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J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(10): 106016, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325273


OBJECTIVES: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) can be a warning sign of an impending stroke. The objective of our study is to assess the feasibility, safety, and cost savings of a comprehensive TIA protocol in the emergency room for low-risk TIA patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, single-center cohort study performed at an academic comprehensive stroke center. We implemented an emergency department-based TIA protocol pathway for low-risk TIA patients (defined as ABCD2 score < 4 and without significant vessel stenosis) who were able to undergo vascular imaging and a brain MRI in the emergency room. Patients were set up with rapid outpatient follow-up in our stroke clinic and scheduled for an outpatient echocardiogram, if indicated. We compared this cohort to TIA patients admitted prior to the implementation of the TIA protocol who would have qualified. Outcomes of interest included length of stay, hospital cost, radiographic and echocardiogram findings, recurrent neurovascular events within 30 days, and final diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 138 patients were assessed (65 patients in the pre-pathway cohort, 73 in the expedited, post-TIA pathway implementation cohort). Average time from MRI order to MRI end was 6.4 h compared to 2.3 h in the pre- and post-pathway cohorts, respectively (p < 0.0001). The average length of stay for the pre-pathway group was 28.8 h in the pre-pathway cohort compared to 7.7 h in the post-pathway cohort (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in neuroimaging or echocardiographic findings. There were no differences in the 30 days re-presentation for stroke or TIA or mortality between the two groups. The direct cost per TIA admission was $2,944.50 compared to $1,610.50 for TIA patients triaged through the pathway at our institution. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility, safety, and cost-savings of a comprehensive, emergency department-based TIA protocol. Further study is needed to confirm overall benefit of an expedited approach to TIA patient management and guide clinical practice recommendations.

Stroke ; 51(9): 2664-2673, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755347


BACKGROUND: Anecdotal reports suggest fewer patients with stroke symptoms are presenting to hospitals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We quantify trends in stroke code calls and treatments at 3 Connecticut hospitals during the local emergence of COVID-19 and examine patient characteristics and stroke process measures at a Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) before and during the pandemic. METHODS: Stroke code activity was analyzed from January 1 to April 28, 2020, and corresponding dates in 2019. Piecewise linear regression and spline models identified when stroke codes in 2020 began to decline and when they fell below 2019 levels. Patient-level data were analyzed in February versus March and April 2020 at the CSC to identify differences in patient characteristics during the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 822 stroke codes were activated at 3 hospitals from January 1 to April 28, 2020. The number of stroke codes/wk decreased by 12.8/wk from February 18 to March 16 (P=0.0360) with nadir of 39.6% of expected stroke codes called from March 10 to 16 (30% decrease in total stroke codes during the pandemic weeks in 2020 versus 2019). There was no commensurate increase in within-network telestroke utilization. Compared with before the pandemic (n=167), pandemic-epoch stroke code patients at the CSC (n=211) were more likely to have histories of hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and substance abuse; no or public health insurance; lower median household income; and to live in the CSC city (P<0.05). There was no difference in age, sex, race/ethnicity, stroke severity, time to presentation, door-to-needle/door-to-reperfusion times, or discharge modified Rankin Scale. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital presentation for stroke-like symptoms decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, without differences in stroke severity or early outcomes. Individuals living outside of the CSC city were less likely to present for stroke codes at the CSC during the pandemic. Public health initiatives to increase awareness of presenting for non-COVID-19 medical emergencies such as stroke during the pandemic are critical.

Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Connecticut/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Renda , Seguro Saúde , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Hemorragias Intracranianas/fisiopatologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/terapia , Masculino , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Telemedicina , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica
Childs Nerv Syst ; 30(10): 1645-9, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25079886


INTRODUCTION: The foramen of Monro lies at the junction between the paired lateral ventricles and the third ventricle of the brain. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature was performed focusing on the foramen of Monro. CONCLUSIONS: A good understanding of the anatomy of the foramen of Monro is essential for the neurosurgeon, especially with the increasing use of intraventricular endoscopy.

Ventrículos Cerebrais , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/história , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Ventriculostomia/história , Ventriculostomia/métodos , Ventrículos Cerebrais/anatomia & histologia , Ventrículos Cerebrais/patologia , Ventrículos Cerebrais/cirurgia , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos