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1.
Sleep ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710329

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of in-hospital falls among patients receiving medications commonly used for insomnia in the hospital setting. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all adult hospitalizations to a large academic medical center from 1/2007 to 7/2013. We excluded patients admitted for a primary psychiatric disorder. Medication exposures of interest, defined by pharmacy charges, included benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BZRAs), trazodone, atypical antipsychotics, and diphenhydramine. In-hospital falls were ascertained from an online patient safety reporting system. RESULTS: Among the 225,498 hospitalizations (median age = 57 years; 57.9% female) in our cohort, 84,911 (37.7%) had exposure to at least one of the five medication classes of interest; benzodiazepines were the most commonly used (23.5%), followed by diphenydramine (8.3%), trazodone (6.6%), BZRAs (6.4%), and atypical antipsychotics (6.3%). A fall occurred in 2,427 hospitalizations (1.1%). The rate of falls per 1,000 hospital days was greater among hospitalizations with exposure to each of the medications of interest, compared to unexposed: 3.6 versus 1.7 for benzodiazepines (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.8, 95%CI 1.6-1.9); 5.4 versus 1.8 for atypical antipsychotics (aHR 1.6, 95%CI 1.4-1.8); 3.0 versus 2.0 for BZRAs (aHR 1.5, 95%CI 1.3-1.8); 3.3 versus 2.0 for trazodone (aHR 1.2, 95%CI 1.1-1.5); and 2.5 versus 2.0 for diphenhydramine (aHR 1.2, 95%CI 1.03-1.5). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of hospitalizations at an academic medical center, we found an association between each of the sedating medications examined and in-hospital falls. Benzodiazepines, BZRAs, and atypical antipsychotics had the strongest associations.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e044346, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692183

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Postoperative delirium is common among older cardiac surgery patients. Often difficult to predict and address prophylactically, delirium complicates the postoperative course by increasing morbidity and mortality as well as prolonging both hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) lengths of stay. Based on our pilot trial, we intend to study the effect of scheduled 6-hourly acetaminophen administration for 48 hours post-cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the incidence of in-hospital delirium and long-term neurocognitive outcomes. Additionally, effect on duration and severity of delirium, rescue analgesic consumption, acute and chronic pain scores and lengths of hospital and ICU stay will also be explored. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, quadruple-blinded trial will include 900 older (>60 years) cardiac surgical patients requiring CPB. Patients meeting the inclusion criteria and not meeting any exclusion criteria will be enrolled at seven centres across the USA with Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), Boston, as the central coordinating centre. Additional sites may be included to broaden or speed accrual. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of in-hospital delirium till day 30. Secondary outcomes include the duration and severity of in-hospital delirium, hospital and ICU lengths of stay, postoperative pain scores, postoperative rescue analgesic consumption, postoperative cognitive function and chronic sternal pain. Creation of a biorepository and the use of intraoperative-blinded electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebral oximetry data will support exploratory endpoints to determine mechanistic predictors of postoperative delirium. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This trial is approved and centrally facilitated by the Institutional Review Board at BIDMC. An independent Data Safety and Monitoring Board is responsible for maintaining safety oversight. Protocol # 2019 P00075, V.1.4 (dated 20 October 2020). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04093219.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium (an acute change in cognition) is a common, morbid, and costly syndrome seen primarily in aging adults. Despite increasing knowledge of its epidemiology, delirium remains a clinical diagnosis with no established biomarkers to guide diagnosis or management. Advances in proteomics now provide opportunities to identify novel markers of risk and disease progression for postoperative delirium and its associated long-term consequences (e.g., long term cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease [AD]). METHODS: In a nested matched case-control study (18 delirium/no-delirium pairs) within the Successful Aging after Elective Surgery study (N=556), we evaluated the association of 1,305 plasma proteins preoperatively [PREOP] and on postoperative day 2 [POD2]) with delirium using SOMAscan. Generalized linear models were applied to ELISA validation data of one protein across the full cohort. Multi-protein modeling included delirium biomarkers identified in prior work (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 [IL6]). RESULTS: We identified chitinase-3-like-protein-1 (CHI3L1/YKL-40) as the sole delirium-associated protein in both a PREOP and a POD2 predictor model, a finding confirmed by ELISA. Multi-protein modeling found high PREOP CHI3L1/YKL-40 and POD2 IL6 increased the risk of delirium (relative risk [95% confidence interval] Quartile [Q]4 vs. Q1: 2.4[1.2-5.0] and 2.1[1.1-4.1], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our identification of CHI3L1/YKL-40 in postoperative delirium parallels reports of CHI3L1/YKL-40 and its association with aging, mortality, and age-related conditions including AD onset and progression. This highlights the type 2 innate immune response, involving CHI3L1/YKL-40, as an underlying mechanism of postoperative delirium, a common, morbid, and costly syndrome that threatens the independence of older adults.

4.
JAMA Surg ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625501

RESUMO

Importance: Delirium is a common, serious, and potentially preventable problem for older adults, associated with adverse outcomes. Coupled with its preventable nature, these adverse sequelae make delirium a significant public health concern; understanding its economic costs is important for policy makers and health care leaders to prioritize care. Objective: To evaluate current 1-year health care costs attributable to postoperative delirium in older patients undergoing elective surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 497 patients from the Successful Aging after Elective Surgery (SAGES) study, an ongoing cohort study of older adults undergoing major elective surgery. Patients were enrolled from June 18, 2010, to August 8, 2013. Eligible patients were 70 years or older, English-speaking, able to communicate verbally, and scheduled to undergo major surgery at 1 of 2 Harvard-affiliated hospitals with an anticipated length of stay of at least 3 days. Eligible surgical procedures included total hip or knee replacement; lumbar, cervical, or sacral laminectomy; lower extremity arterial bypass surgery; open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair; and open or laparoscopic colectomy. Data were analyzed from October 15, 2019, to September 15, 2020. Exposures: Major elective surgery and hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cumulative and period-specific costs (index hospitalization, 30-day, 90-day, and 1-year follow-up) were examined using Medicare claims and extensive clinical data. Total inflation-adjusted health care costs were determined using data from Medicare administrative claims files for the 2010 to 2014 period. Delirium was rated using the Confusion Assessment Method. We also examined whether increasing delirium severity was associated with higher cumulative and period-specific costs. Delirium severity was measured with the Confusion Assessment Method-Severity long form. Regression models were used to determine costs associated with delirium after adjusting for patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Results: Of the 566 patients who were eligible for the study, a total of 497 patients (mean [SD] age, 76.8 [5.1] years; 281 women [57%]; 461 White participants [93%]) were enrolled after exclusion criteria were applied. During the index hospitalization, 122 patients (25%) developed postoperative delirium, whereas 375 (75%) did not. Patients with delirium had significantly higher unadjusted health care costs than patients without delirium (mean [SD] cost, $146 358 [$140 469] vs $94 609 [$80 648]). After adjusting for relevant confounders, the cumulative health care costs attributable to delirium were $44 291 (95% CI, $34 554-$56 673) per patient per year, with the majority of costs coming from the first 90 days: index hospitalization ($20 327), subsequent rehospitalizations ($27 797), and postacute rehabilitation stays ($2803). Health care costs increased directly and significantly with level of delirium severity (none-mild, $83 534; moderate, $99 756; severe, $140 008), suggesting an exposure-response relationship. The adjusted mean cumulative costs attributable to severe delirium were $56 474 (95% CI, $40 927-$77 440) per patient per year. Extrapolating nationally, the health care costs attributable to postoperative delirium were estimated at $32.9 billion (95% CI, $25.7 billion-$42.2 billion) per year. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the economic outcomes of delirium and severe delirium after elective surgery are substantial, rivaling costs associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. These results highlight the need for policy imperatives to address delirium as a large-scale public health issue.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While there is growing evidence of an association between depressive symptoms and postoperative delirium, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. The goal of this study was to explore the association between depression and postoperative delirium in hip fracture patients, and to examine Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology as a potential underlying mechanism linking depressive symptoms and delirium. METHODS: Patients 65 years old or older (N = 199) who were undergoing hip fracture repair and enrolled in the study "A Strategy to Reduce the Incidence of Postoperative Delirium in Elderly Patients" completed the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) preoperatively. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained during spinal anesthesia and assayed for amyloid-beta (Aß) 40, 42, total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau)181. RESULTS: For every one point increase in GDS-15, there was a 13% increase in odds of postoperative delirium, adjusted for baseline cognition (MMSE), age, sex, race, education and CSF AD biomarkers (OR = 1.13, 95%CI = 1.02-1.25). Both CSF Aß42/t-tau (ß = -1.52, 95%CI = -2.1 to -0.05) and Aß42/p-tau181 (ß = -0.29, 95%CI = -0.48 to -0.09) were inversely associated with higher GDS-15 scores, where lower ratios indicate greater AD pathology. In an analysis to identify the strongest predictors of delirium out of 18 variables, GDS-15 had the highest classification accuracy for postoperative delirium and was a stronger predictor of delirium than both cognition and AD biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: In older adults undergoing hip fracture repair, depressive symptoms were associated with underlying AD pathology and postoperative delirium. Mild baseline depressive symptoms were the strongest predictor of postoperative delirium, and may represent a dementia prodrome.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1521, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452279

RESUMO

Postoperative delirium is the most common complication among older adults undergoing major surgery. The pathophysiology of delirium is poorly understood, and no blood-based, predictive markers are available. We characterized the plasma metabolome of 52 delirium cases and 52 matched controls from the Successful Aging after Elective Surgery (SAGES) cohort (N = 560) of patients ≥ 70 years old without dementia undergoing scheduled major non-cardiac surgery. We applied targeted mass spectrometry with internal standards and pooled controls using a nested matched case-control study preoperatively (PREOP) and on postoperative day 2 (POD2) to identify potential delirium risk and disease markers. Univariate analyses identified 37 PREOP and 53 POD2 metabolites associated with delirium and multivariate analyses achieved significant separation between the two groups with an 11-metabolite prediction model at PREOP (AUC = 83.80%). Systems biology analysis using the metabolites with differential concentrations rendered "valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis" at PREOP and "citrate cycle" at POD2 as the most significantly enriched pathways (false discovery rate < 0.05). Perturbations in energy metabolism and amino acid synthesis pathways may be associated with postoperative delirium and suggest potential mechanisms for delirium pathogenesis. Our results could lead to the development of a metabolomic delirium predictor.

7.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: An effective and efficient protocol for delirium identification is needed to improve health outcomes for older adults and reduce healthcare costs. This study describes the barriers and facilitators related to the implementation of the ultra-brief confusion assessment method (UB-CAM), a rapid two-step delirium identification protocol (ultra-brief screen, followed by CAM in positives), field tested with hospitalized older adults (70+). DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive design using observational data collection and brief semi-structured interviews. SETTINGS: An urban academic medical center and a community teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 50 physician hospitalists, 189 registered nurses, and 83 nursing assistants (NAs). MEASUREMENTS: Field researchers guided by a modified multi-level implementation framework, collected observational data as participants administered the UB-CAM (n = 767). Thematic analysis was conducted on five observational categories: structural, organizational, patient, clinician, and innovation. Field notes and brief semi-structured interviews (n = 231) with clinicians, explored the utility, acceptability, and feasibility of the protocol, and supplemented the observations. RESULTS: The UB-CAM was generally positively received by all three clinician types. Six themes describe barriers and/or facilitators to implementing the UB-CAM: (1) physical setting and milieu; (2) practice environment; (3) integrating into role; (4) adaptive techniques; (5) patient responses; and (6) systematic assessment. The composition and interaction of the six themes determined if the theme was expressed as a barrier or facilitator, affirming the importance of context when implementing system-level delirium screening. CONCLUSION: This is one of the first studies to test a two-step process for delirium identification, and to involve NAs in screening, and the findings demonstrate overall support from clinicians for delirium identification, and describe the need for a multifaceted, contextualized, and systemic approach to implementation and evaluation of delirium screening.

8.
Anesthesiology ; 134(2): 189-201, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite evidence suggesting detrimental effects of perioperative hyperoxia, hyperoxygenation remains commonplace in cardiac surgery. Hyperoxygenation may increase oxidative damage and neuronal injury leading to potential differences in postoperative neurocognition. Therefore, this study tested the primary hypothesis that intraoperative normoxia, as compared to hyperoxia, reduces postoperative cognitive dysfunction in older patients having cardiac surgery. METHODS: A randomized double-blind trial was conducted in patients aged 65 yr or older having coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. A total of 100 patients were randomized to one of two intraoperative oxygen delivery strategies. Normoxic patients (n = 50) received a minimum fraction of inspired oxygen of 0.35 to maintain a Pao2 above 70 mmHg before and after cardiopulmonary bypass and between 100 and 150 mmHg during cardiopulmonary bypass. Hyperoxic patients (n = 50) received a fraction of inspired oxygen of 1.0 throughout surgery, irrespective of Pao2 levels. The primary outcome was neurocognitive function measured on postoperative day 2 using the Telephonic Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Secondary outcomes included neurocognitive function at 1, 3, and 6 months, as well as postoperative delirium, mortality, and durations of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stay, and hospital stay. RESULTS: The median age was 71 yr (interquartile range, 68 to 75), and the median baseline neurocognitive score was 17 (16 to 19). The median intraoperative Pao2 was 309 (285 to 352) mmHg in the hyperoxia group and 153 (133 to 168) mmHg in the normoxia group (P < 0.001). The median Telephonic Montreal Cognitive Assessment score on postoperative day 2 was 18 (16 to 20) in the hyperoxia group and 18 (14 to 20) in the normoxia group (P = 0.42). Neurocognitive function at 1, 3, and 6 months, as well as secondary outcomes, were not statistically different between groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized controlled trial, intraoperative normoxia did not reduce postoperative cognitive dysfunction when compared to intraoperative hyperoxia in older patients having cardiac surgery. Although the optimal intraoperative oxygenation strategy remains uncertain, the results indicate that intraoperative hyperoxia does not worsen postoperative cognition after cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tempo
9.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(12): e0290, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251519

RESUMO

Objectives: To determine delirium occurrence rate, duration, and severity in patients admitted to the ICU with coronavirus disease 2019. Design: Retrospective data extraction study from March 1, 2020, to June 7, 2020. Delirium outcomes were assessed for up to the first 14 days in ICU. Setting: Two large, academic centers serving the state of Indiana. Patients: Consecutive patients admitted to the ICU with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction test from March 1, 2020, to June 7, 2020, were included. Individuals younger than 18 years of age, without any delirium assessments, or without discharge disposition were excluded. Measurements and Main Results: Primary outcomes were delirium rates and duration, and the secondary outcome was delirium severity. Two-hundred sixty-eight consecutive patients were included in the analysis with a mean age of 58.4 years (sd, 15.6 yr), 40.3% were female, 44.4% African American, 20.7% Hispanic, and a median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 18 (interquartile range, 13-25). Delirium without coma occurred in 29.1% of patients, delirium prior to coma in 27.9%, and delirium after coma in 23.1%. The first Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU assessment was positive for delirium in 61.9%. Hypoactive delirium was the most common subtype (87.4%). By day 14, the median number of delirium/coma-free were 5 days (interquartile range, 4-11 d), and median Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU-7 score was 6.5 (interquartile range, 5-7) indicating severe delirium. Benzodiazepines were ordered for 78.4% of patients in the cohort. Mechanical ventilation was associated with greater odds of developing delirium (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.1-22.2; p = 0.033) even after adjusting for sedative medications. There were no between-group differences in mortality. Conclusions: Delirium without coma occurred in 29.1% of patients admitted to the ICU. Delirium persisted for a median of 5 days and was severe. Mechanical ventilation was significantly associated with odds of delirium even after adjustment for sedatives. Clinical attention to manage delirium duration and severity, and deeper understanding of the virus' neurologic effects is needed for patients with coronavirus disease 2019.

10.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to assess the performance of machine learning methods to predict post-operative delirium using a prospective clinical cohort. METHODS: We analyzed data from an observational cohort study of 560 older adults (≥ 70 years) without dementia undergoing major elective non-cardiac surgery. Post-operative delirium was determined by the Confusion Assessment Method supplemented by a medical chart review (N = 134, 24%). Five machine learning algorithms and a standard stepwise logistic regression model were developed in a training sample (80% of participants) and evaluated in the remaining hold-out testing sample. We evaluated three overlapping feature sets, restricted to variables that are readily available or minimally burdensome to collect in clinical settings, including interview and medical record data. A large feature set included 71 potential predictors. A smaller set of 18 features was selected by an expert panel using a consensus process, and this smaller feature set was considered with and without a measure of pre-operative mental status. RESULTS: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was higher in the large feature set conditions (range of AUC, 0.62-0.71 across algorithms) versus the selected feature set conditions (AUC range, 0.53-0.57). The restricted feature set with mental status had intermediate AUC values (range, 0.53-0.68). In the full feature set condition, algorithms such as gradient boosting, cross-validated logistic regression, and neural network (AUC = 0.71, 95% CI 0.58-0.83) were comparable with a model developed using traditional stepwise logistic regression (AUC = 0.69, 95% CI 0.57-0.82). Calibration for all models and feature sets was poor. CONCLUSIONS: We developed machine learning prediction models for post-operative delirium that performed better than chance and are comparable with traditional stepwise logistic regression. Delirium proved to be a phenotype that was difficult to predict with appreciable accuracy.

11.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 1471-1479, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921993

RESUMO

Background: Delirium is a major risk factor for poor recovery after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). It is unclear whether preoperative physical performance tests improve delirium prediction. Objective: To examine whether physical performance tests can predict delirium after SAVR and TAVR, and adapt an existing delirium prediction rule for cardiac surgery, which includes Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), depression, prior stroke, and albumin level. Design: Prospective cohort, 2014-2017. Setting: Single academic center. Subjects: A total of 187 patients undergoing SAVR (n=77) or TAVR (n=110). Methods: The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score was calculated based on gait speed, balance, and chair stands (range: 0-12 points, lower scores indicate poor performance). Delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method. We fitted logistic regression to predict delirium using SPPB components and risk factors of delirium. Results: Delirium occurred in 35.8% (50.7% in SAVR and 25.5% in TAVR). The risk of delirium increased for lower SPPB scores: 10-12 (28.2%), 7-9 (34.5%), 4-6 (37.5%) and 0-3 (44.1%) (p-for-trend=0.001). A model that included gait speed <0.46 meter/second (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-6.4), chair stands time ≥11.2 seconds (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.0-12.4), MMSE <24 points (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.4), isolated SAVR (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 2.1-13.8), and SAVR and coronary artery bypass grafting (OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.5-45.7) predicted delirium better than the existing prediction rule (C statistics: 0.71 vs 0.61; p=0.035). Conclusion: Assessing physical performance, in addition to cognitive function, can help identify high-risk patients for delirium after SAVR and TAVR.

12.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(11): 2572-2578, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Systematic screening can improve detection of delirium, but lack of time is often cited as why such screening is not performed. We investigated the time required to implement four screening protocols that use the Ultra-Brief two-item screener for delirium (UB-2) and the 3-Minute Diagnostic Interview for Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)-defined Delirium (3D-CAM), with and without a skip pattern that can further shorten the assessment. Our objective was to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and time required to complete four protocols: (1) full 3D-CAM on all patients, (2) 3D-CAM with skip on all patients, (3) UB-2, followed by the full 3D-CAM in "positives," and (4) UB-2, followed by the 3D-CAM with skip in "positives." DESIGN: Comparative efficiency simulation study using secondary data. SETTING: Two studies (3D-CAM and Researching Efficient Approaches to Delirium Identification (READI)) conducted at a large academic medical center (3D-CAM and READI) and a small community hospital (READI only). PARTICIPANTS: General medicine inpatients, aged 70 years and older (3D-CAM, n = 201; READI, n = 330). MEASUREMENTS: We used 3D-CAM data to simulate the items administered under each protocol and READI data to calculate median administration time per item. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and total administration time for each of the four protocols. RESULTS: The 3D-CAM and READI samples had similar characteristics, and all four protocols had similar simulated sensitivity and specificity. Mean administration times were 3 minutes 13 seconds for 3D-CAM, 2 minutes 19 seconds for 3D-CAM with skip, 1 minute 52 seconds for UB-2 + 3D-CAM in positives, and 1 minute 14 seconds for UB-2 + 3D-CAM with skip in positives, which was 1 minute 59 seconds faster than the 3D-CAM (P < .001). CONCLUSION: The UB-CAM, consisting of the UB-2, followed in positives by the 3D-CAM with skip pattern, is a time-efficient delirium screening protocol that holds promise for increasing systematic screening for delirium in hospitalized older adults.

13.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Early detection of delirium in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) is a priority. The extent to which delirium screening leads to a potentially inappropriate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and related dementia (ADRD) is unknown. DESIGN: Nationwide retrospective cohort study from 2011 to 2013. SETTING: An SNF. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,175,550 Medicare enrollees who entered the SNF from a hospital and had no prior diagnosis of dementia. EXPOSURE: A positive screen for delirium using the validated Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), performed as part of the federally mandated Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessment. MEASUREMENTS: Incident all-cause dementia, ascertained through International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), diagnosis in Medicare claims or active diagnoses in MDS. RESULTS: Positive screening for delirium was identified in 7.7% of cases (n = 90,449), and most occurred within the first 7 days of SNF admission (62.5%). The overall incidence of ADRD was 6.3% (n = 73,542). Nearly all new diagnoses of ADRD (93.5%) occurred within the first 30 days of SNF admission. Patients who screened CAM positive for delirium had a nearly threefold increased risk of receiving an incident ADRD diagnosis on the same day (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.50-4.63). Among patients who screened CAM positive for delirium, those who were cognitively intact or had mild cognitive impairments were, on average, six times more likely to receive an incident ADRD diagnosis (HR = 6.64; 95% CI = 1.76-25.0) relative to those testing CAM negative. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Among older adults not previously diagnosed with dementia, a positive screen for delirium was significantly associated with higher risk of ADRD diagnosis after admission to a SNF. This risk was highest for patients in the first days of their stay and with the least cognitive impairment, suggesting that the ADRD diagnosis was potentially inappropriate.

14.
Ann Neurol ; 88(5): 984-994, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of the plasma neuroaxonal injury markers neurofilament light (NfL), total tau, glial fibrillary acid protein, and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 with delirium, delirium severity, and cognitive performance. METHODS: Delirium case-no delirium control (n = 108) pairs were matched by age, sex, surgery type, cognition, and vascular comorbidities. Biomarkers were measured in plasma collected preoperatively (PREOP), and 2 days (POD2) and 30 days postoperatively (PO1MO) using Simoa technology (Quanterix, Lexington, MA). The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and CAM-S (Severity) were used to measure delirium and delirium severity, respectively. Cognitive function was measured with General Cognitive Performance (GCP) scores. RESULTS: Delirium cases had higher NfL on POD2 and PO1MO (median matched pair difference = 16.2pg/ml and 13.6pg/ml, respectively; p < 0.05). Patients with PREOP and POD2 NfL in the highest quartile (Q4) had increased risk for incident delirium (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 3.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-12.6] and 4.6 [95% CI = 1.2-18.2], respectively) and experienced more severe delirium, with sum CAM-S scores 7.8 points (95% CI = 1.6-14.0) and 9.3 points higher (95% CI = 3.2-15.5). At PO1MO, delirium cases had continued high NfL (adjusted OR = 9.7, 95% CI = 2.3-41.4), and those with Q4 NfL values showed a -2.3 point decline in GCP score (-2.3 points, 95% CI = -4.7 to -0.9). INTERPRETATION: Patients with the highest PREOP or POD2 NfL levels were more likely to develop delirium. Elevated NfL at PO1MO was associated with delirium and greater cognitive decline. These findings suggest NfL may be useful as a predictive biomarker for delirium risk and long-term cognitive decline, and once confirmed would provide pathophysiological evidence for neuroaxonal injury following delirium. ANN NEUROL 2020;88:984-994.

15.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Delirium is a common postoperative complication associated with prolonged length of stay, hospital readmission, and premature mortality. We explored the association between neighborhood-level characteristics and delirium incidence and severity, and compared neighborhood- with individual-level indicators of socioeconomic status in predicting delirium incidence. DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort of patients enrolled between June 18, 2010, and August 8, 2013. Baseline interviews were conducted before surgery, and delirium/delirium severity was evaluated daily during hospitalization. Research staff evaluating delirium were blinded to baseline cognitive status. SETTING: Two academic medical centers in Boston, MA. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 560 older adults, aged 70 years or older, undergoing major noncardiac surgery. INTERVENTION: The Area Deprivation Index (ADI) was used to characterize each neighborhood's socioeconomic disadvantage. MEASUREMENTS: Delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) long form. Delirium severity was calculated using the highest value of CAM Severity score (CAM-S) occurring during daily hospital assessments (CAM-S Peak). RESULTS: Residing in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods (ADI > 44) was associated with a higher risk of incident delirium (12/26; 46%), compared with the least disadvantaged neighborhoods (122/534; 23%) (risk ratio (RR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 2.0 (1.3-3.1). The CAM-S Peak score was significantly associated with ADI (Spearman rank correlation, ρ = 0.11; P = .009). Mean CAM-S Peak scores generally rose from 3.7 to 5.3 across levels of increasing neighborhood disadvantage. The RR (95% CI) values associated with individual-level markers of socioeconomic status and cultural background were: 1.2 (0.9-1.7) for education of 12 years or less; 1.3 (0.8-2.1) for non-White race; and 1.7 (1.1-2.6) for annual household income of less than $20,000. None of these individual-level markers exceeded the ADI in terms of effect size or significance for prediction of delirium risk. CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood-level makers of social disadvantage are associated with delirium incidence and severity, and demonstrated an exposure-response relationship. Future studies should consider contextual-level metrics, such as the ADI, as risk markers of social disadvantage that can help to guide delirium treatment and prevention.

16.
J Hosp Med ; 15(9): 544-547, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853147

RESUMO

The authors' sought to develop an ultrabrief screen for postoperative delirium in cognitively intact patients older than 70 years undergoing major elective surgery. All possible combinations of one-, two- and three-item screens and their sensitivities, specificities, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared with the delirium reference standard Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Among the 560 participants (mean age, 77 years; 58% women), delirium occurred in 134 (24%). We considered 1,100 delirium assessments from postoperative days 1 and 2. The screen with the best overall performance consisted of three items: (1) Patient reports feeling confused, (2) Months of the year backward, and (3) "Does the patient appear sleepy?" with sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 72%. This brief, three-item screen rules out delirium quickly, identifies a subset of patients who require further testing, and may be an important tool to improve recognition of postoperative delirium.

17.
Neuroimage Clin ; 27: 102346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712451

RESUMO

Major surgery is associated with a systemic inflammatory cascade that is thought, in some cases, to contribute to transient and/or sustained cognitive decline, possibly through neuroinflammatory mechanisms. However, the relationship between surgery, peripheral and central nervous system inflammation, and post-operative cognitive outcomes remains unclear in humans, primarily owing to limitations of in vivo biomarkers of neuroinflammation which vary in sensitivity, specificity, validity, and reliability. In the present study, [11C]PBR28 positron emission tomography, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood plasma biomarkers of inflammation were assessed pre-operatively and 1-month post-operatively in a cohort of patients (N = 36; 30 females; ≥70 years old) undergoing major orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia. Delirium incidence and severity were evaluated daily during hospitalization. Whole-brain voxel-wise and regions-of-interest analyses were performed to determine the magnitude and spatial extent of changes in [11C]PBR28 uptake following surgery. Results demonstrated that, compared with pre-operative baseline, [11C]PBR28 binding in the brain was globally downregulated at 1 month following major orthopedic surgery, possibly suggesting downregulation of the immune system of the brain. No significant relationship was identified between post-operative delirium and [11C]PBR28 binding, possibly due to a small number (n = 6) of delirium cases in the sample. Additionally, no significant relationships were identified between [11C]PBR28 binding and CSF/plasma biomarkers of inflammation. Collectively, these results contribute to the literature by demonstrating in a sizeable sample the effect of major surgery on neuroimmune activation and preliminary evidence identifying no apparent associations between [11C]PBR28 binding and fluid inflammatory markers or post-operative delirium.

18.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(10): 2240-2248, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dementia is associated with higher healthcare expenditures, in large part due to increased hospitalization rates relative to patients without dementia. Data on contemporary trends in the incidence and outcomes of potentially preventable hospitalizations of patients with dementia are lacking. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using the National Inpatient Sample from 2012 to 2016. SETTING: U.S. acute care hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,843,632 unique hospitalizations of older adults (aged ≥65 years) with diagnosed dementia. MEASUREMENTS: Annual trends in the incidence of hospitalizations for all causes and for potentially preventable conditions including acute ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs), chronic ACSCs, and injuries. In-hospital outcomes including mortality, discharge disposition, and hospital costs. RESULTS: The survey weighted sample represented an estimated 9.27 million hospitalizations for patients with diagnosed dementia (mean [standard deviation] age = 82.6 [6.7] years; 61.4% female). In total, 3.72 million hospitalizations were for potentially preventable conditions (40.1%), 2.07 million for acute ACSCs, .76 million for chronic ACSCs, and .89 million for injuries. Between 2012 and 2016, the incidence of all-cause hospitalizations declined from 1.87 million to 1.85 million per year (P = .04) while the incidence of potentially preventable hospitalizations increased from .75 million to .87 million per year (P < .001), driven by an increased number of hospitalizations of community-dwelling older adults. Among patients with dementia hospitalized for potentially preventable conditions, inpatient mortality declined from 6.4% to 6.1% (P < .001), inflation-adjusted median costs increased from $7,319 to $7,543 (P < .001), and total annual costs increased from $7.4 to $9.3 billion. Although 86.0% of hospitalized patients were admitted from the community, only 32.7% were discharged to the community. CONCLUSION: The number of potentially preventable hospitalizations of older adults with dementia is increasing, driven by hospitalizations of community-dwelling older adults. Improved strategies for early detection and goal-directed treatment of potentially preventable conditions in patients with dementia are urgently needed. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:2240-2248, 2020.

20.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 49(1): 77-90, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is a common and preventable geriatric syndrome. Moving beyond the binary classification of delirium present/absent, delirium severity represents a potentially important outcome for evaluating preventive and treatment interventions and tracking the course of patients. Although several delirium severity assessment tools currently exist, most have been developed in the absence of advanced measurement methodology and have not been evaluated with rigorous validation studies. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to report our development of new delirium severity items and the results of item reduction and selection activities guided by psychometric analysis of data derived from a field study. METHODS: Building on our literature review of delirium instruments and expert panel process to identify domains of delirium severity, we adapted items from existing delirium severity instruments and generated new items. We then fielded these items among a sample of 352 older hospitalized patients. RESULTS: We used an expert panel process and psychometric data analysis techniques to narrow a set of 303 potential items to 17 items for use in a new delirium severity instrument. The 17-item set demonstrated good internal validity and favorable psychometric characteristics relative to comparator instruments, including the Confusion Assessment Method - Severity (CAM-S) score, the Delirium Rating Scale Revised 98, and the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale. CONCLUSION: We more fully conceptualized delirium severity and identified characteristics of an ideal delirium severity instrument. These characteristics include an instrument that is relatively quick to administer, is easy to use by raters with minimal training, and provides a severity rating with good content validity, high internal consistency reliability, and broad domain coverage across delirium symptoms. We anticipate these characteristics to be represented in the subsequent development of our final delirium severity instrument.

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