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1.
Gels ; 8(12)2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36547298

RESUMO

Gluten-free cookies based on rice and chickpea flour with reduced-fat and increased protein content compared with conventional commercial gluten-free cookies were developed and used as a base for further vegetable fat replacement with chia seed hydrogel. Rheological properties of chia seed hydrogel revealed that 8% gels exhibited the optimal properties as a fat substitute. Designed cookie samples were characterized for their chemical composition, fatty acid profile, mineral content, physical, textural and color parameters, and sensory properties. All gluten-free cookies developed in this study could be labeled as "a source of iron and potassium", while those with chia seed hydrogel and cocoa powder could bear the additional claim "high in zinc and magnesium". Fat replacement with chia seed hydrogel resulted in a more favorable fatty acid composition with a PUFA/SFA ratio over 0.40 and nonsignificant changes in the cookies' hardness, weight, eccentricity, and specific volume, indicating that the chia seed hydrogel addition did not disturb the cookie structure and texture. The results of the sensory analysis confirmed that it is possible to apply chia seed hydrogel to produce reduced-fat cookies with sensory properties comparable to their full-fat counterpart and available commercial samples, and they are more appealing than commercial reduced-fat gluten-free cookies.

2.
Foods ; 11(24)2022 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36553727

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the impact of ancient wheat varieties (emmer, spelt and khorasan) and spontaneous sourdough fermentation on the bioaccessibility of total phenolic content (TPC) and the DPPH antioxidant capacity evolution during breadmaking and in vitro digestion. Sourdough and yeast-fermented modern wheat breads were used as controls. After 6 h of fermentation, the total titrable acidity of the sourdough increased from 139 to 167%. The wheat variety, type of fermentation and processing affected TPC, antioxidant activity and bioaccessibility. Antioxidant activity and TPC were reduced by dough mixing, increased after sourdough fermentation and slightly decreased or remained the same after baking. Although wheat flour had the highest TPC, the modeling of TPC kinetic revealed that emmer and spelt sourdough exhibited a higher bound phenolics release rate due to the higher acidity, which contributed to increased phenolics solubility. Although wheat bread, both before and after digestion, had the lowest TPC, especially the one prepared with yeast, high TPC bioaccessibilities and antioxidant activities after the digestion suggested that, except phenolics, digestion process improved the release of additional compounds with different bioaccessibility and biological activity. The results of this study proved that the application of sourdough fermentation can increase the potential of ancient wheats in the developing of functional bakery products.

3.
Foods ; 11(23)2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496735

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to test the suitability of three different ancient wheat varieties (emmer, spelt and khorasan) to produce spontaneously fermented sourdough bread and to evaluate the impact on the dough rheological properties, ultrastructure and baking quality. Modern wheat sourdough bread and bakery yeast fermented bread were used as controls. Sourdoughs produced from modern and ancient wheats exerted different effects on dough viscoelastic properties, bread specific volume, texture, firming rate, colour and sensory properties, while there was no influence on bread water activity. Both khorasan sourdough, being characterised with the highest dough strength and dense gluten protein matrix, and emmer sourdough, with loose and thin gluten strands of low strength, yielded breads characterised by low specific volume and hard crumb texture. Spelt and modern wheat sourdough were characterised by foam-like dough structures with entrapped gas cells leading to breads of similar specific volume and texture. Although the yeast-fermented wheat flour exerted a higher specific volume and the lowest firmness, the sourdough wheat flour bread had a lower firming rate. A comparison of sourdough bread prepared with modern and ancient wheats revealed that breads based on ancient varieties possess a less noticeable sour taste, odour and flavour, thus contributing to more sensory-appealing sourdough bread.

4.
Foods ; 11(18)2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36140858

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to utilize grape pomace, as a polyphenol-rich by-product of wine production, in the manufacture of enriched cocoa spread. The formulation of the cocoa spread has been modified by substitution of refined sunflower oil with cold-pressed grape seed oil. The spread with grape seed oil (Cg) was further enriched with grape seed extract encapsulated on maltodextrins (E), where 10% and 15% of E was added to Cg obtaining the samples Cg10 and Cg15. The results showed an increase in volume-weighted mean in spread samples, from 19.17 µm in Cg to 19.71 µm in Cg10 and 21.04 µm in Cg15. Casson yield stress and Casson viscosity significantly (p ˂ 0.05) increased from 16.41 Pa and 1.58 Pa·s in Cg to 29.45 Pa and 5.70 Pa·s in Cg15 due to the reduction of the fat-phase content in enriched spreads. The addition of E had no significant effect on the melting temperature (Tpeak) of the enriched spreads, while increasing the amount of E significantly (p ˂ 0.05) increased their hardness. The incorporation of grape seed oil in the cocoa spread formulation contributed to an increase in total polyphenols and flavonoids. Moreover, the addition of 10% and 15% of E to Cg resulted in approximately 1.5× and 2× higher content of phenolic compounds in Cg10 and Cg15 compared to control spread with sunflower oil (Cs). Flavonoids increased from 0.43 mg CE/g in Cs to 0.74 mg CE/g in Cg 10 and 1.24 mg CE/g in Cg15. Encapsulates positively affected sensory characteristics of enriched spread samples by reducing their grape seed oil aroma and sweetness.

5.
Foods ; 11(14)2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35885235

RESUMO

Whey protein and sourdough ferment were used in different combinations to prepare functional sponge cakes, and their mutual influence on batter rheological behaviour as well as product physico-chemical, textural, colour and sensory properties were evaluated. All samples containing whey protein concentrate could bear the nutrition claim 'a source of protein'. The substitution of wheat flour with whey protein significantly influenced batter viscoelastic behaviour, lowered cake-specific volume, increased product hardness, chewiness, gumminess, and browning index and modified its sensory characteristics. The incorporation of sourdough in protein-enriched sponge cakes improved product-specific volume and appearance compared to a protein-containing sample without sourdough. Although sourdough addition has less of a deteriorating effect on sponge cake rheological and textural properties, when combined with whey protein, it led to a significant reduction in batter elasticity and an increase in product hardness. It was also shown that spontaneously fermented sourdough cannot act as the only leavening agent in sponge cake production. In general, the results of this study have shown that sourdough addition can contribute to improvement in protein-enriched sponge cake quality and that further investigations are necessary in terms of different sourdough and flour type incorporation to minimize the negative effects of protein addition.

6.
Foods ; 11(3)2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35159559

RESUMO

One of the major challenges in sustainable waste management in the agri-food industry following the "zero waste" model is the application of the circular economy strategy, including the development of innovative waste utilization techniques. The conversion of agri-food waste into carriers for the immobilization of enzymes is one such technique. Replacing chemical catalysts with immobilized enzymes (i.e., immobilized/heterogeneous biocatalysts) could help reduce the energy efficiency and environmental sustainability problems of existing chemically catalysed processes. On the other hand, the economics of the process strongly depend on the price of the immobilized enzyme. The conversion of agricultural and food wastes into low-cost enzyme carriers could lead to the development of immobilized enzymes with desirable operating characteristics and subsequently lower the price of immobilized enzymes for use in biocatalytic production. In this context, this review provides insight into the possibilities of reusing food industry wastes, namely, eggshells, coffee grounds, and brown onion skins, as carriers for lipase immobilization.

7.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641451

RESUMO

Resistant starch (RS) is a part of insoluble dietary fiber, and it could be recognized as a functional food ingredient in some types of confectionery products that lack dietary fiber. Unlike dark and milk chocolate, white chocolate does not contain fat-free cocoa solids rich in dietary fiber. In the present study, 5%, 10%, and 15% of white chocolate were substituted with RS in order to improve the nutritional value of enriched white chocolate. The influence of RS on rheological, textural, and thermal properties of the chocolate fat phase was firstly investigated, and then further influence on physical properties, dietary fiber content, and sensory characteristics of enriched white chocolates were investigated. The obtained results showed that enriched chocolates had increased content of total dietary fiber and reduced total fats and protein content in accordance with the added amount of RS. At the same time, RS increased viscosity and reduced the hardness and volume mean diameter in enriched chocolates in accordance with the added amount. RS improved the nutritional composition of white chocolate by increasing the content of dietary fiber. At the same time, RS did not impair the color and sensory characteristics of enriched white chocolates.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Chocolate/análise , Chocolate/classificação , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Amido Resistente/metabolismo , Reologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Alimento Funcional/análise , Humanos , Viscosidade
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