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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(3): 431-434, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825029

RESUMO

Uranium(vi) trans-bis(imido) complexes [U(κ4-{(tBu2ArO)2Me2-cyclam})(NPh)(NPhR)] react with CO2 to eliminate phenyl isocyanates and afford uranium(vi) trans-[O[double bond, length as m-dash]U[double bond, length as m-dash]NR]2+ complexes, including [U(κ4-{(tBu2ArO)2Me2-cyclam})(NPh)(O)] that was crystallographically characterized. DFT studies indicate that the reaction proceeds by endergonic formation of a cycloaddition intermediate; the secondary reaction to form a dioxo uranyl complex is both thermodynamically and kinetically hindered.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(94): 14139-14142, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697296

RESUMO

The diverse reactivity of [LnO2(NO3)2]- complexes with water in the gas phase, for Ln = Ce, Pr and Nd, examined in a quadrupole ion trap and complemented by ab initio computations, illuminates the chemical stability of Pr in the unusual +5 oxidation state.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 47(45): 16211-16217, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387485

RESUMO

Three layered lanthanide hydroxides (LLHs), with the general formula Ln8(OH)20Cl4·nH2O (Ln = Tb (1), Ho (2), Er (3)), were prepared and magnetically characterized both as pure compounds and diluted within a yttrium diamagnetic matrix, LYH : xLn, LYH : 0.044Tb (1'), LYH : 0.045Ho (2'), and LYH : 0.065Er (3'). This study was complemented with theoretical calculations in order to understand the electronic configuration and the contributions to the slow relaxation behavior. In the pure compounds dominant 3D ferromagnetic interactions are observed, with a small magnetization hysteresis at 1.8 K for 1, while the magnetically diluted solid solutions display slow relaxation of magnetization at low temperatures.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 57(15): 9453-9467, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040397

RESUMO

Pentavalent actinyl nitrate complexes AnVO2(NO3)2- were produced by elimination of two NO2 from AnIII(NO3)4- for An = Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, and Cf. Density functional theory (B3LYP) and relativistic multireference (CASPT2) calculations confirmed the AnO2(NO3)2- as AnVO2+ actinyl moieties coordinated by nitrates. Computations of alternative AnIIIO2(NO3)2- and AnIVO2(NO3)2- revealed significantly higher energies. Previous computations for bare AnO2+ indicated AnVO2+ for An = Pu, Am, Cf, and Bk, but CmIIIO2+: electron donation from nitrate ligands has here stabilized the first CmV complex, CmVO2(NO3)2-. Structural parameters and bonding analyses indicate increasing An-NO3 bond covalency from Pu to Cf, in accordance with principles for actinide separations. Atomic ionization energies effectively predict relative stabilities of oxidation states; more reliable energies are needed for the actinides.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(12): 3242-3245, 2018 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314484

RESUMO

The concept of oxidation state (OS) is based on the concept of Lewis electron pairs, in which the bonding electrons are assigned to the more electronegative element. This approach is useful for keeping track of the electrons, predicting chemical trends, and guiding syntheses. Experimental and quantum-chemical results reveal a limit near +8 for the highest OS in stable neutral chemical substances under ambient conditions. OS=+9 was observed for the isolated [IrO4 ]+ cation in vacuum. The prediction of OS=+10 for isolated [PtO4 ]2+ cations is confirmed computationally for low temperatures only, but hasn't yet been experimentally verified. For high OS species, oxidation of the ligands, for example, of O-2 with formation of . O-1 and O-O bonds, and partial reduction of the metal center may be favorable, possibly leading to non-Lewis type structures.

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(16): 10685-10694, 2017 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398437

RESUMO

Actinide disulphide dications, AnS22+, were produced in the gas phase for An = Th and Np by reaction of An2+ cations with the sulfur-atom donor COS, in a sequential abstraction process of two sulfur atoms, as examined by FTICR mass spectrometry. For An = Pu and Am, An2+ ions were unreactive with COS and did not yield any sulphide species. High level multiconfigurational (CASPT2) calculations were performed to assess the structures and bonding of the new AnS22+ species obtained for An = Th, Np, as well as for An = Pu to examine trends along the An series, and for An = U to compare with a previous experimental study and DFT computational scrutiny of US22+. The CASPT2 results showed that, like in the case of uranium, the new AnS22+ ions have ground states with triangular geometries, corresponding to the presence of a persulphide in the case of thorium that formally leads to a stable ThIVS22+ species, while a supersulphide appears to be present in the case of U, Np and Pu, formally leading to a AnIIIS22+ species. The computations also revealed that linear thioactinyl structures are higher in energy, with a difference that increases fourfold upon moving from U to Pu, apparently indicating that it will be even more pronounced for Am.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 56(6): 3686-3694, 2017 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276685

RESUMO

The synthesis, reactivity, structures, and bonding in gas-phase binary and complex oxide anion molecules of protactinium and uranium have been studied by experiment and theory. The oxalate ions, AnVO2(C2O4)-, where An = Pa or U, are essentially actinyl ions, AnVO2+, coordinated by an oxalate dianion. Both react with water to yield the pentavalent hydroxides, AnVO(OH)2(C2O4)-. The chemistry of Pa and U becomes divergent for reactions that result in oxidation: whereas PaVI is inaccessible, UVI is very stable. The UVO2(C2O4)- complex exhibits a remarkable spontaneous exothermic replacement of the oxalate ligand by O2 to yield UO4- and two CO2 molecules. The structure of the uranium tetroxide anion is computed to correspond to distorted uranyl, UVIO22+, coordinated in the equatorial plane by two equivalent O atoms each having formal charges of -1.5 and U-O bond orders intermediate between single and double. The unreactive nature of PaVO2(C2O4)- toward O2 is a manifestation of the resistance toward oxidation of PaV, and clearly reveals the disparate chemistries of Pa and U. The uranium tetroxide anion, UO4-, reacts with water to yield UO5H2-. Infrared spectra obtained for UO5H2- confirm the computed lowest-energy structure, UO3(OH)2-.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 45(9): 3778-90, 2016 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818107

RESUMO

The reaction of the hexadentate dianionic 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-based bis(phenolate) ligand, (tBu2ArO)2Me2-cyclam(2-), with [SmI2(thf )2] in thf resulted in the formation of the divalent samarium complex [Sm(κ(6)-{(tBu2ArO)2Me2-cyclam})] (1). X-ray diffraction studies revealed that after recrystallization from n-hexane/thf complex 1 has a monomeric structure and does not contain thf molecules coordinated to the Sm(II) center. However, UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopy of 1 evidenced the formation of thf-solvated complexes in neat thf. Reductive studies show that complex 1 can act as a single electrontransfer reagent and form well-defined Sm(III) species. The reaction of 1 with several substrates, namely, TlBPh4, pyridine N-oxide, OPPh3, SPPh3 and bipyridines, are reported. Spectroscopy studies, including NMR, and single crystal X-ray diffraction data are in agreement with the formation of cationic Sm(III) species, monochalcogenide bridged Sm(III) complexes and Sm(III) complexes with bipyridine radical ligand, respectively.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(4): 1489-92, 2016 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26663718

RESUMO

The vanadium(IV) N-hydroxyiminodicarboxylate complexes [V(HIDPA)2](2-) and [V(HIDA)2](2-), close models of the amavadin (a natural product from Amanita fungi lacking the V=O group but exhibiting a rare NO-bound oxyiminate moiety), are shown to be the first recognized complexes of the early transition metals (up to periodic Group 7) that mediate the oxidation of water. The reactions were analyzed by visible spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry, and measurement of evolved dioxygen using Ce(4+) as sacrificial oxidant. A mechanism proposed on the basis of DFT calculations involves the reversible oxidation to the mononuclear V(V)-{ON<} center, where the redox active oxyimino group plays a key role and metal oxidation state variation is only one unit. The more similar model of the metallobiomolecule, [V(HIDPA)2](2-), displays a lower oxidation rate than [V(HIDA)2](2-) but does not undergo appreciable degradation, in contrast to the latter.

10.
Chemistry ; 21(49): 17817-26, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26536849

RESUMO

A tetravalent uranium compound with a radical azobenzene ligand, namely, [{(SiMe2 NPh)3 -tacn}U(IV) (η(2) -N2 Ph2 (.) )] (2), was obtained by one-electron reduction of azobenzene by the trivalent uranium compound [U(III) {(SiMe2 NPh)3 -tacn}] (1). Compound 2 was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and (1) H NMR, IR, and UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy. The magnetic properties of 2 and precursor 1 were studied by static magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements, which for the former revealed single-molecule magnet behaviour for the first time in a mononuclear U(IV) compound, whereas trivalent uranium compound 1 does not exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization at low temperatures. A first approximation to the magnetic behaviour of these compounds was attempted by combining an effective electrostatic model with a phenomenological approach using the full single-ion Hamiltonian.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 54(18): 9115-26, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26355956

RESUMO

A new monoiodide U(III) complex anchored on a hexadentate dianionic 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-based bis(phenolate) ligand, [U(κ(6)-{((tBu2)ArO)2Me2-cyclam})I] (1), was synthesized from the reaction of [UI3(THF)4] (THF = tetrahydrofuran) and the respective potassium salt K2((tBu2)ArO)2Me2-cyclam and structurally characterized. Reactivity of 1 toward one-, two-, and four-electron oxidants was studied to explore the reductive chemistry of this new U(III) complex. Complex 1 reacts with one-electron oxidizers, such as iodine and TlBPh4, to form the seven-coordinate cationic uranium(IV) complexes [U(κ(6)-{((tBu2)ArO)2Me2-cyclam})I][X] (X = I (2-I), BPh4 (2-BPh4)). The new uranium(III) complex reacts with inorganic azides to yield the pseudohalide uranium(IV) complex [U(κ(6)-{((tBu2)ArO)2Me2-cyclam})(N3)2] (4) and the nitride-bridged diuranium(IV/IV) complex [(κ(4)-{((tBu2)ArO)2Me2-cyclam})(N3)U(µ-N)U(κ(5)-{((tBu2)ArO)2Me2-cyclam})] (5). Two equivalents of [U(κ(6)-{((tBu2)ArO)2Me2-cyclam})I] (1) effect the four-electron reduction of 1 equiv of PhN═NPh to form the bis(imido) complex [U(κ(4)-{((tBu2)ArO)2Me2-cyclam})(NPh)2] (6) and the U(IV) species 2-I. Moreover, the hemilability of the hexadentate ancillary ligand ((tBu2)ArO)2Me2-cyclam(2-) allows to perform the reductive cleavage of azobenzene with an unprecedented formation of a trans-bis(imido) complex. The complexes were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, and all the new uranium complexes were structurally authenticated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 54(17): 8755-60, 2015 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26273901

RESUMO

The gas-phase complexes AnO2(CH3CO2)2(-) are actinyl(V) cores, An(V)O2(+) (An = U, Np, Pu), coordinated by two acetate anion ligands. Whereas the addition of O2 to U(V)O2(CH3CO2)2(-) exothermically produces the superoxide complex U(VI)O2(O2)(CH3CO2)2(-), this oxidation does not occur for Np(V)O2(CH3CO2)2(-) or Pu(V)O2(CH3CO2)2(-) because of the higher reduction potentials for Np(V) and Pu(V). It is demonstrated that NO2 is a more effective electron-withdrawing oxidant than O2, with the result that all three An(V)O2(CH3CO2)2(-) exothermically react with NO2 to form nitrite complexes, An(VI)O2(CH3CO2)2(NO2)(-). The assignment of the NO2(-) anion ligand in these complexes, resulting in oxidation from An(V) to An(VI), is substantiated by the replacement of the acetate ligands in AnO2(CH3CO2)2(NO2)(-) and AnO2(CH3CO2)3(-) by nitrites, to produce the tris(nitrite) complexes AnO2(NO2)3(-). The key chemistry of oxidation of An(V) to An(VI) by the addition of neutral NO2 is established by the substitution of acetate by nitrite. The replacement of acetate ligands by NO2(-) is attributed to a metathesis reaction with nitrous acid to produce acetic acid and nitrite.

13.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(15): 3628-35, 2015 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25807358

RESUMO

Gas-phase complexes of uranyl(V) ligated to anions X(-) (X = F, Cl, Br, I, OH, NO3, ClO4, HCO2, CH3CO2, CF3CO2, CH3COS, NCS, N3), [UO2X2](-), were produced by electrospray ionization and reacted with O2 in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer to form uranyl(VI) anionic complexes, [UO2X2(O2)](-), comprising a superoxo ligand. The comparative rates for the oxidation reactions were measured, ranging from relatively fast [UO2(OH)2](-) to slow [UO2I2](-). The reaction rates of [UO2X2](-) ions containing polyatomic ligands were significantly faster than those containing the monatomic halogens, which can be attributed to the greater number of vibrational degrees of freedom in the polyatomic ligands to dissipate the energy of the initial O2-association complexes. The effect of the basicity of the X(-) ligands was also apparent in the relative rates for O2 addition, with a general correlation between increasing ligand basicity and O2-addition efficiency for polyatomic ligands. Collision-induced dissociation of the superoxo complexes showed in all cases loss of O2 to form the [UO2X2](-) anions, indicating weaker binding of the O2(-) ligand compared to the X(-) ligands. Density functional theory computations of the structures and energetics of selected species are in accord with the experimental observations.


Assuntos
Oxigênio/química , Superóxidos/química , Compostos de Urânio/química , Ânions/química , Gases/química , Teoria Quântica , Compostos de Urânio/síntese química
14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(15): 9942-50, 2015 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25783464

RESUMO

Several lanthanide and actinide tetranitrate ions, M(III)(NO3)4(-), were produced by electrospray ionization and subjected to collision induced dissociation in quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers. The nature of the MO(NO3)3(-) products that result from NO2 elimination was evaluated by measuring the relative hydrolysis rates under thermalized conditions. Based on the experimental results it is inferred that the hydrolysis rates relate to the intrinsic stability of the M(IV) oxidation states, which correlate with both the solution IV/III reduction potentials and the fourth ionization energies. Density functional theory computations of the energetics of hydrolysis and atoms-in-molecules bonding analysis of representative oxide and hydroxide nitrates substantiate the interpretations. The results allow differentiation between those MO(NO3)3(-) that comprise an O(2-) ligand with oxidation to M(IV) and those that comprise a radical O(-) ligand with retention of the M(III) oxidation state. In the particular cases of MO(NO3)3(-) for M = Pr, Nd and Tb it is proposed that the oxidation states are intermediate between M(III) and M(IV).

15.
Inorg Chem ; 54(4): 1949-57, 2015 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25651301

RESUMO

The magnetic properties of layered dysprosium hydroxides, both diluted in the diamagnetic yttrium analogous matrix (LYH:0.04Dy), and intercalated with 2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylate anions (LDyH-2,6-NDC), were studied and compared with the recently reported undiluted compound (LDyH = Dy8(OH)20Cl4·6H2O). The Y diluted compound reveals a single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior of single Dy ions, with two distinct slow relaxation processes of the magnetization at low temperatures associated with the two main types of Dy sites, 8- and 9-fold coordinated. Only one relaxation process is observed in both undiluted LDyH and intercalated compounds as a consequence of dominant ferromagnetic Dy-Dy interactions, both intra- and interlayer. Semiempirical calculations using a radial effect charge (REC) model for the crystal field splitting of the Dy levels are used to explain data in terms of contributions from the different Dy sites. The dominant ferromagnetic interactions are explained in terms of orientations of easy magnetization axes obtained by REC calculations together with the sign of the superexchange expected from the Dy-O-Dy angles.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(71): 10262-4, 2014 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25056758

RESUMO

[U(Tp(Me2))2(bipy˙)], a uranium(III) complex with a radical bipyridine ligand which has magnetic properties with contributions from both the ligand and the metal, presents slow relaxation of the magnetisation at low temperatures, already under zero static magnetic field, and energy barriers slightly above the non-radical analogues.

17.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(11): 2159-66, 2014 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24571380

RESUMO

Complementary experimental and computational methods for evaluating relative charge densities of metal cations in gas-phase clusters are presented. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) and/or density functional theory computations were performed on anion clusters of composition MM'A(m+n+1)(-), where the two metal ions have formal charge states M(m+) and M'(n+) and A is an anion, NO3(-), Cl(-), or F(-) in this work. Results for alkaline earth and lanthanide metal ions reveal that cluster CID generally preferentially produces MA(m+1)(-) and neutral M'An if the surface charge density of M is greater than that of M': the metal ion with the higher charge density takes the extra anion. Computed dissociation energies corroborate that dissociation occurs via the lowest energy process. CID of clusters in which one of the two metal ions is uranyl, UO2(2+), shows that the effective charge density of U in uranyl is greater than that of alkaline earths and comparable to that of the late trivalent lanthanides; this is in accord with previous solution results for uranyl, from which an effective charge of 3.2+ was derived.

18.
Inorg Chem ; 53(4): 2163-70, 2014 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24484174

RESUMO

A challenge in actinide chemistry is activation of the strong bonds in the actinyl ions, AnO2(+) and AnO2(2+), where An = U, Np, or Pu. Actinyl activation in oxo-exchange with water in solution is well established, but the exchange mechanisms are unknown. Gas-phase actinyl oxo-exchange is a means to probe these processes in detail for simple systems, which are amenable to computational modeling. Gas-phase exchange reactions of UO2(+), NpO2(+), PuO2(+), and UO2(2+) with water and methanol were studied by experiment and density functional theory (DFT); reported for the first time are experimental results for UO2(2+) and for methanol exchange, as well as exchange rate constants. Key findings are faster exchange of UO2(2+) versus UO2(+) and faster exchange with methanol versus water; faster exchange of UO2(+) versus PuO2(+) was quantified. Computed potential energy profiles (PEPs) are in accord with the observed kinetics, validating the utility of DFT to model these exchange processes. The seemingly enigmatic result of faster exchange for uranyl, which has the strongest oxo-bonds, may reflect reduced covalency in uranyl as compared with plutonyl.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24441125

RESUMO

Three new crystalline metal-organic frameworks have been prepared from the reaction of uranyl nitrate with nitrilotris(methylphosphonic acid) [H6nmp, N(CH2PO3H2)3], 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)diphosphonic acid [H4pmd, C6H4(PO3H2)2], and (benzene-1,3,5-triyltris(methylene))triphosphonic acid [H6bmt, C6H3(PO3H2)3]. Compound [(UO2)2F(H3nmp)(H2O)]·4H2O (I) crystallizes in space group C2/c, showing two crystallographically independent uranyl centres with pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometries. While one metal centre is composed of a {(UO2)O3(µ-F)}2 dimer, the other comprises an isolated {(UO2)O5} polyhedron. Compound [(UO2)(H2pmd)] (II) crystallizes in space group P21/c, showing a centrosymmetric uranyl centre with an octahedral {(UO2)O4} coordination geometry. Compound [(UO2)3(H3bmt)2(H2O)2]·14H2O (III) crystallizes in space group P\bar 1, showing two crystallographically independent uranyl centres. One uranyl centre is a {(UO2)O5} pentagonal bipyramid similar to that in (I), while the other is a {(UO2)O4} centrosymmetric octahedron similar to that in (II). Compounds (I) and (III) contain solvent-accessible volumes accounting for ca 23.6 and 26.9% of their unit-cell volume, respectively. In (I) the cavity has a columnar shape and is occupied by disordered water molecules, while in (III) the cavity is a two-dimensional layer with more ordered water molecules. All compounds have been studied in the solid state using FT-IR spectroscopy. Topological studies show that compounds (I) and (III) are trinodal, with 3,6,6- and 4,4,6-connected networks, respectively. Compound (II) is instead a 4-connected uninodal network of the type cds.

20.
Inorg Chem ; 52(24): 14162-7, 2013 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24256167

RESUMO

Atomic uranium cations, U(+) and U(2+), reacted with the facile sulfur-atom donor OCS to produce several monopositive and dipositive uranium sulfide species containing up to four sulfur atoms. Sequential abstraction of two sulfur atoms by U(2+) resulted in US2(2+); density functional theory computations indicate that the ground-state structure for this species is side-on η(2)-S2 triangular US2(2+), with the linear thiouranyl isomer, {S═U(VI)═S}(2+), some 171 kJ mol(-1) higher in energy. The result that the linear thiouranyl structure is a local minimum at a moderate energy suggests that it should be feasible to stabilize this moiety in molecular compounds.

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