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Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 25: 237-250, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458008


Gene editing via homology-directed repair (HDR) currently comprises the best strategy to obtain perfect corrections for pathogenic mutations of monogenic diseases, such as the severe recessive dystrophic form of the blistering skin disease epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). Limitations of this strategy, in particular low efficiencies and off-target effects, hinder progress toward clinical applications. However, the severity of RDEB necessitates the development of efficient and safe gene-editing therapies based on perfect repair. To this end, we sought to assess the corrective efficiencies following optimal Cas9 nuclease and nickase-based COL7A1-targeting strategies in combination with single- or double-stranded donor templates for HDR at the COL7A1 mutation site. We achieved HDR-mediated correction efficiencies of up to 21% and 10% in primary RDEB keratinocytes and fibroblasts, respectively, as analyzed by next-generation sequencing, leading to full-length type VII collagen restoration and accurate deposition within engineered three-dimensional (3D) skin equivalents (SEs). Extensive on- and off-target analyses confirmed that the combined treatment of paired nicking and single-stranded oligonucleotides constituted a highly efficient COL7A1-editing strategy, associated with a significantly improved safety profile. Our findings, therefore, represent a further advancement in the field of traceless genome editing for genodermatoses.

J Invest Dermatol ; 140(10): 1985-1993.e5, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142798


End-joining‒based gene editing is frequently used for efficient reframing and knockout of target genes. However, the associated random, unpredictable, and often heterogeneous repair outcomes limit its applicability for therapeutic approaches. This study revealed more precise and predictable outcomes simply on the basis of the sequence context at the CRISPR/Cas9 target site. The severe dystrophic form of the blistering skin disease epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) represents a suitable model platform to test these recent developments for the disruption and reframing of dominant and recessive alleles, respectively, both frequently seen in DEB. We delivered a CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease as ribonucleoprotein into primary wild-type and recessive DEB keratinocytes to introduce a precise predictable single adenine sense-strand insertion at the target site. We achieved type VII collagen knockout in more than 40% of ribonucleoprotein-treated primary wild-type keratinocytes and type VII collagen restoration in more than 70% of ribonucleoprotein-treated recessive DEB keratinocytes. Next-generation sequencing of the on-target site revealed the presence of the precise adenine insertion upstream of the pathogenic mutation in at least 17% of all analyzed COL7A1 alleles. This demonstrates that COL7A1 editing based on precise end-joining‒mediated DNA repair is an efficient strategy to revert the disease-associated nature of DEB regardless of the mutational inheritance.

Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Colágeno Tipo VII/genética , Epidermólise Bolhosa Distrófica/genética , Edição de Genes , Células Cultivadas , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Mutação , Ribonucleoproteínas/farmacologia
Cells ; 9(1)2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906492


The skin provides direct protection to the human body from assault by the harsh external environment. The crucial function of this organ is significantly disrupted in genodermatoses patients. Genodermatoses comprise a heterogeneous group of largely monogenetic skin disorders, typically involving mutations in genes encoding structural proteins. Therapeutic options for this debilitating group of diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa, primarily consist of wound management. Genome editing approaches co-opt double-strand break repair pathways to introduce desired sequence alterations at specific loci. Rapid advances in genome editing technologies have the potential to propel novel genetic therapies into the clinic. However, the associated phenotypes of many mutations may be treated via several genome editing strategies. Therefore, for potential clinical applications, implementation of efficient approaches based upon mutation, gene and disease context is necessary. Here, we describe current genome editing approaches for the treatment of genodermatoses, along with a discussion of the optimal strategy for each genetic context, in order to achieve enhanced genome editing approaches.

Edição de Genes , Dermatopatias/genética , Éxons/genética , Terapia Genética , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Humanos , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/terapia