multicenter cohort of the Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium. Outpatients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels ≥4.0 ng ml-1 regardless of digital rectal examination (DRE) results or PSA levels <4.0 ng ml-1 and abnormal DRE results were included from 18 large referral hospitals in China. The diagnostic performance of PSAD and the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa) at different cutoff values were evaluated. A total of 5220 patients were included in the study, and 2014 (38.6%) of them were diagnosed with PCa. In patients with PSA levels ranging from 4.0 to 10.0 ng ml-1, PSAD was associated with PCa and HGPCa in both univariate (odds ratio [OR] = 45.15, P < 0.0001 and OR = 25.38, P < 0.0001, respectively) and multivariate analyses (OR = 52.55, P < 0.0001 and OR = 26.05, P < 0.0001, respectively). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of PSAD in predicting PCa and HGPCa were 0.627 and 0.630, respectively. With the PSAD cutoff of 0.10 ng ml-2, we obtained a sensitivity of 88.7% for PCa, and nearly all (89.9%) HGPCa cases could be detected and biopsies could be avoided in 20.2% of the patients (359/1776 cases). Among these patients who avoided biopsies, only 30 cases had HGPCa. We recommend 0.10 ng ml-2 as the proper cutoff value of PSAD, which will obtain a sensitivity of nearly 90% for both PCa and HGPCa. The results of this study should be validated in prospective, population-based multicenter studies.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230732

RESUMO

Timing can be processed explicitly or implicitly. Temporal orienting is a typical implicit timing through which we can anticipate and prepare an optimized response to forthcoming events. It is, however, not yet clear whether mechanisms such as temporal-pulse accumulation and attentional gating (more attention, more accumulated temporal pulses) underly the internal representations of temporal orienting, as in explicit timing. To clarify this, a dual-task paradigm, consisting of a temporal orienting and an interference task, was adopted. Consistent with the temporal-pulse-accumulation and attentional-gating model, reaction times to the target detection of temporal orienting increased as the interference stimuli were temporally closer to the target, i.e., a location effect for temporal orienting. This effect is likely due to attention being diverted away from temporal orienting to monitor the occurrence of the interference stimuli for a longer time, resulting in greater temporal pulse loss and less accurate temporal orienting for conditions with later interference stimuli. The temporal-pulse-accumulation aspect in temporal orienting received further support by taking an explicit duration reproduction (containing a second temporal-pulse accumulation) as the interference task. On the one hand, temporal orienting became less accurate with increased temporal-pulse-accumulation overlaps between the dual tasks; on the other hand, two-way (one for temporal orienting and the other for duration reproduction), rather than one-way, location effects were observed, implying processing conflicts between the two temporal-pulse accumulations. Taken together, these results suggest that implicit and explicit timing may share common mechanisms upon internal temporal representations.

13.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(5): 900-909, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123904

RESUMO

Although the exact etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear, exaggerated immune response in genetically predisposed individuals has been reported. Th1 and Th17 cells mediate IBD development. Macrophages produce IL-12 and IL-23 that share p40 subunit encoded by IL12B gene as heteromer partner to drive Th1 and Th17 differentiation. The available animal and human data strongly support the pathogenic role of IL-12/IL-23 in IBD development and suggest that blocking p40 might be the potential strategy for IBD treatment. Furthermore, aberrant alteration of some cytokines expression via epigenetic mechanisms is involved in pathogenesis of IBD. In this study, we analyzed core promoter region of IL12B gene and investigated whether IL12B expression could be regulated through targeted epigenetic modification with gene editing technology. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are widely used in the field of genome editing and can specifically target DNA sequence in the host genome. We synthesized the TALE DNA-binding domains that target the promoter of human IL12B gene and fused it with the functional catalytic domains of epigenetic enzymes. Transient expression of these engineered enzymes demonstrated that the TALE-DNMT3A targeted the selected IL12B promoter region, induced loci-specific DNA methylation, and down-regulated IL-12B expression in various human cell lines. Collectively, our data suggested that epigenetic editing of IL12B through methylating DNA on its promoter might be developed as a potential therapeutic strategy for IBD treatment.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044717

RESUMO

The feasibility and prognostic value of quantitative flow ratio (QFR) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients have not been assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic utility of post-PCI QFR to predict outcomes in STEMI and determine the influence of functional results, in both culprit and nonculprit lesions, after PCI. Patients undergoing PCI of culprit lesions and receiving staged procedures of nonculprit lesions after 7 days were enrolled from 2 centers and underwent post-PCI QFR. The primary outcome was the vessel-oriented composite endpoints (VOCEs), defined as vessel-related cardiovascular death, vessel-related myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization. Four hundred fifteen vessels (186 culprit lesions and 219 nonculprit lesions) in 186 patients were analyzed. Measured at staged PCI, the post-PCI QFR of culprit lesions was significantly lower than that of nonculprit lesions (0.92 ± 0.10 versus 0.95 ± 0.08, p < 0.001). The multivariable model demonstrated that low post-PCI QFR was an independent predictor of 2-year VOCE (20.8% versus 5.7%; hazard ratio 2.718; 95% CI 1.347-5.486; p = 0.005). In STEMI patients with a low angiography-derived index of microcirculatory resistance (≤ 40U), a good correlation and agreement between post-PCI QFR value of culprit lesions at primary and staged procedures (r = 0.942; mean difference: - 0.0017 [- 0.074 to 0.070]) was identified. In conclusion, culprit lesions suffered from suboptimal functional results more frequently compared to nonculprit lesions after PCI in STEMI patients. Low post-PCI QFR was associated with subsequent adverse clinical outcomes. After stenting, culprit lesions may feasibly be assessed through QFR without significant microvascular dysfunction.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000826

RESUMO

Correction for 'Electrochemically shape-controlled synthesis of great stellated dodecahedral Au nanocrystals with high-index facets for nitrogen reduction to ammonia' by Yu-Chen Jiang et al., Chem. Commun., 2020, DOI: 10.1039/d0cc04326e.

16.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(19): 10680-10690, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021630

RESUMO

Circular DNA aptamers are powerful candidates for therapeutic applications given their dramatically enhanced biostability. Herein we report the first effort to evolve circular DNA aptamers that bind a human protein directly in serum, a complex biofluid. Targeting human thrombin, this strategy has led to the discovery of a circular aptamer, named CTBA4T-B1, that exhibits very high binding affinity (with a dissociation constant of 19 pM), excellent anticoagulation activity (with the half maximal inhibitory concentration of 90 pM) and high stability (with a half-life of 8 h) in human serum, highlighting the advantage of performing aptamer selection directly in the environment where the application is intended. CTBA4T-B1 is predicted to adopt a unique structural fold with a central two-tiered guanine quadruplex capped by two long stem-loops. This structural arrangement differs from all known thrombin binding linear DNA aptamers, demonstrating the added advantage of evolving aptamers from circular DNA libraries. The method described here permits the derivation of circular DNA aptamers directly in biological fluids and could potentially be adapted to generate other types of aptamers for therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , DNA Circular/química , Trombina/metabolismo , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/sangue , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , DNA Circular/sangue , DNA Circular/metabolismo , Quadruplex G , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Trombina/química
17.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the circular pathological changes of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients according to the tongue diagnosis. METHODS: Totally 41 CHB patients with typical white tongue coating (WTC) or yellow tongue coating (YTC) were enrolled and 14 healthy volunteers with normal tongue manifestation served as controls. The mRNA expression of peripheral leukocytes was detected by GeneChips, and 9 genes were randomly selected for expression validation. Circular metabolites were detected by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Biological information was analyzed based on ingenuity pathways analysis or metabolomics database and the integrated networks were constructed by ClueGO. RESULTS: A total of 945 and 716 differentially expressed genes were found in patients with WTC and YTC relative to healthy volunteers respectively. The biological information analysis indicated that CHB patients had obviously increased functions in cell death, apoptosis and necrosis (Z-score ⩾2, P<0.05) and decreased activation in T lymphocytes (Z-score ⩽-2, P<0.05), regardless of the tongue manifestation. Compared to patients with WTC, the YTC patients were predicted to be more active in functions related to virus replication (Z-score ⩾2, P<0.05), and the content of circular fatty acids, such as oleic acid (P=0.098) and lauric acid (P=0.035), and citric acid cycle-related metabolites were higher in the YTC patients (P<0.1). The integrated analysis based on differential genes and metabolites indicated that the most difference in the biological function network between the WTC and YTC patients was tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 mediated-nuclear factor kappa-B activation process. CONCLUSIONS: CHB patients with YTC had more severe inflammation and fatty acids metabolism aberrant than patients with WTC. The results facilitate the modern pathological annotation of Chinese medicine tongue diagnosis theory and provide a reference for the interpretation of pharmacological mechanisms of Chinese medicine treatment.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909571

RESUMO

Au great stellated dodecahedra (GSD), one of the Kepler-Poinsot solids, are synthesized by an electrochemical double-step potential method in a choline chloride-urea based deep eutectic solvent. The as-synthesized Au GSD are bound by high-index {331} facets and exhibit excellent electrocatalytic performance for the nitrogen reduction reaction with a high NH3 yield rate (49.96 µg h-1 cm-2) and faradaic efficiency (28.59%) under ambient conditions.

19.
Int J Dev Neurosci ; 80(8): 730-736, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888366

RESUMO

Adolescence is a period that exhibits both vulnerability and adaptation to environmental stimulus. This study explored the co-existence effect of environmental enrichment (EE) and restraint stress (RS) on innate anxiety and depressive-like behavior in adolescent mice. Male ICR mice were treated with daily EE and RS (4 h/d or 8 h/d) for 2 or 4 weeks from early adolescence (postnatal day 30) and emotional behaviors were evaluated 24 h after the end of treatment. 4 weeks of 8 h RS treatment decreased immobility time in forced swimming test, demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. For 2 weeks of treatment, 8 h RS significantly reduced the time spent in the lighted compartment of the light-dark box, indicating an increased anxiety level. These results show that under the present experimental design, RS treatment with different duration could have different effect on mice emotion-related behavior, but there was no interaction between EE and RS.

20.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 10(4): 1477-1491, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder thought to be caused by accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) within the brain, autonomic nerves, and the enteric nervous system (ENS). Involvement of the ENS in PD often precedes the onset of the classic motor signs of PD by many years at a time when severe constipation represents a major morbidity. Studies conducted in vitro and in vivo, have shown that squalamine, a zwitterionic amphipathic aminosterol, originally isolated from the liver of the dogfish shark, effectively displaces membrane-bound α-syn. OBJECTIVE: Here we explore the electrophysiological effect of squalamine on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mouse models of PD engineered to express the highly aggregating A53T human α-syn mutant. METHODS: GI motility and in vivo response to oral squalamine in PD model mice and controls were assessed using an in vitro tissue motility protocol and via fecal pellet output. Vagal afferent response to squalamine was measured using extracellular mesenteric nerve recordings from the jejunum. Whole cell patch clamp was performed to measure response to squalamine in the myenteric plexus. RESULTS: Squalamine effectively restores disordered colonic motility in vivo and within minutes of local application to the bowel. We show that topical squalamine exposure to intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs) of the ENS rapidly restores excitability. CONCLUSION: These observations may help to explain how squalamine may promote gut propulsive activity through local effects on IPANs in the ENS, and further support its possible utility in the treatment of constipation in patients with PD.

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