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1.
Artigo em Espanhol | BIGG | ID: biblio-948481

RESUMO

Asbesto, también conocido en España como amianto, es el término utilizado para nombrar a un conjunto de silicatos minerales que suelen romperse en fibras. Su uso ha comportado la aparición de numerosas enfermedades, especialmente pleuropulmonares, todas ellas caracterizadas por su prolongada latencia. El asbesto es, además, un carcinógeno del grupo IA reconocido por la OMS desde 1987. En España está prohibido desde 2002. La publicación en 2013 de la 3.ª edición del protocolo de vigilancia sanitaria específica del amianto junto con la aparición de nuevas técnicas diagnósticas han motivado al grupo EROM de SEPAR a promover la elaboración de esta normativa que revisa aspectos clínicos, radiológicos y funcionales de las diferentes enfermedades relacionadas. También establece recomendaciones para el diagnóstico y seguimiento de los pacientes expuestos. Dichas recomendaciones han sido establecidas mediante sistema GRADE.(AU)


Asbestos is the term used for a set of mineral silicates that tend to break up into fibers. Its use has been associated with numerous diseases affecting the lung and pleura in particular, all of which are characterized by their long period of latency. Asbestos, moreover, has been recognized by the WHO as a Group IA carcinogen since 1987 and its use was banned in Spain in 2002. The publication in 2013 of the 3rd edition of the specific asbestos health monitoring protocol, together with the development of new diagnostic techniques, prompted the SEPAR EROM group to sponsor publication of guidelines, which review the clinical, radiological and functional aspects of the different asbestos-related diseases. Recommendations have also been made for the diagnosis and follow-up of exposed patients. These recommendations were drawn up in accordance with the GRADE classification system.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Pleurais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Fibras Minerais , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/tratamento farmacológico
2.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 28 Suppl 1: 37-44, 2005.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15915170

RESUMO

Asbestosis is a diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, secondary to the inhalation of asbestos fibres. There is a dose-response relationship between exposure to asbestos and the risk of developing asbestosis, in such a way that the greater the exposure, the greater the risk of developing the disease. The time of clinical latency is inversely proportional to the level of exposure. Dyspnoea upon exertion and a dry cough together with end-inspiratory crackles are the most frequent symptoms and signs. Chest radiography is a basic tool in identifying the disease, however high resolution CAT has added greater sensitivity. Tests of the respiratory function show alterations and restrictive ventilations with a reduction of pulmonary spread. Determination of asbestos bodies in BAL is an indicator of exposure, although their absence does not rule out the disease. A histopathological diagnosis is the most reliable, although in the majority of cases the diagnosis is established on the basis of the existence of an antecedent of exposure to asbestos together with suggestive clinical, radiological and functional findings, and a suitable time of latency, without having recourse to a pulmonary biopsy.


Assuntos
Asbestose/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Biópsia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
3.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 28 Suppl 1: 45-9, 2005.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15915171

RESUMO

Exposure to asbestos is associated with the development of benign and malign pleuropulmonary pathology. In recent years a broad set of regulations has been set in place, from the establishment of conditions in work involving exposure to asbestos to successive prohibitions on its use. Periodical medical checkups have been designed to detect these pathologies in exposed workers and, considering the long period of latency, they should also be carried out on retired workers or on those who in the past have suffered such exposure.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico
4.
An. sist. sanit. Navar ; 28(supl.1): 37-44, 2005. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-038441

RESUMO

La asbestosis es una fibrosis pulmonar intersticialdifusa secundaria a la inhalación de fibras de asbesto.Existe una relación dosis respuesta entre la exposicióna asbesto y riesgo de desarrollar asbestosis, de talforma que a mayor exposición, mayor riesgo de desarrollarla enfermedad. El tiempo de latencia clínica esinversamente proporcional al nivel de exposición. Ladisnea de esfuerzo y la tos seca junto con los crepitantesinspiratorios tardíos son los síntomas y signos másfrecuentes. La radiografía de tórax constituye un instrumentobásico en la identificación de la enfermedad,no obstante el TAC de alta resolución ha añadido unamayor sensibilidad. Las pruebas de función respiratoriamuestran alteraciones ventilatorias restrictivas condisminución de la difusión pulmonar. La determinaciónde cuerpos de asbesto en BAL es un indicador de exposiciónaunque su ausencia no descarta enfermedad. Eldiagnóstico de certeza es histopatológico aunque en lamayor parte de los casos se establece el diagnósticobasándose en la existencia de antecedente de exposicióna asbesto junto con hallazgos clínicos, radiológicosy funcionales sugestivos y tiempo de latencia adecuadosin recurrir a la biopsia pulmonar


Asbestosis is a diffuse interstitial pulmonaryfibrosis, secondary to the inhalation of asbestos fibres.There is a dose-response relationship betweenexposure to asbestos and the risk of developingasbestosis, in such a way that the greater the exposure,the greater the risk of developing the disease. The timeof clinical latency is inversely proportional to the levelof exposure. Dyspnoea upon exertion and a dry coughtogether with end-inspiratory crackles are the mostfrequent symptoms and signs. Chest radiography is abasic tool in identifying the disease, however highresolution CAT has added greater sensitivity. Tests ofthe respiratory function show alterations andrestrictive ventilations with a reduction of pulmonaryspread. Determination of asbestos bodies in BAL is anindicator of exposure, although their absence does notrule out the disease. A histopathological diagnosis isthe most reliable, although in the majority of cases thediagnosis is established on the basis of the existence ofan antecedent of exposure to asbestos together withsuggestive clinical, radiological and functional findings,and a suitable time of latency, without having recourseto a pulmonary biopsy


Assuntos
Humanos , Asbestose/diagnóstico , Asbestose/história , Asbestose/patologia , Asbestose , Asbestose/terapia , Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Radiografia Torácica , Testes de Função Respiratória
5.
An. sist. sanit. Navar ; 28(supl.1): 45-49, 2005. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-038442

RESUMO

La exposición a amianto se asocia al desarrollo depatología pleuropulmonar benigna y maligna. Existeuna amplia regulación en los últimos años, desde elestablecimiento de condiciones en los trabajos conexposición a amianto hasta las sucesivas prohibicionessobre su utilización. Para detectar estas patologías sehan diseñado unos reconocimientos médicos periódicosen los trabajadores expuestos y teniendo en cuentael largo período de latencia también deben realizarsea trabajadores jubilados expuestos o postocupacionales


Exposure to asbestos is associated with thedevelopment of benign and malign pleuropulmonarypathology. In recent years a broad set of regulationshas been set in place, from the establishment ofconditions in work involving exposure to asbestos tosuccessive prohibitions on its use. Periodical medicalcheckups have been designed o detect thesepathologies in exposed workers and, considering thelong period of latency, they should also be carried outon retired workers or on those who in the past havesuffered such exposure


Assuntos
Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pleura/patologia , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador/legislação & jurisprudência , Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos
6.
An Med Interna ; 16(2): 65-8, 1999 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10192996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of the patients died from tuberculosis (TB) in our hospital. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed the records of the 46 patients died in-hospital from TB between january, 1992 and june, 1997. MEAN AGE: 55 +/- 19 years (19-85). 35 (76%) males and 11 (24%) females. DIAGNOSIS: pulmonary (63%), disseminated (26%) and extrapulmonary (11%) TB. 87% of the patients had previous comorbidity (35% were seropositive for HIV). The only differences between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected cases were a greater proportion of normal chest roentgenograms and of toxicity from therapy in seropositive patients. The disease was diagnosed at death in 17% of cases. Chemoprophylaxis had not been used in 5 patients, although they fulfilled criteria for receiving it. Poor compliance with treatment was noted in 6 (13%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: We have found a high prevalence of comorbidity in these patients, which might account for the mortality. Delays in diagnosis, misuse of chemoprophylaxis and poor compliance with therapy might also be implicated in some cases.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , HIV-1 , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade
7.
An. med. interna (Madr., 1983) ; 16(2): 65-68, feb. 1999. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-11

RESUMO

Objetivo: conocer las características de los pacientes que fallecen por tuberculosis (TB) en nuestro centro. Método: Revisamos retrospectivamente las historias clínicas de los 46 casos de muerte intrahospitalaria debida a TB entre enero de 1992 y junio de 1997. Edad media: 55 ñ 19 años (19-85). 35 (76 %) varones y 11 (24 %) mujeres. Resultados: Tipo de TB: pulmonar (63 %), diseminada (26 %) y extrapulmonar (11 %). El 87 % de los casos presentaban comorbilidad preexistente (el 35 porciento, coinfección por VIH). Las únicas diferencias entre pacientes VIH (+) y (-) fueron un mayor porcentaje de radiografía de tórax normal y de toxicidad medicamentosa en los enfermos seropositivos. En el 17 % de los casos, el diagnóstico se realizó tras el fallecimiento. En 5 pacientes no se había empleado quimioprofilaxis antituberculosa pese a estar indicada, y en 6 (13 %) detectamos un mal cumplimiento terapéutico. Conclusiones: en este tipo de pacientes hay una elevada prevalencia de comorbilidad como posible causa de la mala evolución. La existencia de retrasos en el diagnóstico, un empleo inadecuado de la quimioprofilaxis y un mal cumplimiento terapéutico podrían relacionarse con la mala evolución en algunos casos (AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/microbiologia , Comorbidade , HIV-1 , Hospitais Universitários , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade
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