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1.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 65, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874996

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells and BiTEs are both immunotherapies which redirect T cell specificity against a tumor-specific antigen through the use of antibody fragments. They demonstrated remarkable efficacy in B cell hematologic malignancies, thus paving the way for their development in solid tumors. Nonetheless, the use of such new drugs to treat solid tumors is not straightforward. So far, the results from early phase clinical trials are not as impressive as expected but many improvements are under way. In this review we present an overview of the clinical development of CAR-T cells and BiTEs targeting the main antigens expressed by solid tumors. We emphasize the most frequent hurdles encountered by either CAR-T cells or BiTEs, or both, and summarize the strategies that have been proposed to overcome these obstacles.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 149: 193-210, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866228

RESUMO

The rising interest for precise characterization of the tumour immune contexture has recently brought forward the high potential of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in identifying molecular mechanisms engaged in the response to immunotherapy. In this review, we provide an overview of the major principles of single-cell and conventional (bulk) RNA-seq applied to onco-immunology. We describe standard preprocessing and statistical analyses of data obtained from such techniques and highlight some computational challenges relative to the sequencing of individual cells. We notably provide examples of gene expression analyses such as differential expression analysis, dimensionality reduction, clustering and enrichment analysis. Additionally, we used public data sets to exemplify how deconvolution algorithms can identify and quantify multiple immune subpopulations from either bulk or single-cell RNA-seq. We give examples of machine and deep learning models used to predict patient outcomes and treatment effect from high-dimensional data. Finally, we balance the strengths and weaknesses of single-cell and bulk RNA-seq regarding their applications in the clinic.

3.
Cancer Discov ; 11(4): 874-899, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811122

RESUMO

Resistance to anticancer therapies includes primary resistance, usually related to lack of target dependency or presence of additional targets, and secondary resistance, mostly driven by adaptation of the cancer cell to the selection pressure of treatment. Resistance to targeted therapy is frequently acquired, driven by on-target, bypass alterations, or cellular plasticity. Resistance to immunotherapy is often primary, orchestrated by sophisticated tumor-host-microenvironment interactions, but could also occur after initial efficacy, mostly when only partial responses are obtained. Here, we provide an overview of resistance to tumor and immune-targeted therapies and discuss challenges of overcoming resistance, and current and future directions of development. SIGNIFICANCE: A better and earlier identification of cancer-resistance mechanisms could avoid the use of ineffective drugs in patients not responding to therapy and provide the rationale for the administration of personalized drug associations. A clear description of the molecular interplayers is a prerequisite to the development of novel and dedicated anticancer drugs. Finally, the implementation of such cancer molecular and immunologic explorations in prospective clinical trials could de-risk the demonstration of more effective anticancer strategies in randomized registration trials, and bring us closer to the promise of cure.

4.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(3): 258, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707411

RESUMO

The circulating metabolome provides a snapshot of the physiological state of the organism responding to pathogenic challenges. Here we report alterations in the plasma metabolome reflecting the clinical presentation of COVID-19 patients with mild (ambulatory) diseases, moderate disease (radiologically confirmed pneumonitis, hospitalization and oxygen therapy), and critical disease (in intensive care). This analysis revealed major disease- and stage-associated shifts in the metabolome, meaning that at least 77 metabolites including amino acids, lipids, polyamines and sugars, as well as their derivatives, were altered in critical COVID-19 patient's plasma as compared to mild COVID-19 patients. Among a uniformly moderate cohort of patients who received tocilizumab, only 10 metabolites were different among individuals with a favorable evolution as compared to those who required transfer into the intensive care unit. The elevation of one single metabolite, anthranilic acid, had a poor prognostic value, correlating with the maintenance of high interleukin-10 and -18 levels. Given that products of the kynurenine pathway including anthranilic acid have immunosuppressive properties, we speculate on the therapeutic utility to inhibit the rate-limiting enzymes of this pathway including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase.


Assuntos
/sangue , Metaboloma , /metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , /tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Prognóstico
6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542073

RESUMO

PURPOSE: LTX-315 is a first-in-class, 9-mer membranolytic peptide that has shown potent immunomodulatory properties in preclinical models. We conducted a phase I dose-escalating study of intratumoral LTX-315 administration in patients with advanced solid tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients were enrolled, receiving LTX-315 injections into accessible tumors. The primary objective was to assess the safety and tolerability of this approach, with antitumor and immunomodulatory activity as secondary objectives. Tumor biopsies were collected at baseline and posttreatment for analysis of immunologic parameters. RESULTS: The most common treatment-related grade 1-2 adverse events were vascular disorders including transient hypotension (18 patients, 46%), flushing (11 patients, 28%), and injection site reactions in 38% of patients. The most common grade 3 LTX-315-related toxicities were hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis (4 patients, 10%). Analysis of immune endpoints in serial biopsies indicated that LTX-315 induces necrosis and CD8+ T-cell infiltration into the tumor microenvironment. Sequencing of the T-cell receptor repertoire in peripheral blood identified significant expansion of T-cell clones after treatment, of which 49% were present in available tumor biopsies after treatment, suggesting that they were tumor associated. Substantial volume reduction (≥30%) of injected tumors occurred in 29% of the patients, and 86% (12/14 biopsies) had an increase in intralesional CD8+ T cells posttreatment. No partial responses by immune-related response criteria were seen, but evidence of abscopal effect was demonstrated following treatment with LTX-315. CONCLUSION: LTX-315 has an acceptable safety profile, is clinically active, induces changes in the tumor microenvironment and contributes to immune-mediated anticancer activity.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419781

RESUMO

Human intratumoral immunotherapy (HIT-IT) is under rapid development, with promising preliminary results and high expectations for current phase III trials. While outcomes remain paramount for patients and the referring oncologists, the technical aspects of drug injection are critical to the interventional radiologist to ensure optimal and reproducible outcomes. The technical considerations for HIT-IT affect the safety, efficacy, and further development of this treatment option. Image-guided access to the tumor allows the therapeutic index of a treatment to be enhanced by increasing the intratumoral drug concentration while minimizing its systemic exposure and associated on-target off-tumor adverse events. Direct access to the tumor also enables the acquisition of cancer tissue for sequential sampling to better understand the pharmacodynamics of the injected immunotherapy and its efficacy through correlation of immune responses, pathologic responses, and imaging tumor response. The aim of this article is to share the technical insights of HIT-IT, with particular consideration for patient selection, lesion assessment, image guidance, and technical injection options. In addition, the organization of a standard patient workflow is discussed, so as to optimize HIT-IT outcome and the patient experience.

8.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(1): e12850, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372722

RESUMO

Decision making in immuno-oncology is pivotal to adapt therapy to the tumor microenvironment (TME) of the patient among the numerous options of monoclonal antibodies or small molecules. Predicting the best combinatorial regimen remains an unmet medical need. Here, we report a multiplex functional and dynamic immuno-assay based on the capacity of the TME to respond to ex vivo stimulation with twelve immunomodulators including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in 43 human primary tumors. This "in sitro" (in situ/in vitro) assay has the potential to predict unresponsiveness to anti-PD-1 mAbs, and to detect the most appropriate and personalized combinatorial regimen. Prospective clinical trials are awaited to validate this in sitro assay.

10.
Eur J Cancer ; 141: 239-251, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212339

RESUMO

Corticosteroids are among the most prescribed drugs in oncology. The indications range from cancer-related indications for refractory symptoms, anti-cancer effects mainly in hematology, supportive measures for cancer-specific treatments and more recently immune-related adverse events induced by modern immunotherapies. In oncological emergencies, corticosteroids are common first-line treatments because of their rapid effect and wide variety of actions. In the last 5 years, with the advance of immune checkpoint inhibitors, corticosteroids are becoming routinely used to manage immune-related adverse effects. Preclinical studies suggested that corticosteroid-induced immunosuppression might dampen the activity of immunotherapies. Prospective clinical studies show that corticosteroid use is a prognostic marker for the cancer outcome in metastatic setting but does not significantly alter the patient's response to immunotherapies per se. Here, we review the state of the art on corticosteroid use in oncology, with a focus on the drugs' potential impact on immunotherapy activity. The comprehensive pharmacological characteristics of corticosteroid drugs, clinical indications, modality of administration and associated precautions for use are discussed in this article.

11.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MEDI9197 is an intratumorally administered toll-like receptor 7 and 8 agonist. In mice, MEDI9197 modulated antitumor immune responses, inhibited tumor growth and increased survival. This first-time-in-human, phase 1 study evaluated MEDI9197 with or without the programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitor durvalumab and/or palliative radiation therapy (RT) for advanced solid tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had at least one cutaneous, subcutaneous, or deep-seated lesion suitable for intratumoral (IT) injection. Dose escalation used a standard 3+3 design. Patients received IT MEDI9197 0.005-0.055 mg with or without RT (part 1), or IT MEDI9197 0.005 or 0.012 mg plus durvalumab 1500 mg intravenous with or without RT (part 3), in 4-week cycles. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability. Secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and objective response based on Response Evaluation Criteria for Solid Tumors version 1.1. Exploratory endpoints included tumor and peripheral biomarkers that correlate with biological activity or predict response. RESULTS: From November 2015 to March 2018, part 1 enrolled 35 patients and part 3 enrolled 17 patients; five in part 1 and 2 in part 3 received RT. The maximum tolerated dose of MEDI9197 monotherapy was 0.037 mg, with dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of cytokine release syndrome in two patients (one grade 3, one grade 4) and 0.012 mg in combination with durvalumab 1500 mg with DLT of MEDI9197-related hemorrhagic shock in one patient (grade 5) following liver metastasis rupture after two cycles of MEDI9197. Across parts 1 and 3, the most frequent MEDI9197-related adverse events (AEs) of any grade were fever (56%), fatigue (31%), and nausea (21%). The most frequent MEDI9197-related grade ≥3 events were decreased lymphocytes (15%), neutrophils (10%), and white cell counts (10%). MEDI9197 increased tumoral CD8+ and PD-L1+ cells, inducing type 1 and 2 interferons and Th1 response. There were no objective clinical responses; 10 patients in part 1 and 3 patients in part 3 had stable disease ≥8 weeks. CONCLUSION: IT MEDI9197 was feasible for subcutaneous/cutaneous lesions but AEs precluded its use in deep-seated lesions. Although no patients responded, MEDI9197 induced systemic and intratumoral immune activation, indicating potential value in combination regimens in other patient populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02556463.

12.
Oncoimmunology ; 9(1): 1807836, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939324

RESUMO

Over the past 16 years, three coronaviruses (CoVs), severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) in 2002, Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) in 2012 and 2015, and SARS-CoV-2 in 2020, have been causing severe and fatal human epidemics. The unpredictability of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) poses a major burden on health care and economic systems across the world. This is caused by the paucity of in-depth knowledge of the risk factors for severe COVID-19, insufficient diagnostic tools for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the absence of specific and effective drug treatments. While protective humoral and cellular immune responses are usually mounted against these betacoronaviruses, immune responses to SARS-CoV2 sometimes derail towards inflammatory tissue damage, leading to rapid admissions to intensive care units. The lack of knowledge on mechanisms that tilt the balance between these two opposite outcomes poses major threats to many ongoing clinical trials dealing with immunostimulatory or immunoregulatory therapeutics. This review will discuss innate and cognate immune responses underlying protective or deleterious immune reactions against these pathogenic coronaviruses.

13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943460

RESUMO

Systemic immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint blockade targeted at PD(L)1 and CTLA4 have demonstrated their ability to provide durable tumor responses and long term overall survival benefits for some patients in several solid tumor types. However, a majority of patients remain resistant to these treatments and a significant proportion of them develop severe auto-immune and inflammatory adverse events. Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that intratumoral injections of immunostimulatory products (oncolytics, pattern recognition receptor agonists,...) that are able to trigger type I interferon release and enhance tumor antigen presentation on immune cells could generate a strong anti-tumor immunity and overcome the resistance to systemic immune checkpoint blockade therapies. The intratumoral immunotherapy strategies that are currently in clinical development offer a unique therapeutic and exploratory setting to better understand the immune contexture across tumor lesions of metastatic cancer patients. Also these local therapeutic products could turn cold tumors into hot and improve the response rates to cancer immunotherapies while diminishing their systemic exposure and toxicities. Intratumoral immunotherapies could prime or boost the immunity against tumors and therefore radically change the combinatorial therapeutic strategies currently pursued for metastatic and local cancers in order to improve their long term survival. We aimed to review and discuss the scientific rationale for intratumoral immunotherapy, the challenges raised by this strategy in terms of drug development within clinical trials and the current state-of-the-art regarding the clinical practice of this innovative approach.

14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887723

RESUMO

PURPOSE: CD28, CD57, and KLRG1 have been previously identified as markers of T-cell immunosenescence. The impact of immunosenescence on anti-PD(L)-1 (ICI) or platinum-based chemotherapy (PCT) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) is unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The percentage of CD28-, CD57+, KLRG1+ among CD8+ T cells [senescent immune phenotype (SIP)] was assessed by flow cytometry on blood from patients with aNSCLC before single-agent ICI (discovery cohort). A SIP cut-off was identified by log-rank maximization method and patients with aNSCLC treated with ICI (validation cohort) or PCT were classified accordingly. Proliferation and functional properties of SIP+ CD8+ T cells were assessed in vitro. RESULTS: In the ICI discovery cohort (N = 37), SIP cut-off was 39.5%, 27% of patients were SIP+. In the ICI validation cohort (N = 46), SIP+ status was found in 28% of patients and significantly correlated with worse objective response rate (ORR; 0% vs. 30%, P = 0.04), median progression-free survival (PFS) [1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-NR) vs. 6.4 (95% CI, 2-19) months, P = 0.009] and median overall survival, OS [2.8 (95% CI, 2.0-NR) vs. 20.8 (95% CI, 6.0-NR) months, P = 0.02]. SIP+ status was significantly associated with circulating specific immunephenotypes, in vitro lower CD8+ T cells proliferation, lower IL2 and higher TNFα and IFNγ production. In the ICI-pooled population (N = 83), SIP+ status did not correlate with any clinical characteristics and it was associated with significantly worse ORR, PFS, and OS. In PCT cohort (N = 61), 11% of patients were SIP+. SIP status did not correlate with outcomes upon PCT. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating T-cell immunosenescence is observed in up to 28% of patients with aNSCLC and correlates with lack of benefit from ICI but not from PCT.

15.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(10): 1353-1365, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumour mutational burden (TMB) has been retrospectively correlated with response to immune checkpoint blockade. We prospectively explored the association of high tissue TMB (tTMB-high) with outcomes in ten tumour-type-specific cohorts from the phase 2 KEYNOTE-158 study, which assessed the anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab in patients with selected, previously treated, advanced solid tumours. METHODS: In the multi-cohort, open-label, non-randomised, phase 2 KEYNOTE-158 study, patients were enrolled from 81 academic facilities and community-based institutions across 21 countries in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had a histologically or cytologically confirmed advanced (ie, unresectable or metastatic, or both) incurable solid tumour (eligible tumour types were anal, biliary, cervical, endometrial, mesothelioma, neuroendocrine, salivary, small-cell lung, thyroid, and vulvar), progression on or intolerance to one or more lines of standard therapy, had measurable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST; version 1.1) assessed by independent central radiological review, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, life expectancy of at least 3 months, adequate organ function, and a tumour sample for biomarker analysis. Participants were given pembrolizumab 200 mg intravenously every 3 weeks for up to 35 cycles. Tissue TMB (tTMB) was assessed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour samples using the FoundationOne CDx assay (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA, USA). The prespecified definition of tTMB-high status was at least 10 mutations per megabase. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with an objective response (complete or partial response) as per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (version 1.1) by independent central review. This prespecified analysis assessed the association between antitumour activity and tTMB in treated patients with evaluable tTMB data. Efficacy was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of pembrolizumab, had evaluable tTMB data, and were enrolled at least 26 weeks before data cutoff (June 27, 2019), and safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of pembrolizumab and had tTMB-high status. KEYNOTE-158 is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02628067, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Jan 15, 2016, and June 25, 2019, 1073 patients were enrolled. 1066 participants were treated as of data cutoff (June 27, 2019), of whom 805 (76%) were evaluable for TMB, and 105 (13%) of 805 had tTMB-high status and were assessed for safety. 1050 (98%) of 1066 patients enrolled by at least 26 weeks before data cutoff, of whom 790 (75%) were evaluable for TMB and included in efficacy analyses. 102 (13%) of these 790 patients had tTMB-high status (≥10 mutations per megabase), and 688 (87%) patients had non-tTMB-high status (<10 mutations per megabase). Median study follow-up was 37·1 months (IQR 35·0-38·3). Objective responses were observed in 30 (29%; 95% CI 21-39) of 102 patients in the tTMB-high group and 43 (6%; 5-8) of 688 in the non-tTMB-high group. 11 (10%) of 105 patients had treatment-related serious adverse events. 16 (15%) participants had a grade 3-5 treatment-related adverse event, of which colitis was the only such adverse event that occurred in more than one patient (n=2). One patient had fatal pneumonia that was assessed by the investigator to be treatment related. INTERPRETATION: tTMB-high status identifies a subgroup of patients who could have a robust tumour response to pembrolizumab monotherapy. tTMB could be a novel and useful predictive biomarker for response to pembrolizumab monotherapy in patients with previously treated recurrent or metastatic advanced solid tumours. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Inc.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Cell ; 182(6): 1401-1418.e18, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810439

RESUMO

Blood myeloid cells are known to be dysregulated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2. It is unknown whether the innate myeloid response differs with disease severity and whether markers of innate immunity discriminate high-risk patients. Thus, we performed high-dimensional flow cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing of COVID-19 patient peripheral blood cells and detected disappearance of non-classical CD14LowCD16High monocytes, accumulation of HLA-DRLow classical monocytes (Human Leukocyte Antigen - DR isotype), and release of massive amounts of calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9) in severe cases. Immature CD10LowCD101-CXCR4+/- neutrophils with an immunosuppressive profile accumulated in the blood and lungs, suggesting emergency myelopoiesis. Finally, we show that calprotectin plasma level and a routine flow cytometry assay detecting decreased frequencies of non-classical monocytes could discriminate patients who develop a severe form of COVID-19, suggesting a predictive value that deserves prospective evaluation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário , Monócitos , Células Mieloides , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Eur J Cancer ; 137: 260-271, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823150

RESUMO

The use of antagonistic immune checkpoint-targeted monoclonal antibodies has profoundly modified the standard of care and significantly increased the survival for many cancers. However, many patients still do not respond to those treatments. Biomarkers predictive for efficacy or failure of such immunotherapies would allow developing treatment stratification strategies which could further increase the survival rates of patients with cancer. Chemokines are a subset of the immune cell messenger molecules known as cytokines. Chemokines are key chemoattractant molecules which are essential for the homing of immune cells, notably within tumours. Therefore, they are good candidates for providing predictive biomarkers of the clinical response to checkpoint blockade immunotherapies. In this review, we summarise the recent advances in our understanding of the role of chemokines and how chemokine concentrations may set the tone for the efficacy of immune checkpoint-targeted immunotherapies.

18.
Eur J Cancer ; 137: 117-126, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) alone or in combination with chemotherapy (CT) are the current standard of therapy in several cancer types. Patients (pts) with lung cancer display higher response rates to CT when given after ICIs. Although ICIs have failed to demonstrate antitumour activity in microsatellite stable (MSS) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), little is known about CT effect after ICIs. We aimed to assess whether sequential ICIs followed by CT may be an alternative therapeutic approach in a population of pts with mCRC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed CT after ICI (CAICI) failure in pts with mCRC. The ICI regimen consisted of anti-PD(L)1 alone or in combination. The primary end-point was objective response rate. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were secondary end-points. RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2018, 29 pts with mCRC received CAICI (MSS tumours, 27 pts [86%]). The median number of previous lines was 4 (range, 2-7). Regimens included TAS-102 (n = 14), FOLFIRI (irinotecan, leucovorin, and fluorouracil; n = 6) or FOLFOX (oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and fluorouracil; n = 4), regorafenib (n = 3) and carboplatin (1 pt with BRCA mutation). Partial response and stable disease were observed in 4 (19%) and 9 (43%) pts, respectively (disease control rate, 62%). The median PFS and OS were 3.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-5.4) and 8.0 months (95% CI = 4.2-14.0), respectively. CONCLUSION: ICIs administered before CT might enhance cytotoxic effects even in pts with immunorefractory MSS mCRC. The results of this small cohort need to be validated in independent prospective cohorts. The role of ICIs as modifiers of both tumour cells and microenvironment in mCRC deserves further research.

19.
Cancer Discov ; 10(8): 1097-1099, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747370

RESUMO

In this issue of Cancer Discovery, Diab and colleagues demonstrate in a phase I trial enrolling 38 patients diagnosed with advanced solid tumors that combining the pegylated IL2 bempegaldesleukin with an anti-PD-1 mAb is safe, with an overall response rate of 59.5%. This compelling clinical activity is supported by the potent immune proliferation and activation of circulating T and natural killer cells with a >4-fold increase in the CD8/regulatory T-cell ratio in tumors, independent of baseline PD-L1 expression.See related article by Diab et al., p. 1158.

20.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 17(11): 707-715, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636502

RESUMO

The optimal duration of therapy in patients receiving immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is a new but crucial question that has arisen owing to the observation of durable remissions in >85% of patients with metastatic melanoma who stop receiving an anti-PD-1 antibody after a complete response (CR). Long-term treatment-free remissions have also been seen, albeit much less frequently, in patients receiving ICIs for other forms of cancer who have a CR. Despite these promising observations, the optimal duration of treatment with ICIs remains unknown and requires further investigation in randomized controlled trials. In the absence of prospective data, some general criteria to guide the safe cessation of ICIs can be proposed, at least for patients with melanoma, in whom ICI cessation after a confirmed CR and at least 6 months of treatment is generally deemed safe. In this Perspective, we describe the available data on ICI interruption in patients with melanoma and in those with various other cancers. We also address the patient management implications of stopping ICI therapy.

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