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2.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) is common, morbid, and costly, yet frequently undiagnosed. Our study aimed to develop a brief screening test to improve health care worker recognition of DSD. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Older hospitalized adults with dementia were prospectively enrolled from medical and surgical inpatient units of 3 hospitals (2 in Pennsylvania, 1 in Tennessee). MEASURES: The reference standard delirium assessment used Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) criteria and was based on a structured interview including the Mini-Mental State Examination, interviewer observations, and medical record review. To develop the screening test, 1-, 2-, and 3-item combinations from the reference standard assessment were analyzed to determine their sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing delirium presence in a dementia population compared to the reference standard. For multiple-item screeners, error on 1 or more items was considered a positive screen. RESULTS: Overall, 391 older adults with dementia were enrolled (mean age: 83.9 years, 71.1% female), and 95 (24.4%) developed DSD during their hospitalization, based on the reference standard. The best single-item screen for DSD was "What day of the week is it?" with 84% sensitivity [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75, 0.91] and 41% specificity (CI: 0.35, 0.47). The best 2-item screen was "list the days of the week backwards" and "What day of the week is it?" with 93% sensitivity (CI: 0.85, 0.97) and 30% specificity (CI: 0.25, 0.36). The best 3-item screen was "list the days of the week backwards," "What type of place is this? [hospital]" and "Does the patient appear sleepy?" with 94% sensitivity (CI: 0.87, 0.98) and 42% specificity (CI: 0.36, 0.48). CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: We identified a 3-item DSD screener with excellent sensitivity but limited specificity. This screener can be used to quickly rule out DSD in populations with a high prevalence of dementia and is a promising step toward developing efficient tools for DSD recognition among care providers.

3.
Anesthesiology ; 131(3): 492-500, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335550

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Postoperative delirium is common, but its long-term consequences remain unclear WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: About a quarter of enrolled patients, averaging 80 yr of age, developed delirium after major elective and urgent major orthopedic surgeryActivities of daily living at 2 to 3 yr and mortality at 3 yr were both worse in patients who experienced delirium BACKGROUND:: Postoperative delirium is one of the most common complications in the elderly surgical population. However, its long-term outcomes remain largely to be determined. Therefore a prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the association between postoperative delirium and long-term decline in activities of daily living and postoperative mortality. The hypothesis in the present study was that postoperative delirium was associated with a greater decline in activities of daily living and higher mortality within 24 to 36 months after anesthesia and surgery. METHODS: The participants (at least 65 yr old) having the surgeries of (1) proximal femoral nail, (2) hip replacement, or (3) open reduction and internal fixation under general anesthesia were enrolled. The Confusion Assessment Method algorithm was administered to diagnose delirium before and on the first, second, and fourth days after the surgery. Activities of daily living were evaluated by using the Chinese version of the activities of daily living scale (range, 14 to 56 points), and preoperative cognitive function was assessed by using the Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination (range, 0 to 30 points). The follow-up assessments, including activities of daily living and mortality, were conducted between 24 and 36 months after anesthesia and surgery. RESULTS: Of 130 participants (80 ± 6 yr, 24% male), 34 (26%) developed postoperative delirium during the hospitalization. There were 32% of the participants who were lost to follow-up, resulting in 88 participants who were finally included in the data analysis. The participants with postoperative delirium had a greater decline in activities of daily living (16 ± 15 vs. 9 ± 15, P = 0.037) and higher 36-month mortality (8 of 28, 29% vs. 7 of 75, 9%; P = 0.009) as compared with the participants without postoperative delirium. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative delirium was associated with long-term detrimental outcomes, including greater decline in activities of daily living and a higher rate of postoperative mortality.

4.
Anesthesiology ; 131(3): 477-491, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166241

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction both occur in a substantial number of older surgical patientsPostoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction share risk factors and may co-occur, although their relationship is unclear WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: Postoperative delirium increased the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction at 1 month postoperatively but there was no association between postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction at 2 and 6 months after major noncardiac surgeryPostoperative delirium and longer-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction may be different disorders BACKGROUND:: Postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction share risk factors and may co-occur, but their relationship is not well established. The primary goals of this study were to describe the prevalence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction and to investigate its association with in-hospital delirium. The authors hypothesized that delirium would be a significant risk factor for postoperative cognitive dysfunction during follow-up. METHODS: This study used data from an observational study of cognitive outcomes after major noncardiac surgery, the Successful Aging after Elective Surgery study. Postoperative delirium was evaluated each hospital day with confusion assessment method-based interviews supplemented by chart reviews. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was determined using methods adapted from the International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction. Associations between delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction were examined at 1, 2, and 6 months. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-four of 560 participants (24%) developed delirium during hospitalization. Slightly fewer than half (47%, 256 of 548) met the International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction-defined threshold for postoperative cognitive dysfunction at 1 month, but this proportion decreased at 2 months (23%, 123 of 536) and 6 months (16%, 85 of 528). At each follow-up, the level of agreement between delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction was poor (kappa less than .08) and correlations were small (r less than .16). The relative risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction was significantly elevated for patients with a history of postoperative delirium at 1 month (relative risk = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.07-1.67), but not 2 months (relative risk = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.72-1.64), or 6 months (relative risk = 1.21; 95% CI, 0.71-2.09). CONCLUSIONS: Delirium significantly increased the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in the first postoperative month; this relationship did not hold in longer-term follow-up. At each evaluation, postoperative cognitive dysfunction was more common among patients without delirium. Postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction may be distinct manifestations of perioperative neurocognitive deficits.

5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 69(3): 709-716, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127777

RESUMO

 Previous studies showed that the Confusion Assessment Method based delirium severity evaluation tool (CAM-S) had good reliability and validity. However, there is no Chinese version of the CAM-S. Therefore, we set out to perform a prospective investigation in older Chinese patients who had total joint replacement surgery under general anesthesia in Tenth People's Hospital in Shanghai, P.R. China. A total of 576 participants, aged 60 years or older, were screened, 179 participants were enrolled, and 125 of them were included for the final analysis. Pre-operative evaluations were conducted one day before the surgery. Postoperative evaluations were conducted twice daily from postoperative day 1 to day 3. The incidence of postoperative delirium was 24.8%. The Chinese version of CAM-S [including a Short Form (CAM-S Short Form) and a Long Form (CAM-S Long Form)] had an optimal reliability reflected by internal consistency (Cronbach's α= 0.748 and 0.839 for CAM-S Short Form and CAM-S Long Form respectively), split-halves reliability (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.372 and 0.384 for CAM-S Short Form and CAM-S Long Form respectively), and inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients = 0.629 and 0.945 for CAM-S Short Form and CAM-S Long Form respectively). Additionally, the Chinese version of CAM-S also showed a good discriminate validity. The domain scores of CAM-S were inversely correlated with corresponding domain scores of the MMSE. Finally, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis obtained an optimal cutoff point of 2.5 for CAM-S Short Form and 3.5 for CAM-S Long Form in recognizing delirium diagnosed by CAM. The areas under the ROC were 0.989 (95% CI 0.972 - 1.000, p < 0.001) and 0.964 (95% CI 0.946 - 0.982, p < 0.001), respectively. These data suggest that the Chinese version of CAM-S has good reliability and validity in evaluating postoperative delirium in geriatric Chinese patients and may be a useful tool to assess the severity of delirium.

6.
Qual Life Res ; 28(9): 2565-2578, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102155

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to create a content domain framework for delirium severity to inform item development for a new instrument to measure delirium severity. METHODS: We used an established, multi-stage instrument development process during which expert panelists discussed best approaches to measure delirium severity and identified related content domains. We conducted this work as part of the Better ASsessment of ILlness (BASIL) study, a prospective, observational study aimed at developing and testing measures of delirium severity. Our interdisciplinary expert panel consisted of twelve national delirium experts and four expert members of the core research group. Over a one-month period, experts participated in two rounds of review. RESULTS: Experts recommended that the construct of delirium severity should reflect both the phenomena and the impact of delirium to create an accurate, patient-centered instrument useful to interdisciplinary clinicians and family caregivers. Final content domains were Cognitive, Level of consciousness, Inattention, Psychiatric-Behavioral, Emotional dysregulation, Psychomotor features, and Functional. Themes debated by experts included reconciling clinical geriatrics and psychiatric content, mapping symptoms to one specific domain, and accurate capture of unclear clinical presentations. CONCLUSIONS: We believe this work represents the first application of instrument development science to delirium. The identified content domains are inclusive of various, wide-ranging domains of delirium severity and are reflective of a consistent framework that relates delirium severity to potential clinical outcomes. Our content domain framework provides a foundation for development of delirium severity instruments that can help improve care and quality of life for patients with delirium.

7.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946084

RESUMO

MINI: In this manuscript, the ability of SOMAscan technology to identify proteins differentially expressed before and after surgery in older adults was evaluated. Systems biology analyses demonstrated that inflammatory proteins and biological functions associated with the inflammatory response and immune cell regulation demonstrated the greatest changes after surgery. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the proteomic signature of surgery in older adults and association with postoperative outcomes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Circulating plasma proteins can reflect the physiological response to and clinical outcomes after surgery. METHODS: Blood plasma from older adults undergoing elective surgery was analyzed for 1305 proteins using SOMAscan. Surgery-associated proteins underwent Ingenuity Pathways Analysis. Selected surgery-associated proteins were independently validated using Luminex or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Generalized linear models estimated correlations with postoperative outcomes. RESULTS: Plasma from a subcohort (n = 36) of the Successful Aging after Elective Surgery (SAGES) study was used for SOMAscan. Systems biology analysis of 110 proteins with Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) corrected P value ≤0.01 and an absolute foldchange (|FC|) ≥1.5 between postoperative day 2 (POD2) and preoperative (PREOP) identified functional pathways with major effects on pro-inflammatory proteins. Chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were independently validated in separate validation cohorts from SAGES (n = 150 for CRP, IL-6; n = 126 for CHI3L1). Foldchange CHI3L1 and IL-6 were associated with increased postoperative complications [relative risk (RR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.21-1.85 and RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.18-2.26, respectively], length of stay (RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.77-1.92 and RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.52-1.45), and risk of discharge to postacute facility (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04-1.26 and RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.18); POD2 and PREOP CRP difference was associated with discharge to postacute facility (RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.25). CONCLUSION: SOMAscan can identify novel and clinically relevant surgery-induced protein changes. Ultimately, proteomics may provide insights about pathways by which surgical stress contributes to postoperative outcomes.

9.
Gerontologist ; 59(2): 327-337, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While there are qualitative studies examining the delirium-related experiences of patients, family caregivers, and nurses separately, little is known about common aspects of delirium burden among all three groups. We describe common delirium burdens from the perspectives of patients, family caregivers, and nurses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted semistructured qualitative interviews about delirium burden with 18 patients who had recently experienced a delirium episode, with 16 family caregivers, and with 15 nurses who routinely cared for patients with delirium. We recruited participants from a large, urban teaching hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. We used interpretive description as the approach to data analysis. RESULTS: We identified three common burden themes of the delirium experience: Symptom Burden (Disorientation, Hallucinations/Delusions, Impaired Communication, Memory Problems, Personality Changes, Sleep Disturbances); Emotional Burden (Anger/Frustration, Emotional Distress, Fear, Guilt, Helplessness); and Situational Burden (Loss of Control, Lack of Attention, Lack of Knowledge, Lack of Resources, Safety Concerns, Unpredictability, Unpreparedness). These burdens arise from different sources among patients, family caregivers, and nurses, with markedly differing perspectives on the burden experience. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Our findings advance the understanding of common burdens of the delirium experience for all groups and offer structure for instrument development and distinct interventions to address the burden of delirium as an individual or group experience. Our work reinforces that no one group experiences delirium in isolation. Delirium is a shared experience that will respond best to systemwide approaches to reduce associated burden.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Delírio/enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Delírio/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(7): 1393-1401, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) may be associated with less delirium and allow faster recovery than surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of delirium and its severity with clinical and functional outcomes after SAVR and TAVR. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: An academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 187 patients, aged 70 years and older, undergoing SAVR (N = 77) and TAVR (N = 110) in 2014 to 2016. MEASUREMENTS: Delirium was assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), with severity measured by the CAM-Severity (CAM-S) score (range = 0-19). Outcomes were prolonged hospitalization (9 days or more); institutional discharge; and functional status, measured by ability to perform 22 daily activities and physical tasks over 12 months. RESULTS: SAVR patients had a higher incidence of delirium than TAVR patients (50.7% vs 25.5%; P < .001), despite younger mean age (77.9 vs 83.7 years) and higher baseline Mini-Mental State Examination score (26.9 vs 24.7). SAVR patients with delirium had a shorter duration (2.2 vs 3.4 days; P = .04) with a lower mean CAM-S score (4.5 vs 5.7; P = .01) than TAVR patients with delirium. The risk of prolonged hospitalization in no, mild, and severe delirium was 18.4%, 30.8%, and 61.5% after SAVR (P for trend = .009) and 26.8%, 38.5%, and 73.3% after TAVR (P for trend = .001), respectively. The risk of institutional discharge was 42.1%, 58.3%, and 84.6% after SAVR (P for trend = .01) and 32.5%, 69.2%, and 80.0% after TAVR (P for trend <.001), respectively. Severe delirium was associated with delayed functional recovery after SAVR and persistent functional impairment after TAVR at 12 months. CONCLUSION: Less invasive TAVR was associated with lower incidence of delirium than SAVR. Once delirium developed, TAVR patients had more severe delirium and worse functional status trajectory than SAVR patients did. REGISTRATION: NCT01845207.

12.
JAMA ; 321(7): 686-696, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778597

RESUMO

Importance: Postoperative delirium is common following cardiac surgery and may be affected by choice of analgesic and sedative. Objective: To evaluate the effect of postoperative intravenous (IV) acetaminophen (paracetamol) vs placebo combined with IV propofol vs dexmedetomidine on postoperative delirium among older patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, placebo-controlled, factorial clinical trial among 120 patients aged 60 years or older undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery or combined CABG/valve surgeries at a US center. Enrollment was September 2015 to April 2018, with follow-up ending in April 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized to 1 of 4 groups receiving postoperative analgesia with IV acetaminophen or placebo every 6 hours for 48 hours and postoperative sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol starting at chest closure and continued for up to 6 hours (acetaminophen and dexmedetomidine: n = 29; placebo and dexmedetomidine: n = 30; acetaminophen and propofol: n = 31; placebo and propofol: n = 30). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was incidence of postoperative in-hospital delirium by the Confusion Assessment Method. Secondary outcomes included delirium duration, cognitive decline, breakthrough analgesia within the first 48 hours, and ICU and hospital length of stay. Results: Among 121 patients randomized (median age, 69 years; 19 women [15.8%]), 120 completed the trial. Patients treated with IV acetaminophen had a significant reduction in delirium (10% vs 28% placebo; difference, -18% [95% CI, -32% to -5%]; P = .01; HR, 2.8 [95% CI, 1.1-7.8]). Patients receiving dexmedetomidine vs propofol had no significant difference in delirium (17% vs 21%; difference, -4% [95% CI, -18% to 10%]; P = .54; HR, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.4-1.9]). There were significant differences favoring acetaminophen vs placebo for 3 prespecified secondary outcomes: delirium duration (median, 1 vs 2 days; difference, -1 [95% CI, -2 to 0]), ICU length of stay (median, 29.5 vs 46.7 hours; difference, -16.7 [95% CI, -20.3 to -0.8]), and breakthrough analgesia (median, 322.5 vs 405.3 µg morphine equivalents; difference, -83 [95% CI, -154 to -14]). For dexmedetomidine vs propofol, only breakthrough analgesia was significantly different (median, 328.8 vs 397.5 µg; difference, -69 [95% CI, -155 to -4]; P = .04). Fourteen patients in both the placebo-dexmedetomidine and acetaminophen-propofol groups (46% and 45%) and 7 in the acetaminophen-dexmedetomidine and placebo-propofol groups (24% and 23%) had hypotension. Conclusions and Relevance: Among older patients undergoing cardiac surgery, postoperative scheduled IV acetaminophen, combined with IV propofol or dexmedetomidine, reduced in-hospital delirium vs placebo. Additional research, including comparison of IV vs oral acetaminophen and other potentially opioid-sparing analgesics, on the incidence of postoperative delirium is warranted. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02546765.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propofol/efeitos adversos
13.
Trials ; 20(1): 39, 2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgical procedures are associated with postoperative neurological complications such as cognitive decline and delirium, which can complicate recovery and impair quality of life. Perioperative depression and anxiety may be associated with increased mortality after cardiac surgeries. Surgical prehabilitation is an emerging concept that includes preoperative interventions to potentially reduce postoperative complications. While most current prehabilitation interventions focus on optimizing physical health, mind-body interventions are an area of growing interest. Preoperative mind-body interventions such as Isha Kriya meditation, may hold significant potential to improve postsurgical outcomes. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized controlled feasibility trial. A total of 40 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery will be randomized to one of three study groups. Participants randomized to either of the two intervention groups will receive meditative intervention: (1) commencing two weeks before surgery; or (2) commencing only from the day after surgery. Meditative intervention will last for four weeks after the surgery in these groups. Participants in the third control group will receive the current standard of care with no meditative intervention. All participants will undergo assessments using neurocognitive, sleep, depression, anxiety, and pain questionnaires at various time points in the perioperative period. Blood samples will be collected at baseline, preoperatively, and postoperatively to assess for inflammatory biomarkers. The primary aim of this trial is to assess the feasibility of implementing a perioperative meditative intervention program. Other objectives include studying the effect of meditation on postoperative pain, sleep, psychological wellbeing, cognitive function, and delirium. These will be used to calculate effect size to design future studies. DISCUSSION: This study serves as the first step towards understanding the feasibility of implementing a mind-body intervention as a prehabilitative intervention to improve postoperative surgical outcomes after cardiac surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03198039 . Registered on 23 June 2017.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/psicologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Meditação/métodos , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Afeto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Boston , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Cognição , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
JAMA Intern Med ; 179(2): 231-239, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556827

RESUMO

Importance: Measurement of delirium severity has been recognized as highly important for tracking prognosis, monitoring response to treatment, and estimating burden of care for patients both during and after hospitalization. Rather than simply rating delirium as present or absent, the ability to quantify its severity would enable development and monitoring of more effective treatment approaches for the condition. Objectives: To present a comprehensive review of delirium severity instruments, conduct a methodologic quality rating of the original validation study of the most commonly used instruments, and select a group of top-rated instruments. Evidence Review: This systematic review was conducted using literature from Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, from January 1, 1974, through March 31, 2017, with the key words delirium, severity, tests, measures, and intensity. Inclusion criteria were original articles assessing delirium severity and using a delirium-specific severity instrument. Final listings of articles were supplemented with hand searches of reference listings to ensure completeness. At least 2 reviewers independently completed each step of the review process: article selection, data extraction, and methodologic quality assessment of relevant articles using a validated rating scale. All discrepancies between raters were resolved by consensus. Findings: Of 9409 articles identified, 228 underwent full text review, and we identified 42 different instruments of delirium severity. Eleven of the 42 tools were multidomain, delirium-specific instruments providing a quantitative rating of delirium severity; these instruments underwent a methodologic quality review. Applying prespecified criteria related to frequency of use, methodologic quality, construct or predictive validity, and broad domain coverage, an expert panel used an iterative modified Delphi process to select 6 final high-quality instruments meeting these criteria: the Confusion Assessment Method-Severity Score, Confusional State Examination, Delirium-O-Meter, Delirium Observation Scale, Delirium Rating Scale, and Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale. Conclusions and Relevance: The 6 instruments identified may enable accurate measurement of delirium severity to improve clinical care for patients with this condition. This work may stimulate increased usage and head-to-head comparison of these instruments.

15.
Trials ; 19(1): 676, 2018 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is associated with a significantly increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, delirium has been associated with an increased risk of prolonged cognitive deficits and accelerated long-term cognitive decline. To date, experimental interventions for delirium have mainly focused on alternative pharmacologic and behavioral strategies in the postoperative period. Few studies have examined whether proactive strategies started before surgery can prevent delirium or reduce its sequelae. Neurocognitive training programs such as Lumosity have been shown to be effective in increasing cognitive performance in both elderly healthy volunteers and patients suffering from a myriad of acute and chronic medical conditions. When initiated in the preoperative period, such training programs may serve as interesting and novel patient-led interventions for the prevention of delirium and postoperative cognitive decline (POCD). We hypothesize that perioperative neurocognitive training is feasible in the older cardiac surgical population and are testing this hypothesis using a randomized controlled design. METHODS: The Prevention of Early Postoperative Decline (PEaPoD) study is a randomized, controlled trial with a target enrollment of 45 elderly cardiac surgical patients. Subjects will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to undergo either at least 10 days of preoperative neurocognitive training, continued for 4 weeks postoperatively, or usual care control. The primary outcome, feasibility, will be assessed by study recruitment and adherence to protocol. Secondary outcomes will include potential differences in the incidence of postoperative in-hospital delirium and POCD up to 6 months, as determined by the Confusion Assessment Method and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. DISCUSSION: PEaPoD will be the first trial investigating the use of perioperative cognitive training to potentially reduce delirium and POCD in the cardiac surgical population. Information gleaned from this feasibility study will prove valuable in designing future efficacy studies aimed at determining whether this low-risk, patient-led intervention can reduce serious postoperative morbidity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02908464 . Registered on 21 September 2016.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Boston , Cognição , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/psicologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a key enzyme in degrading catecholamines associated with the stress response, may influence susceptibility to delirium. Individuals with the COMT (rs4680) Val/Val genotype (designated "warriors") withstand the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive decline, whereas individuals with Met/Met and Val/Met genotypes ("nonwarriors") are more susceptible to these conditions. We evaluated whether COMT genotype modifies the established association between acute phase reactant (stress marker) C-reactive protein (CRP) and postoperative delirium. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted at two academic medical centers. The study involved 547 patients aged 70 or older undergoing major noncardiac surgery. We collected blood, extracted DNA, and performed COMT genotyping using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assays, considering warriors versus nonwarriors. High plasma CRP, measured on postoperative day 2 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was defined by the highest sample-based quartile (≥234.12 mg/L). Delirium was determined using the Confusion Assessment Method, augmented by a validated chart review. We used generalized linear models adjusted for age, sex, surgery type, and race/ethnicity, stratified by COMT genotype, to determine whether the association between CRP and delirium differed by COMT. RESULTS: Prevalence of COMT warriors was 26%, and postoperative delirium occurred in 23%. Among COMT warriors, high CRP was not associated with delirium (relative risk [RR] 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4-2.6). In contrast, among nonwarriors, we found the expected relationship of high CRP and delirium (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.2). CONCLUSION: COMT warriors may be protected against the increased risk of delirium associated with high CRP on postoperative day 2. With further confirmation, COMT genotype may help target interventions for delirium prevention in the vulnerable nonwarrior group.

18.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 18(1): 92, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the level of agreement of three commonly used delirium instruments: the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98), Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS), and Confusion Assessment Method-Severity (CAM-S). METHODS: We used data from a prospective clinical research study, in which a team of trained lay interviewers administered each instrument along with supporting interview and cognitive assessments in the same group of patients daily while in the hospital (N = 352). We used item response theory methods to co-calibrate the instruments. RESULTS: The latent traits underlying the three measures, capturing the severity of a delirium assessment, had a high degree of correlation (r's > .82). Unidimensional factor models fit well, facilitating co-calibration of the instruments. Across instruments, the less intense symptoms were generally items reflecting cognitive impairment. Although the intensity of delirium severity for most in the sample was relatively low, many of the item thresholds for the delirium severity scales are high (i.e., in the more severe range of the latent ability distribution). This indicates that even people with severe delirium may have a low probability of endorsing the highest severity categories for many items. Co-calibration enabled us to derive crosswalks to map delirium severity scores among the delirium instruments. CONCLUSION: These delirium instruments measure the same underlying construct of delirium severity. Relative locations of items may inform design of refined measurement instruments. Mapping of overall delirium severity scores across the delirium severity instruments enabled us to derive crosswalks, which allow scores to be translated across instruments, facilitating comparison and combination of delirium studies for integrative analysis.

19.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204695, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is strong association of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology with gait disorder and falls in older adults without dementia. The goal of the study was to examine the prevalence and severity of AD pathology in older adults without dementia who fall and sustain hip fracture. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained from 168 hip fracture patients. CSF Aß42/40 ratio, p-tau, and t-tau measures were dichotomized into normal vs. abnormal, and categorized according to the A/T/N classification. RESULTS: Among the hip fracture patients, 88.6% of the cognitively normal (Clinical Dementia Rating-CDR 0; n = 70) and 98.8% with mild cognitive impairment (CDR 0.5; n = 81) fell in the abnormal biomarker categories by the A/T/N classification. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of older hip fracture patients have CSF evidence of AD pathology. Preoperative determination of AD biomarkers may play a crucial role in identifying persons without dementia who have underlying AD pathology in perioperative settings.

20.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 66(8): 1491-1498, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate temporal trends and between-hospital variation in off-label antipsychotic medication (APM) use in older adults undergoing cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: National administrative database including 465 U.S. hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older without known indications for APMs who underwent cardiac surgery from 2004 to 2014 (N=293,212). MEASUREMENTS: Postoperative exposure to any APMs and potentially excessive dosing were examined. Hospital-level APM prescribing intensity was defined as the proportion of individuals newly treated with APMs in the postoperative period. RESULTS: The rate of APM use declined from 8.8% in 2004 to 6.2% in 2014 (p<.001). Use of haloperidol (parenteral 7.0% to 4.5%, p<.001; oral: 1.9% to 0.5%, p<.001), and risperidone (1.1% to 0.3%, p<.001) declined, whereas quetiapine use tripled (0.6% to 1.9%, p=.03). Hospital APM prescribing intensity varied widely, from 0.3% to 35.6%, across 465 hospitals. Treated individuals at higher-prescribing hospitals were more likely to receive APMs on the day of discharge (highest vs lowest quintile: 15.1% vs 9.6%; p<.001) and for a longer duration (4.8 vs 3.7 days; p<.001) than those at lower-prescribing hospitals. Delirium was the strongest risk factor for APM exposure (odds ratio=9.73, 95% confidence interval=9.02-10.5), whereas none of the hospital characteristics were significantly associated. The rate of potentially excessive dosing declined (60.7% to 44.9%, p<.001), and risk factors for potentially excessive dosing were similar to those for any APM exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest highly variable prescribing cultures and raise concerns about inappropriate use, highlighting the need for better evidence to guide APM prescribing in hospitalized older adults after cardiac surgery.

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